Abstract

Coiling size dependence of group delay spread (GDS) in coupled multicore fibers (MCFs) without intentional twisting is investigated by using a coupled-wave theory. It is shown that the GDS does not simply decrease with increasing bending radius and the optimum coiling size to decrease GDS depends on a core-to-core distance of MCFs. It is also found that a coupled MCF with a trench-assisted profile is suitable for realizing lower GDS with higher spatial density compared with a coupled MCF with a step-index profile.

© 2017 IEEE

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  1. T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.
  2. K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.
  3. K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3119–3128,  2011.
  4. R. Ryfet al., “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper PDP5C.2.
  5. R. Ryfet al., “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper PD.3.2.
  6. S. Aozasaet al., “Bending radius dependence of spatial mode dispersion in randomly coupled multi-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th1H.4.
  7. T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.
  8. T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.
  9. T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “A group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: A effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9593–9591,  2016.
  10. T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: A comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun., vol. 393, pp. 232–237,  2017.
  11. M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.
  12. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927–933,  2002.
  13. C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “The delay spread in fibers for SDM transmission: Dependence on fiber parameters and perturbations,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 2196–2202,  2015.
  14. T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.
  15. M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, T. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Multi-core fiber design and analysis: Coupled-mode theory and coupled-power theory,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B102–B111,  2011.
  16. N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

2017 (3)

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: A comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun., vol. 393, pp. 232–237,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

2016 (2)

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “A group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: A effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9593–9591,  2016.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

2015 (2)

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “The delay spread in fibers for SDM transmission: Dependence on fiber parameters and perturbations,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 2196–2202,  2015.

2012 (1)

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.

2011 (2)

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3119–3128,  2011.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, T. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Multi-core fiber design and analysis: Coupled-mode theory and coupled-power theory,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B102–B111,  2011.

2009 (1)

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927–933,  2002.

Antonelli, C.

Aozasa, S.

S. Aozasaet al., “Bending radius dependence of spatial mode dispersion in randomly coupled multi-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th1H.4.

Awaji, Y.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.

Fujisawa, T.

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: A comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun., vol. 393, pp. 232–237,  2017.

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “A group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: A effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9593–9591,  2016.

Hasegawa, T.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3119–3128,  2011.

Kahn, J. M.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3119–3128,  2011.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.

Koshiba, M.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, T. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Multi-core fiber design and analysis: Coupled-mode theory and coupled-power theory,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B102–B111,  2011.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927–933,  2002.

Koyasu, O.

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

Mao, W.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.

Matsuo, S.

Mecozzi, A.

Miyamoto, M.

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

Mori, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.

Nakajima, K.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

Okada, N.

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

Panicker, R. A.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.

Richardson, D.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.

Ryf, R.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.

R. Ryfet al., “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper PDP5C.2.

R. Ryfet al., “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper PD.3.2.

Saitoh, K.

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: A comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun., vol. 393, pp. 232–237,  2017.

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “A group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: A effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 9593–9591,  2016.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, T. Takenaga, and S. Matsuo, “Multi-core fiber design and analysis: Coupled-mode theory and coupled-power theory,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B102–B111,  2011.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927–933,  2002.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

Sato, Y.

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

Shemirani, M. B.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.

Shtaif, M.

Takenaga, T.

Tamura, Y.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.

Taru, T.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.

Wada, M.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

Watanabe, H.

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

Yamamoto, F.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

Yamanaka, M.

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and D. Richardson, “Enhancing optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. S31–S42,  2012.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 927–933,  2002.

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore fiber technology,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55–66,  2016.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3119–3128,  2011.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 450–457,  2017.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Coupled multicore fiber design with low intercore differential mode delay for high-density space division multiplexing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1175–1181,  2015.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in gradedindex multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1248–1261,  2009.

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: A comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun., vol. 393, pp. 232–237,  2017.

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 8–18,  2017.

Other (4)

N. Okada, M. Yamanaka, Y. Sato, H. Watanabe, O. Koyasu, and M. Miyamoto, “Study of the SZ-slotted rod type optical cable with the 4-fiber ribbons for aerial applications,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp., vol. 46,  1997, pp. 785–792.

R. Ryfet al., “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper PDP5C.2.

R. Ryfet al., “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper PD.3.2.

S. Aozasaet al., “Bending radius dependence of spatial mode dispersion in randomly coupled multi-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper Th1H.4.

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