Abstract

Future 5G services are characterised by unprecedented need for high rate, ubiquitous availability, ultralow latency, and high reliability. The fragmented network view that is widespread in current networks will not stand the challenge posed by next generations of users. A new vision is required, and this paper provides an insight on how network convergence and application-centric approaches will play a leading role toward enabling the 5G vision. This paper, after expressing the view on the need for an end-to-end approach to network design, brings the reader into a journey on the expected 5G network requirements and outlines some of the work currently carried out by main standardisation bodies. It then proposes the use of the concept of network convergence for providing the overall architectural framework to bring together all the different technologies within a unifying and coherent network ecosystem. The novel interpretation of multidimensional convergence we introduce leads us to the exploration of aspects of node consolidation and converged network architectures, delving into details of optical-wireless integration and future convergence of optical data centre and access-metro networks. We then discuss how ownership models enabling network sharing will be instrumental in realising the 5G vision. This paper concludes with final remarks on the role SDN will play in 5G and on the need for new business models that reflect the application-centric view of the network. Finally, we provide some insight on growing research areas in 5G networking.

© 2016 CCBY

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2016 (9)

J. Leeet al., “LTE-advanced in 3GPPP Rel-13/14: An evolution toward 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 36–42, 2016.

10-Gigabit-Capable Symmetric Passive Optical Network (XGS-PON), ITU-T G.9807.1, 2016.

J. S. Weiet al., “Physical layer aspects of NG-PON2 standards—Part 1: Optical link design,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2016.

10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (XG-PON), ITU-T G.987.1, 2016.

A. Nag, D. B. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “N:1 protection design for minimizing OLTs in resilient dual-homed long-reach passive optical network,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 93–99, 2016.

J. Gitierrezet al., “5G-XHaul: A converged optical and wireless solution for 5G transport networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., vol. 27, pp. 1187–1195, 2016.

M. Ruffini and D. B. Payne, “Business and ownership model case studies for next generation FTTH deployment,” DISCUS FP7 Project White Paper, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://img.lightreading.com/downloads/Business-and-ownership-model-case-studies-for-next-generation-FTTH-deployment.pdf

B. Cornaglia, Fixed access network sharing—Architecture and Nodal Requirements, WT-370, Revision2, 2016.

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

2015 (13)

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kituwan, and S. Mcgettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber. Technol., vol. 26, pt. A, pp. 31–41, 2015.

M. Van der Weeet al., “Techno-economic evaluation of open access on FTTH networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 433–444, 2015.

M. Forzatiet al., “Next-generation optical access seamless evolution: Concluding results of the European FP7 project OASE,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 109–123, 2015.

B. R. Rofoeeet al., “Hardware virtualized flexible network for wireless data-center optical interconnects (Invited),” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. A526–A536, 2015.

K. Christodoulopoulos, D. Lugones, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Performance evaluation of a hybrid optical/electrical interconnect,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 193–204, 2015.

DISCUS project deliverable D4.10, Core network optimisation and resiliency strategies, 2015.

T. Pfeiffer, “A physical layer perspective on access network sharing,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, pt. A, pp. 12–20, 2015.

T. Pfeiffer, “Next generation mobile Fronthaul and Midhaul architectures,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. B38–B45, 2015.

P. Rostet al., “Benefits and challenges of virtualization in 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 75–82, 2015.

5G Automotive Vision. 5G-PPP, White Paper, 2015.

S. Gosselinet al., “Fixed and mobile convergence: Which role for optical networks?” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1075–1083, 2015.

IMT Vision - Framework and Overall Objectives of the Future Development of IMT for 2020 and Beyond, ITU-R Recommendation M.2083-0, 2015.

B. Cornaglia, G. Young, and A. Marchetta, “Fixed access network sharing,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, pp. 2–11, 2015.

2014 (2)

M. Ruffiniet al., “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. S24–S342, 2014.

Fast Access to Subscriber Terminals (G.Fast), ITU-T G.9701, 2014.

2013 (3)

U. Dotsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 105–128, 2013.

N. Amaya, G. Zervas, and D. Simeinudou, “Introducing node architecture flexibility for elastic optical networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 593–608, 2013.

G. Porteret al. “Integrating microsecond circuit switching into the data center,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 447–458, 2013.

2010 (3)

N. Farringtonet al., “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 339–350, 2010.

Radio Frequency Over Glass Fiber-to-the-Home Specification, Std. , 2010.

A Digital Agenda for Europe, European Commission, 2010.

2002 (1)

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.

1998 (1)

“An Architecture for Differentiated Services,” IETF RFC 2475, 1998.

1994 (1)

“Integrated services in the Internet architecture: An overview,” IETF RFC 1633, 1994.

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, G. Zervas, and D. Simeinudou, “Introducing node architecture flexibility for elastic optical networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 593–608, 2013.

Anastasopoulos, M. P.

M. P. Anastasopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and D. Simeonidou, “Energy-aware offloading in mobile cloud systems with delay considerations,” in Proc. Globecom Workshops, 2014, pp. 42–47.

Baake, P.

P. Baakeet al., Local Loop Unbundling and Bitstream Access: Regulatory Practice in Europe and the U.S. Berlin, Germany: Politikberatung kompakt, 20, 2006.

Bergman, K.

