Abstract

Software-defined transceivers offer flexibility, increased resilience to channel impairments, and an upgrade path for the future transmission systems. Such transceivers have been discussed in the literature for several years and are now about to be established in long-haul optical communications. In access networks, however, the circumstances are different. Here, a great variety of transceiver and network architectures has been developed. The hardware implementations impose various limitations on the benefits that are usually associated with software-defined transceivers. So the question is: Will software-defined transceivers be of equal importance in dynamic access networks? And, as fundamental limitations mainly originate in the modulation and detection techniques, which hardware implementations would be most promising for software-defined transceivers?

© 2015 OAPA

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2014 (4)

H. Rohde, E. Gottwald, A. Teixeira, J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, K. Pulvereret al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052, 2014.

A. P. T. Lau, G. Yuliang, S. Qi, W. Dawei, Z. Qunbi, M. H. Morsy-Osmanet al., “Advanced DSP techniques enabling high spectral efficiency and flexible transmissions: Toward elastic optical networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 82–92, 2014.

J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, R. Ferreira, S. Ziaie, D. M. Neves, M. Limaet al., “Terabit+ (192 × 10 Gb/s) nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 729–735, 2014.

A. Agmon, M. Nazarathy, D. M. Marom, S. Ben-Ezra, A. Tolmachev, R. Killeyet al., “OFDM/WDM PON with laserless, colorless 1 Gb/s ONUs based on Si-PIC and slow IC,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 225–237, 2014.

2013 (5)

P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, I. Tomkos, J. Pratet al., “Colorless FDMA-PON With flexible bandwidth allocation and colorless, low-speed ONUs [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, pp. A204–A212, 2013.

N. Yoshimoto, J. Kani, K. Sang-Yuep, N. Iiyama, and J. Terada, “DSP-based optical access approaches for enhancing NG-PON2 systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 58–64, 2013.

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 32–40, 2013.

E. Palkopoulou, G. Bosco, A. Carena, D. Klonidis, P. Poggiolini, and I. Tomkos, “Nyquist-WDM-based flexible optical networks: Exploring physical layer design parameters,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2332–2339, 2013.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, M. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shaoet al., “Novel optical access and digital processing architectures for future mobile backhaul,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 621–627, 2013.

2012 (2)

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 2132–2135, 2012.

N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 384–398, 2012.

2011 (4)

G. Goth, “Software-defined networking could shake up more than packets,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 6–9, 2011.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y.-K. Huang, M. Cvijeticet al., “1.92Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 24540–24545, 2011.

R. Rodes, M. Wieckowski, T. T. Pham, J. B. Jensen, J. Turkiewicz, J. Siuzdaket al., “Carrierless amplitude phase modulation of VCSEL with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency for use in WDM-PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 26551–26556, 2011.

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H. G. Krimmel, Y. Xinet al., “Demonstration of a 32×512 Split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3705–3718, 2011.

2010 (1)

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyeret al., “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, 2010.

2006 (2)

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 952–985, 2006.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4711–4728, 2006.

2004 (2)

L. K. Wickham, R. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1591–1593, 2004.

X. Wei and J. Leuthold, “Relation between vestigial-sideband filtering and π/2 progressive phase shift,” Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1599–1601, 2004.

2003 (1)

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Yikai, and J. Leuthold, “40-Gb/s return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI) transmission over 2000 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 766–768, 2003.

1997 (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

1995 (1)

R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, and R. Heidemann, “Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 2263–2269, 1995.

1993 (1)

K. Yonenaga and N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 949–951, 1993.

1984 (1)

G. Meslener, “Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1208–1216, 1984.

1963 (1)

A. Lender, “The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission,” Trans. Amer. Inst. Elect. Eng., Part I, Commun. Electron., vol. 82, pp. 214–218, 1963.

Agmon, A.

Ahmed, Z.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

Altabas, J. A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Altabas, S. Vairavel, S. Karthikeyan, M. Sridharan, I. Garceset al., “Flexible PON Key technologies: Digital advanced modulation formats and devices,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Graz, Austria, Jul. 2014, Paper Tu.B3.2.

Amin, A. A.

X. Chen, A. A. Amin, A. Li, and W. Shieh, “Chapter 8 – multicarrier optical transmission,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 337–379.

Antony, C.

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H. G. Krimmel, Y. Xinet al., “Demonstration of a 32×512 Split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3705–3718, 2011.

