Abstract

This paper summarizes recent work on the use of optical wireless links as a robust outdoor backhaul solution for small radio cells, such as WiFi, LTE and 5G, over distances between 20 and 200 m. Results of a 5-month outdoor field trial in Berlin, Germany, indicate that the visibility range was never below 180 m, with more than 1 km in 99% of all times during this period. Rate-adaptive transmission proved to improve the availability remarkably in the occasional presence of fog or sunlight. A mathematical model of the backhaul link including these impairments is presented and implemented to obtain an optimized link design. A prototype was realized, accordingly, using low-cost optoelectronic components and a 1 Gb/s baseband chipset. Gross data rates of 800, 500, and 225 Mb/s have been achieved in real-time operation over 20, 100, and 215 m outdoor link distance, respectively, with 2 ms latency at 95% load. Finally, we discuss further evolution towards 5G mobile networks.

© 2016 OAPA

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  15. C. D. Philip Hobbs, Building Electro-Optical Systems. 2nd ed.Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley,2009, pp. 688–698
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  21. V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.
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2015 (1)

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

2014 (1)

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

2013 (2)

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

2012 (1)

M. Karimi and M. Uysal, “Novel adaptive transmission algorithms for free-space optical links,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3808–3815, 2012.

2009 (1)

A. Prokeš, “Modeling of atmospheric turbulence effect on terrestrial FSO link,” Radioengineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2009.

2001 (1)

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, 2001, doi:10.1117/12.417512

Alexakis, C.

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Apelfrojd, R.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Bock, C.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Braun, V.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Chanclou, P.

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

Doll, M.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

Dötsch, U.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

Figuerola, S.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Freund, R.

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Gomes, N. J.

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

Grobe, L.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Gutierrez-Estevez, M. A.

K. Manolakis, M. A. Gutierrez-Estevez, and V. Jungnickel, “Adaptive Modulation and Turbo Coding for 3GPP LTE Systems with Limited Feedback,” presented at the IEEE 79th Veh. Technol. Conf., Seoul, Korea, May 2014.

Habel, K.

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Hartlieb, F.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

Hilt, J.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Photonic Devices and Systems. New York, NY, USA: Marcel Dekker, 1994.

Idrus, S. M.

R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S. M. Idrus, and Z. Sun, Optical Wireless Communications: IR for Wireless Connectivity. New York, NY, USA: Auerbach, 2008.

Jungnickel, V.

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

K. Manolakis, M. A. Gutierrez-Estevez, and V. Jungnickel, “Adaptive Modulation and Turbo Coding for 3GPP LTE Systems with Limited Feedback,” presented at the IEEE 79th Veh. Technol. Conf., Seoul, Korea, May 2014.

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Karimi, M.

M. Karimi and M. Uysal, “Novel adaptive transmission algorithms for free-space optical links,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3808–3815, 2012.

Kim, I. I.

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, 2001, doi:10.1117/12.417512

Kleinpeter, G.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Korevaar, E.

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, 2001, doi:10.1117/12.417512

Kottke, C.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

Langer, K.-D.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.

Lassak, F.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

Levi, D.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Lossow, M.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Magee, A.

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

Manolakis, K.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

K. Manolakis, M. A. Gutierrez-Estevez, and V. Jungnickel, “Adaptive Modulation and Turbo Coding for 3GPP LTE Systems with Limited Feedback,” presented at the IEEE 79th Veh. Technol. Conf., Seoul, Korea, May 2014.

Marques, V.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Mayer, H.-P.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

McArthur, B.

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, 2001, doi:10.1117/12.417512

Mendes, T.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Panzner, B.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Paraskevopoulos, A.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Parker, M.C.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Perlot, N.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.

Philip Hobbs, C. D.

C. D. Philip Hobbs, Building Electro-Optical Systems. 2nd ed.Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley,2009, pp. 688–698

Prokeš, A.

A. Prokeš, “Modeling of atmospheric turbulence effect on terrestrial FSO link,” Radioengineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2009.

Ramirez-Iniguez, R.

R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S. M. Idrus, and Z. Sun, Optical Wireless Communications: IR for Wireless Connectivity. New York, NY, USA: Auerbach, 2008.

Schaich, F.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

Schlosser, M.

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

Schulz, D.

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

D. Schulzet al., “Low latency mobile backhauling using optical wireless links,” ITG Fachtagung Breitband für Deutschland, Berlin, Germany, 2015.

