Abstract

We demonstrated femtosecond laser inscription of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in a twin-core few-mode fiber (TC-FMF) for directional bend sensing. An FBG was selectively inscribed in one core of the TC-FMF by using an 800 nm femtosecond laser through a phase mask. Three resonance peaks at the wavelengths of 1549.05, 1547.65, and 1546.08 nm were observed in the reflection spectrum of the TC-FM FBG, and were generated by the LP01 mode resonance, LP01–LP11 mode cross-coupling resonance, and LP11 mode resonance, respectively. Moreover, the TC-FM FBG exhibited the capability of directional bend sensing and achieved a maximum bend sensitivity of −37.41 pm/m−1. Hence, the proposed TC-FM FBG directional bend sensors could further be developed as promising solutions for detecting vectorial seismic or acoustic waves and 3-D shape sensing.

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