Abstract

Currently, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) spatial light modulators (SLMs) with numerous tiny mirrors that are controllable as a binary state are available. Such MEMS spatial light modulators are useful as holographic displays, optical tweezers, optical memories, reconfigurable lenses, etc. Although nonfault devices are always used for such applications, this paper clarifies that even if a part of a MEMS-SLM is faulty, the MEMS-SLM is useful for almost all commercial products related to the applications described above. Moreover, it is useful even as research equipment with a high degree of precision. This paper therefore presents the fault-tolerance analysis results of light intensity, contrast ratio, and spot size of interference pattern generated from a MEMS-SLM to clarify the allowable deteriorations of faulty MEMS-SLMs. Moreover, we propose a recovery method that a faulty MEMS-SLM can be used as a nonfaulty MEMS-SLM by exploiting excess laser power.

© 2015 OAPA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Dunayevsky and D. M. Marom, “MEMS spatial light modulator for phase and amplitude modulation of spectrally dispersed light,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1213–1221, 2013.
  2. G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.
  3. F. Tian, X. Wu, and J. Liu, “Research and realization of innovative LED illumination system for DLP projector,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Audio, Lang. Image Process., pp. 194–199, 2008.
  4. D. Gergelyi and P. Foldesy, “Digital micromirror device (DMD) projector based test bench for vision chips,” in Proc. Int. Workshop Cellular Nanoscale Netw. Appl., pp. 1–4, 2010.
  5. Texas Instruments [Online]. Available: http://www.tij.co.jp/tool/dlpdlcr2010evm?DCMP=GOOGLE-TIJ.
  6. H. Urey, K. Aksit, and O. Eldes, “Novel 3D displays using micro-optics and MEMS,” presented at the Int. Conf. Fibre Optics and Photonics, Chennai India, 2012.
  7. W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, and J. Crain, High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,” Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2053–2059, 2003.
  8. M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
  9. P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.
  10. C. C. Cheng, A. A. Tamijani, and B. Lakshminarayanan, “Reconfigurable Lens-Array with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” in Proc. Eur. Microw. Conf., pp. 112–115, 2008.

2013 (1)

J. Dunayevsky and D. M. Marom, “MEMS spatial light modulator for phase and amplitude modulation of spectrally dispersed light,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1213–1221, 2013.

2003 (1)

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, and J. Crain, High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,” Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2053–2059, 2003.

Aksit, K.

H. Urey, K. Aksit, and O. Eldes, “Novel 3D displays using micro-optics and MEMS,” presented at the Int. Conf. Fibre Optics and Photonics, Chennai India, 2012.

Butler, M. A.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

Cheng, C. C.

C. C. Cheng, A. A. Tamijani, and B. Lakshminarayanan, “Reconfigurable Lens-Array with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” in Proc. Eur. Microw. Conf., pp. 112–115, 2008.

Coppola, G.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Crain, J.

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, and J. Crain, High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,” Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2053–2059, 2003.

Deutsch, E. R.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

Dunayevsky, J.

J. Dunayevsky and D. M. Marom, “MEMS spatial light modulator for phase and amplitude modulation of spectrally dispersed light,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1213–1221, 2013.

Eldes, O.

H. Urey, K. Aksit, and O. Eldes, “Novel 3D displays using micro-optics and MEMS,” presented at the Int. Conf. Fibre Optics and Photonics, Chennai India, 2012.

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Finizio, A.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Foldesy, P.

D. Gergelyi and P. Foldesy, “Digital micromirror device (DMD) projector based test bench for vision chips,” in Proc. Int. Workshop Cellular Nanoscale Netw. Appl., pp. 1–4, 2010.

Gergelyi, D.

D. Gergelyi and P. Foldesy, “Digital micromirror device (DMD) projector based test bench for vision chips,” in Proc. Int. Workshop Cellular Nanoscale Netw. Appl., pp. 1–4, 2010.