Bayvel, P.

P. Bayvel, C. Behrens, and D. S. Millar, “Chapter 5 digital signal processing (DSP) and its application in optical communication systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 163–219.

Behrens, C.

P. Bayvel, C. Behrens, and D. S. Millar, “Chapter 5 digital signal processing (DSP) and its application in optical communication systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 163–219.

Ben-Ezra, S.

A. Agmon, M. Nazarathy, D. M. Marom, S. Ben-Ezra, A. Tolmachev, R. Killeyet al., “OFDM/WDM PON with laserless, colorless 1 Gb/s ONUs based on Si-PIC and slow IC,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 225–237, 2014.

P. C. Schindler, R. M. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Nazarathy, S. Ben-Ezra, C. Kooset al., “Remote heterodyne reception of OFDM-QPSK as downlink-solution for future access networks,” presented at the Access Network In-house Communication Conf., Colarado Springs, CO, USA, Jun. 2012, Paper AW4A.3.

Bitar, N.

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 32–40, 2013.

Bonk, R.

A. K. Mishra, Z. Wang, H. Klein, R. Bonk, S. Koenig, D. Karnicket al., “Performance analysis of an OFDM transmission system with directly modulated lasers for wireless backhauling,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Coventry, England, Jul. 2012, Paper Mo.C3.3.

Bosco, G.

E. Palkopoulou, G. Bosco, A. Carena, D. Klonidis, P. Poggiolini, and I. Tomkos, “Nyquist-WDM-based flexible optical networks: Exploring physical layer design parameters,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2332–2339, 2013.

Carena, A.

E. Palkopoulou, G. Bosco, A. Carena, D. Klonidis, P. Poggiolini, and I. Tomkos, “Nyquist-WDM-based flexible optical networks: Exploring physical layer design parameters,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2332–2339, 2013.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Yikai, and J. Leuthold, “40-Gb/s return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI) transmission over 2000 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 766–768, 2003.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, A. A. Amin, A. Li, and W. Shieh, “Chapter 8 – multicarrier optical transmission,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 337–379.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

L. K. Wickham, R. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1591–1593, 2004.

Clarke, A. M.

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H. G. Krimmel, Y. Xinet al., “Demonstration of a 32×512 Split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3705–3718, 2011.

Cvijetic, M.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, M. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shaoet al., “Novel optical access and digital processing architectures for future mobile backhaul,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 621–627, 2013.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y.-K. Huang, M. Cvijeticet al., “1.92Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 24540–24545, 2011.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, M. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shaoet al., “Novel optical access and digital processing architectures for future mobile backhaul,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 621–627, 2013.

N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 384–398, 2012.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y.-K. Huang, M. Cvijeticet al., “1.92Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 24540–24545, 2011.

N. Cvijetic, “Software-defined optical access networks for multiple broadband access solutions,” presented at the Opto-Electronics Communication Conf., Jun./Jul. 2013, Paper TuP2-1.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, P. N. Ji, S. Murakami, K. Sethuraman, and T. Wang, “First openflow-based software-defined lambda-flow architecture for Flex-Grid OFDMA mobile backhaul over passive optical networks with filterless direct detection ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5B.2.

Dawei, W.

A. P. T. Lau, G. Yuliang, S. Qi, W. Dawei, Z. Qunbi, M. H. Morsy-Osmanet al., “Advanced DSP techniques enabling high spectral efficiency and flexible transmissions: Toward elastic optical networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 82–92, 2014.

Djordjevic, I.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2010.

Dreschmann, M.

P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, I. Tomkos, J. Pratet al., “Colorless FDMA-PON With flexible bandwidth allocation and colorless, low-speed ONUs [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, pp. A204–A212, 2013.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyeret al., “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, 2010.

P. C. Schindler, R. M. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, I. Tomkoset al., “Flexible WDM-PON with Nyquist-FDM and 31.25 Gbit/s per wavelength channel using colorless, low-speed ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OW1A.5.

Essiambre, R.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 952–985, 2006.

L. K. Wickham, R. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1591–1593, 2004.

Essiambre, R.-J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4711–4728, 2006.

Ferreira, R.

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P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, I. Tomkos, J. Pratet al., “Colorless FDMA-PON With flexible bandwidth allocation and colorless, low-speed ONUs [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, pp. A204–A212, 2013.