Bluemm, C.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kituwan, and S. Mcgettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber. Technol., vol. 26, pt. A, pp. 31–41, 2015.

Chatzi, S.

S. Chatzi, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, and I. Tomkos, “A quantitative techno-economic comparison of current and next generation metro/access converged optical networks,” in Proc. 2010 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, Paper We.8.B.2.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, D. Lugones, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Performance evaluation of a hybrid optical/electrical interconnect,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 193–204, 2015.

Cominardi, L.

L. Cominardiet al., “5G-Crosshaul: Towards a unified data-plane for 5G transport networks,” in Proc. IEEE Eur. Conf. Netw. Commun., 2016.

Coomans, W.

W. Coomanset al., “XG-FAST: Towards 10 Gb/s copper access,” in Proc. 2014 Globecom Workshop, 2014, pp. 630–635.

Cornaglia, B.

B. Cornaglia, Fixed access network sharing—Architecture and Nodal Requirements, WT-370, Revision2, 2016.

B. Cornaglia, G. Young, and A. Marchetta, “Fixed access network sharing,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, pp. 2–11, 2015.

Dai, E.

E. Dai, Reclaim RFoG Spectra for 100G EPON with PON DOCSIS Backhaul (PDB), 2015. [Online]. Available: http://ieee802.org/3/NGEPONSG/public/2015_11/ngepon_1511_dai_2.pdf

Dasilva, L. A.

J. M. Marquez-Barja, M. Ruffini, N. Kaminski, N. Marchetti, L. Doyle, and L. A. Dasilva, “Decoupling Resource Ownership From Service Provisioning to Enable Ephemeral Converged Networks (ECNs),” in Proc. IEEE Eur. Conf. Netw. Commun., 2016.

Davey, R. P.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.

Doll, M.

U. Dotsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 105–128, 2013.

Dotsch, U.

U. Dotsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 105–128, 2013.

Doyle, L.

J. M. Marquez-Barja, M. Ruffini, N. Kaminski, N. Marchetti, L. Doyle, and L. A. Dasilva, “Decoupling Resource Ownership From Service Provisioning to Enable Ephemeral Converged Networks (ECNs),” in Proc. IEEE Eur. Conf. Netw. Commun., 2016.

Farrington, N.

N. Farringtonet al., “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 339–350, 2010.

Forzati, M.

M. Forzatiet al., “Next-generation optical access seamless evolution: Concluding results of the European FP7 project OASE,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 109–123, 2015.

Gitierrez, J.

J. Gitierrezet al., “5G-XHaul: A converged optical and wireless solution for 5G transport networks,” Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., vol. 27, pp. 1187–1195, 2016.

Gosselin, S.

S. Gosselinet al., “Fixed and mobile convergence: Which role for optical networks?” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1075–1083, 2015.

Han, S.

M. C. Wu, S. Han, T. J. Seok, and N. Quack, “Large-port-count MEMS silicon photonics switches,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, Paper M2B.3.

Heller, B.

B. Lantz, B. Heller, and N. Mckeown, “A network in a laptop: Rapid prototyping for software-defined networks,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM HotNets Workshop, Art. no. , 2010.

Josa, J. M. Gran

J. M. Gran Josaet al., “End-to-end Service orchestration from access to backbone,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Opt. Netw. Des. Modeling, 2016, pp. 1–6.

Kaminski, N.

J. M. Marquez-Barja, M. Ruffini, N. Kaminski, N. Marchetti, L. Doyle, and L. A. Dasilva, “Decoupling Resource Ownership From Service Provisioning to Enable Ephemeral Converged Networks (ECNs),” in Proc. IEEE Eur. Conf. Netw. Commun., 2016.

Kani, J.

J. Kani, Solutions for future mobile fronthaul and access-network convergence, in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Exhib., 2016, Paper W1H.1.

Katrinis, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, D. Lugones, K. Katrinis, M. Ruffini, and D. O’Mahony, “Performance evaluation of a hybrid optical/electrical interconnect,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 193–204, 2015.

Kitsuwan, N.

S. McGettrick, F. Slyne, N. Kitsuwan, D. B. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Experimental end-to-end demonstration of shared N:1 dual homed protection in long reach PON and SDN-controlled core,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, Paper Tu2E.5.

Kituwan, N.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kituwan, and S. Mcgettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber. Technol., vol. 26, pt. A, pp. 31–41, 2015.

Kuwano, S.

K. Miyamoto, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, and A. Otaka, “Split-PHY processing architecture to realize base station coordination and transmission bandwidth reduction in mobile fronthaul,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Exhib., 2015, Paper M2J.4.

Lantz, B.

B. Lantz, B. Heller, and N. Mckeown, “A network in a laptop: Rapid prototyping for software-defined networks,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM HotNets Workshop, Art. no. , 2010.

Lazaro, J. A.

S. Chatzi, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, and I. Tomkos, “A quantitative techno-economic comparison of current and next generation metro/access converged optical networks,” in Proc. 2010 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, Paper We.8.B.2.

Lee, J.

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M. Ruffini and D. B. Payne, “Business and ownership model case studies for next generation FTTH deployment,” DISCUS FP7 Project White Paper, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://img.lightreading.com/downloads/Business-and-ownership-model-case-studies-for-next-generation-FTTH-deployment.pdf

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