Goodhue, W.D.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

Griffith, G.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Haji-saeed, B.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

Hocker, G. B.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

Hossack, W. J.

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, and J. Crain, High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,” Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2053–2059, 2003.

Iodice, M.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Khoury, J.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

Kierstead, J.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

Lakshminarayanan, B.

C. C. Cheng, A. A. Tamijani, and B. Lakshminarayanan, “Reconfigurable Lens-Array with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” in Proc. Eur. Microw. Conf., pp. 112–115, 2008.

Liu, J.

F. Tian, X. Wu, and J. Liu, “Research and realization of innovative LED illumination system for DLP projector,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Audio, Lang. Image Process., pp. 194–199, 2008.

Magro, C.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Marom, D. M.

J. Dunayevsky and D. M. Marom, “MEMS spatial light modulator for phase and amplitude modulation of spectrally dispersed light,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1213–1221, 2013.

Nicola, S. De

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Pierattini, G.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

Senturia, S. D.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

Sinclair, M. B.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

Sweatt, W. C.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

Tamijani, A. A.

C. C. Cheng, A. A. Tamijani, and B. Lakshminarayanan, “Reconfigurable Lens-Array with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” in Proc. Eur. Microw. Conf., pp. 112–115, 2008.

Theofanidou, E.

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, and J. Crain, High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,” Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2053–2059, 2003.

Tian, F.

F. Tian, X. Wu, and J. Liu, “Research and realization of innovative LED illumination system for DLP projector,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Audio, Lang. Image Process., pp. 194–199, 2008.

Urey, H.

H. Urey, K. Aksit, and O. Eldes, “Novel 3D displays using micro-optics and MEMS,” presented at the Int. Conf. Fibre Optics and Photonics, Chennai India, 2012.

Woods, C. L.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

Wu, X.

F. Tian, X. Wu, and J. Liu, “Research and realization of innovative LED illumination system for DLP projector,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Audio, Lang. Image Process., pp. 194–199, 2008.

Youngner, D. W.

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

J. Dunayevsky and D. M. Marom, “MEMS spatial light modulator for phase and amplitude modulation of spectrally dispersed light,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1213–1221, 2013.

Opt. Exp. (1)

W. J. Hossack, E. Theofanidou, and J. Crain, High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay,” Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2053–2059, 2003.

Other (8)

M. A. Butler, S. D. Senturia, E. R. Deutsch, M. B. Sinclair, W. C. Sweatt, D. W. Youngner, and G. B. Hocker, “A MEMS-based programmable diffraction grating for optical holography in the spectral domain,” presented at the Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, M. Iodice, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holography for characterization and testing of MEMS structures,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Opt. MEMs, pp. 125–126, 2002.

C. C. Cheng, A. A. Tamijani, and B. Lakshminarayanan, “Reconfigurable Lens-Array with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” in Proc. Eur. Microw. Conf., pp. 112–115, 2008.

G. Griffith, B. Haji-saeed, W.D. Goodhue, J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, “Springed mirror MEMS optically addressed spatial light modulator with megaHertz response,” presented at the Frontiers Optics Conf., Tucson, AZ, USA, 2005.

F. Tian, X. Wu, and J. Liu, “Research and realization of innovative LED illumination system for DLP projector,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Audio, Lang. Image Process., pp. 194–199, 2008.

D. Gergelyi and P. Foldesy, “Digital micromirror device (DMD) projector based test bench for vision chips,” in Proc. Int. Workshop Cellular Nanoscale Netw. Appl., pp. 1–4, 2010.

Texas Instruments [Online]. Available: http://www.tij.co.jp/tool/dlpdlcr2010evm?DCMP=GOOGLE-TIJ.

H. Urey, K. Aksit, and O. Eldes, “Novel 3D displays using micro-optics and MEMS,” presented at the Int. Conf. Fibre Optics and Photonics, Chennai India, 2012.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.