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P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, I. Tomkos, J. Pratet al., “Colorless FDMA-PON With flexible bandwidth allocation and colorless, low-speed ONUs [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, pp. A204–A212, 2013.

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Schmogrow, R. M.

P. C. Schindler, R. M. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, I. Tomkoset al., “Flexible WDM-PON with Nyquist-FDM and 31.25 Gbit/s per wavelength channel using colorless, low-speed ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OW1A.5.

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R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, and R. Heidemann, “Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 2263–2269, 1995.

Sethuraman, K.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, P. N. Ji, S. Murakami, K. Sethuraman, and T. Wang, “First openflow-based software-defined lambda-flow architecture for Flex-Grid OFDMA mobile backhaul over passive optical networks with filterless direct detection ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5B.2.

Shahpari, A.

H. Rohde, E. Gottwald, A. Teixeira, J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, K. Pulvereret al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052, 2014.

J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, R. Ferreira, S. Ziaie, D. M. Neves, M. Limaet al., “Terabit+ (192 × 10 Gb/s) nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 729–735, 2014.

Shao, Y.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, M. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shaoet al., “Novel optical access and digital processing architectures for future mobile backhaul,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 621–627, 2013.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y.-K. Huang, M. Cvijeticet al., “1.92Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 24540–24545, 2011.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2010.

X. Chen, A. A. Amin, A. Li, and W. Shieh, “Chapter 8 – multicarrier optical transmission,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 337–379.

Siuzdak, J.

R. Rodes, M. Wieckowski, T. T. Pham, J. B. Jensen, J. Turkiewicz, J. Siuzdaket al., “Carrierless amplitude phase modulation of VCSEL with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency for use in WDM-PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 26551–26556, 2011.

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

Smolorz, S.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, pp. 1–3.

Sridharan, M.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Altabas, S. Vairavel, S. Karthikeyan, M. Sridharan, I. Garceset al., “Flexible PON Key technologies: Digital advanced modulation formats and devices,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Graz, Austria, Jul. 2014, Paper Tu.B3.2.

Takachio, N.

K. Yonenaga and N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 949–951, 1993.

Takahara, T.

W. Yan, T. Tanaka, B. Liu, M. Nishihara, L. Li, T. Takaharaet al., “100 Gb/s optical IM-DD transmission with 10G-class devices enabled by 65 GSamples/s CMOS DAC core,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OM3H.1.

Tanaka, A.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, M. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shaoet al., “Novel optical access and digital processing architectures for future mobile backhaul,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 621–627, 2013.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, P. N. Ji, S. Murakami, K. Sethuraman, and T. Wang, “First openflow-based software-defined lambda-flow architecture for Flex-Grid OFDMA mobile backhaul over passive optical networks with filterless direct detection ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5B.2.

Tanaka, T.

W. Yan, T. Tanaka, B. Liu, M. Nishihara, L. Li, T. Takaharaet al., “100 Gb/s optical IM-DD transmission with 10G-class devices enabled by 65 GSamples/s CMOS DAC core,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OM3H.1.

Teixeira, A.

H. Rohde, E. Gottwald, A. Teixeira, J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, K. Pulvereret al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052, 2014.

Terada, J.

N. Yoshimoto, J. Kani, K. Sang-Yuep, N. Iiyama, and J. Terada, “DSP-based optical access approaches for enhancing NG-PON2 systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 58–64, 2013.

N. Iiyama, J.-i. Kani, J. Terada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Two-phased capacity upgrade method for NG-PON2 with hierarchical star 8-QAM and square 16-QAM,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013,Paper OM3H.2.

Tolmachev, A.

Tomkos, I.

E. Palkopoulou, G. Bosco, A. Carena, D. Klonidis, P. Poggiolini, and I. Tomkos, “Nyquist-WDM-based flexible optical networks: Exploring physical layer design parameters,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2332–2339, 2013.

P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, I. Tomkos, J. Pratet al., “Colorless FDMA-PON With flexible bandwidth allocation and colorless, low-speed ONUs [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, pp. A204–A212, 2013.

P. C. Schindler, R. M. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, I. Tomkoset al., “Flexible WDM-PON with Nyquist-FDM and 31.25 Gbit/s per wavelength channel using colorless, low-speed ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OW1A.5.

Turkiewicz, J.