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Segel, J.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

Sehier, P.

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

Siessegger, B.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

Sternad, M.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Störmer, W.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.

Sun, Z.

R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S. M. Idrus, and Z. Sun, Optical Wireless Communications: IR for Wireless Connectivity. New York, NY, USA: Auerbach, 2008.

Svensson, T.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Turnbull, P.

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

Uysal, M.

M. Karimi and M. Uysal, “Novel adaptive transmission algorithms for free-space optical links,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3808–3815, 2012.

Walker, S.D.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

Zirwas, W.

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

Bell Labs Technical J. (1)

U. Dötsch, M. Doll, H.-P. Mayer, F. Schaich, J. Segel, and P. Sehier, “Quantitative analysis of split base station processing and determination of advantageous architectures for LTE,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1538–7305, 2013.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

V. Jungnickel, K. Manolakis, W. Zirwas, B. Panzner, V. Braun, M. Lossow, M. Sternad, R. Apelfrojd, and T. Svensson, “The role of small cells, coordinated multipoint, and massive MIMO in 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 44–51, 2014.

IEEE Commun. Magazine (1)

L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, V. Jungnickel, and K.-D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communication systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 60–66, 2013.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. Karimi and M. Uysal, “Novel adaptive transmission algorithms for free-space optical links,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3808–3815, 2012.

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 26, Part A, 2015, pp. 50–58.

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, 2001, doi:10.1117/12.417512

Radioengineering (1)

A. Prokeš, “Modeling of atmospheric turbulence effect on terrestrial FSO link,” Radioengineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2009.

Other (15)

CBL GmbH. (2015). [Online]. Available: http://www.cbl.de/23–0-AirLaser-IP1000-plus.html

Fiber to the Home Council Europe, “FTTH Handbook,” Edition 4.1, D&O Committee, 08/2011, p. 27

Twibright Labs. (2015). [Online]. Available: http://ronja.twibright.com/

Koruza project. (2015). [Online]. Available: http://koruza.net/index.html

K.-D. Langer, J. Hilt, D. Schulz, F. Lassak, F. Hartlieb, C. Kottke, L. Grobe, V. Jungnickel, and A. Paraskevopoulos, “Rate-adaptive visible light communication at 500Mb/s arrives at plug and play,” Opt. Commun., SPIE Newsroom, 2013, doi: 10.1117/2.1201311.005196

R. G. Hunsperger, Photonic Devices and Systems. New York, NY, USA: Marcel Dekker, 1994.

C. Bock, S. Figuerola, M.C. Parker, S.D. Walker, T. Mendes, V. Marques, V. Jungnickel, K. Habel, and D. Levi, “Convergent radio and fibre architectures for high-speed access,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 23–27.

C. D. Philip Hobbs, Building Electro-Optical Systems. 2nd ed.Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley,2009, pp. 688–698

R. Ramirez-Iniguez, S. M. Idrus, and Z. Sun, Optical Wireless Communications: IR for Wireless Connectivity. New York, NY, USA: Auerbach, 2008.

K. Manolakis, M. A. Gutierrez-Estevez, and V. Jungnickel, “Adaptive Modulation and Turbo Coding for 3GPP LTE Systems with Limited Feedback,” presented at the IEEE 79th Veh. Technol. Conf., Seoul, Korea, May 2014.

D. Schulz, M. Schlosser, C. Alexakis, K. Habel, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Optical wireless LED link for the backhaul of small cells,” presented at the OSA Technical Digest, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper M2F.8.

D. Schulzet al., “Low latency mobile backhauling using optical wireless links,” ITG Fachtagung Breitband für Deutschland, Berlin, Germany, 2015.

D. Schulz, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, J. Hilt, R. Freund, and V. Jungnickel, “Initial outdoor trials with optical wireless links for small-cell backhauling,” in Proc. ITG Symp. Photonic Networks, Leipzig, Germany, 2015, pp. 7–8.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, N. Perlot, K.-D. Langer, and W. Störmer, “Optical wireless as a low-cost small-cell backhaul solution,” presented at the 9th ITG Symposium Broadband Coverage, Germany, Berlin, 1–2 Apr. 2014.

V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, J. Hilt, C. Alexakis, M. Schlosser, L. Grobe, A. Paraskevopoulos, R. Freund, B. Siessegger, and G. Kleinpeter, “Optical wireless communication for backhaul and access,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication., Valencia, Spain, 2015, Paper We.3.4.1 (invited)

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