R. Rodes, M. Wieckowski, T. T. Pham, J. B. Jensen, J. Turkiewicz, J. Siuzdaket al., “Carrierless amplitude phase modulation of VCSEL with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency for use in WDM-PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 26551–26556, 2011.

Vairavel, S.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Altabas, S. Vairavel, S. Karthikeyan, M. Sridharan, I. Garceset al., “Flexible PON Key technologies: Digital advanced modulation formats and devices,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Graz, Austria, Jul. 2014, Paper Tu.B3.2.

Veen, D. V.

D. V. Veen, V. Houtsma, A. Gnauck, and P. Iannone, “40-Gb/s TDM-PON over 42 km with 64-way power split using a binary direct detection receiver,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Sep. 2014, Paper PD.1.4.

Wang, T.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, P. N. Ji, S. Murakami, K. Sethuraman, and T. Wang, “First openflow-based software-defined lambda-flow architecture for Flex-Grid OFDMA mobile backhaul over passive optical networks with filterless direct detection ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5B.2.

Wang, Z.

A. K. Mishra, Z. Wang, H. Klein, R. Bonk, S. Koenig, D. Karnicket al., “Performance analysis of an OFDM transmission system with directly modulated lasers for wireless backhauling,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Coventry, England, Jul. 2012, Paper Mo.C3.3.

Wei, X.

Wickham, L. K.

L. K. Wickham, R. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1591–1593, 2004.

Wieckowski, M.

R. Rodes, M. Wieckowski, T. T. Pham, J. B. Jensen, J. Turkiewicz, J. Siuzdaket al., “Carrierless amplitude phase modulation of VCSEL with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency for use in WDM-PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 26551–26556, 2011.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyeret al., “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, 2010.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4711–4728, 2006.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 952–985, 2006.

L. K. Wickham, R. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1591–1593, 2004.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Yikai, and J. Leuthold, “40-Gb/s return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI) transmission over 2000 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 766–768, 2003.

Xia, T. J.

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 32–40, 2013.

Xin, Y.

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H. G. Krimmel, Y. Xinet al., “Demonstration of a 32×512 Split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3705–3718, 2011.

Yan, W.

W. Yan, T. Tanaka, B. Liu, M. Nishihara, L. Li, T. Takaharaet al., “100 Gb/s optical IM-DD transmission with 10G-class devices enabled by 65 GSamples/s CMOS DAC core,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OM3H.1.

Yikai, S.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Yikai, and J. Leuthold, “40-Gb/s return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI) transmission over 2000 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 766–768, 2003.

Yonenaga, K.

K. Yonenaga and N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 949–951, 1993.

Yoshimoto, N.

N. Yoshimoto, J. Kani, K. Sang-Yuep, N. Iiyama, and J. Terada, “DSP-based optical access approaches for enhancing NG-PON2 systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 58–64, 2013.

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 2132–2135, 2012.

N. Iiyama, J.-i. Kani, J. Terada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Two-phased capacity upgrade method for NG-PON2 with hierarchical star 8-QAM and square 16-QAM,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013,Paper OM3H.2.

Yuliang, G.

A. P. T. Lau, G. Yuliang, S. Qi, W. Dawei, Z. Qunbi, M. H. Morsy-Osmanet al., “Advanced DSP techniques enabling high spectral efficiency and flexible transmissions: Toward elastic optical networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 82–92, 2014.

Ziaie, S.

J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, R. Ferreira, S. Ziaie, D. M. Neves, M. Limaet al., “Terabit+ (192 × 10 Gb/s) nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 729–735, 2014.

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 32–40, 2013.

N. Yoshimoto, J. Kani, K. Sang-Yuep, N. Iiyama, and J. Terada, “DSP-based optical access approaches for enhancing NG-PON2 systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 58–64, 2013.

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G. Goth, “Software-defined networking could shake up more than packets,” IEEE Internet Comput., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 6–9, 2011.

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R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyeret al., “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, 2010.

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 2132–2135, 2012.

L. K. Wickham, R. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1591–1593, 2004.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Yikai, and J. Leuthold, “40-Gb/s return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI) transmission over 2000 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 766–768, 2003.

K. Yonenaga and N. Takachio, “A fiber chromatic dispersion compensation technique with an optical SSB transmission in optical homodyne detection systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 949–951, 1993.

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

A. P. T. Lau, G. Yuliang, S. Qi, W. Dawei, Z. Qunbi, M. H. Morsy-Osmanet al., “Advanced DSP techniques enabling high spectral efficiency and flexible transmissions: Toward elastic optical networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 82–92, 2014.

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

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E. Palkopoulou, G. Bosco, A. Carena, D. Klonidis, P. Poggiolini, and I. Tomkos, “Nyquist-WDM-based flexible optical networks: Exploring physical layer design parameters,” J. Lightw. Technol, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2332–2339, 2013.

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N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 384–398, 2012.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4711–4728, 2006.

J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, R. Ferreira, S. Ziaie, D. M. Neves, M. Limaet al., “Terabit+ (192 × 10 Gb/s) nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 729–735, 2014.

H. Rohde, E. Gottwald, A. Teixeira, J. D. Reis, A. Shahpari, K. Pulvereret al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052, 2014.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, M. Cvijetic, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shaoet al., “Novel optical access and digital processing architectures for future mobile backhaul,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 621–627, 2013.

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H. G. Krimmel, Y. Xinet al., “Demonstration of a 32×512 Split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3705–3718, 2011.

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N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y.-K. Huang, M. Cvijeticet al., “1.92Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 24540–24545, 2011.

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Other (17)

D. Hillerkuss and J. Leuthold, “Software-defined transceivers for dynamic access networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper Tu2E.4.

D. V. Veen, V. Houtsma, A. Gnauck, and P. Iannone, “40-Gb/s TDM-PON over 42 km with 64-way power split using a binary direct detection receiver,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Sep. 2014, Paper PD.1.4.

W. Yan, T. Tanaka, B. Liu, M. Nishihara, L. Li, T. Takaharaet al., “100 Gb/s optical IM-DD transmission with 10G-class devices enabled by 65 GSamples/s CMOS DAC core,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OM3H.1.

J. A. Lazaro, J. A. Altabas, S. Vairavel, S. Karthikeyan, M. Sridharan, I. Garceset al., “Flexible PON Key technologies: Digital advanced modulation formats and devices,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Graz, Austria, Jul. 2014, Paper Tu.B3.2.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, pp. 1–3.

P. C. Schindler, R. M. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Nazarathy, S. Ben-Ezra, C. Kooset al., “Remote heterodyne reception of OFDM-QPSK as downlink-solution for future access networks,” presented at the Access Network In-house Communication Conf., Colarado Springs, CO, USA, Jun. 2012, Paper AW4A.3.

P. C. Schindler, R. M. Schmogrow, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, I. Tomkoset al., “Flexible WDM-PON with Nyquist-FDM and 31.25 Gbit/s per wavelength channel using colorless, low-speed ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OW1A.5.

A. K. Mishra, Z. Wang, H. Klein, R. Bonk, S. Koenig, D. Karnicket al., “Performance analysis of an OFDM transmission system with directly modulated lasers for wireless backhauling,” presented at the Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, Coventry, England, Jul. 2012, Paper Mo.C3.3.

N. Cvijetic, “Software-defined optical access networks for multiple broadband access solutions,” presented at the Opto-Electronics Communication Conf., Jun./Jul. 2013, Paper TuP2-1.

N. Cvijetic, A. Tanaka, P. N. Ji, S. Murakami, K. Sethuraman, and T. Wang, “First openflow-based software-defined lambda-flow architecture for Flex-Grid OFDMA mobile backhaul over passive optical networks with filterless direct detection ONUs,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5B.2.

N. Iiyama, J.-i. Kani, J. Terada, and N. Yoshimoto, “Two-phased capacity upgrade method for NG-PON2 with hierarchical star 8-QAM and square 16-QAM,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013,Paper OM3H.2.

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2012, Paper We.3.A.3.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2010.

S. L. Jansen, “Multi-carrier approaches for next-generation transmission: Why, where and how?,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, Paper OTh1B.1.

J. Leuthold and W. Freude, “Chapter 9 – optical OFDM and Nyquist multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 381–432.

X. Chen, A. A. Amin, A. Li, and W. Shieh, “Chapter 8 – multicarrier optical transmission,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 337–379.

P. Bayvel, C. Behrens, and D. S. Millar, “Chapter 5 digital signal processing (DSP) and its application in optical communication systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Eds., 6th ed.Boston, MA, USA: Academic, 2013, pp. 163–219.

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