Abstract

The distributed Brillouin analysis of an 8.8-km-long fiber with a spatial resolution of 2 cm is presented. All 440 000 potential resolution points are addressed in the measurement. A 7-cm-long hot-spot, located toward the output end of the pump wave, is properly identified in the experiment. The experimental error in the estimate of the local values of the Brillouin frequency shift is ±3.5 MHz. The analysis is based on the simultaneous generation and analysis of Brillouin interaction in more than 2000 correlation peaks, induced by periodic phase modulation of the pump and signal waves. The Brillouin amplifications at individual peaks are resolved using radar-like coding of pump wave magnitude by a 10000 bit-long aperiodic sequence, and postdetection compression at the receiver end. Extensive numerical simulations of the Brillouin interactions over kilometers of fiber with centimeter resolution are reported as well. The results are at the state of the art for high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensors.

© 2016 OAPA

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2016 (1)

N. Levanon, I. Cohen, N. Arbel, and A. Zadok, “Non-coherent pulse compression—Aperiodic and periodic waveforms,” IET Radar Sonar Navigation, vol. 10, pp. 216–224, 2016.

2015 (8)

Y. London, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin analysis with 8.8 km range and 2 cm resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9364, pp. 96340G-1–96340G-4, 2015.

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1426–1429, 2015.

K. Y. Song, Y. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with more than 1 million effective sensing points,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96340I-1–96340I-4, 2015.

X. Angulo Vinuesa, A. Lopez Gil, A. Dominguez López, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, S. Martin Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Simultaneous gain and phase profile determination on an interferometric BOTDA,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 963419-1–963419-4, 2015.

A. Ilovitsh, E. Preter, N. Levanon, and Z. Zalevsky, “Time multiplexing super resolution using a Barker-based array,” Opt. Lett., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 163–165, 2015.

J. Urricelqui, F. Lopez-Fernandino, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Polarization diversity scheme for BOTDA sensors based on a double orthogonal pump interaction,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2633–2638, 2015.

Y. London, Y. Antman, M. Silbiger, L. Efraim, A. Froochzad, G. Adler, E. Levenberg, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96346N-1–96346N-4, 2015.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramirez, and A. Thevenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fiber sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96342D-1–96342D-4, 2015.

2014 (11)

A. López-Gil, A. Domínguez, S. Martín-López, and M. González-Herráez, “Simple method for the elimination of polarization noise in BOTDA using balanced detection of orthogonally polarized Stokes and anti-Stokes probe sidebands,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91573U-1–91573U-4, 2014.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, and A. Zadok, “Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8998, pp. 89980W-1–89980W-9, 2014.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

R. Cohen, Y. London, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 4 millimeter resolution based on amplified spontaneous emission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 12070–12078, 2014.

O. Matsuoka, M. Kishi, and K. Hotate, “Brillouin optical correlation domain reflectometry with double frequency modulation and phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576G-1–91576G-4, 2014.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8794, pp. 87943I-1–87943I-4, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 6453–6463, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Combined time-domain and correlation-domain Brillouin analysis with 1600 meters range and 2 centimeters resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576O-1–91576O-4, 2014.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “1’000’000 resolved points along a Brillouin distributed fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 9157D2-1–9157D2-4, 2014.

Y. London, Y. Antman, R. Cohen, N. Kimelfeld, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-range distributed Brillouin analysis using dual-layer phase and amplitude coding,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 27144–27158, 2014.

F. Gyger, E. Rocha, S. Chin, M. Niklès, and L. Thévenaz, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis up to 325 km combining four optical repeaters,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576Q-1–91576Q-4, 2014.

2013 (4)

Y. Peled, A. Motil, I. Kressel, and M. Tur, “Monitoring the propagation of mechanical waves using an optical fiber distributed and dynamic strain sensor based on BOTDA,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 10697–10705, 2013.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 4701–4704, 2013.

2012 (8)

Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Low-noise delays from dynamic Brillouin gratings based on perfect Golomb coding of pump waves,” Opt. Lett., vol. 37, no. 24, pp. 5259–5261, 2012.

J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.

A. Minardo, A. Coscetta, S. Pirozzi, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Modal analysis of a cantilever beam by use of Brillouin based distributed dynamic strain measurements,” Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 21, no. 12, p. 125022, 2012.

Y. Dong, H. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km range Brillouin optical fiber sensor using a transient differential pulse pair,” Appl. Opt., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1229–1235, 2012.

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thévenaz, and A. Zadok, “Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 7807–7821, 2012.

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thévenaz, “Random-access distributed fiber sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. L1–L5, 2012.

D. Kravitz, D. Grodensky, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution low-sidelobe laser ranging based on incoherent pulse compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 2119–2121, 2012.

2011 (2)

J. C. Beugnot, M. Tur, S. Foaleng Mafang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed Brillouin sensing with sub-meter spatial resolution: modeling and processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 7381–7397, 2011.

X. Bao and L. A. Chen, “Recent progress in Brillouin scattering based fiber sensors,” Sensors, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 4152–4187, 2011.

2010 (3)

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J. C. Beugnot, and L. Thevenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 2993–3003, 2010.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 21, p. 094024, 2010.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.

2008 (3)

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21616–21625, 2008.

F. Wang, X. Bao, L. Chen, Y. Li, J. Snoddy, and X. Zhang, “Using pulse with dark base to achieve high spatial and frequency resolution for the distributed Brillouin sensor,” Opt. Lett., vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 2707–2709, 2008.

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thevenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21692–21707, 2008.

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, “Distributed sensor based on dark-pulse Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1501–1503, 2005.

2000 (2)

V. Lecoeuche, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, “Transient response in high-resolution Brillouin based distributed sensing using probe pulses shorter than the acoustic relaxation time,” Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 156–158, 2000.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa “Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique-proposal, experiment and simulation,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, no. 3, pp. 405–412, 2000.

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

S. W. Golomb, “Two-valued sequences with perfect periodic autocorrelation,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 383–386, 1992.

Adler, G.

Y. London, Y. Antman, M. Silbiger, L. Efraim, A. Froochzad, G. Adler, E. Levenberg, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96346N-1–96346N-4, 2015.

Andres, M. V.

X. Angulo Vinuesa, A. Lopez Gil, A. Dominguez López, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, S. Martin Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Simultaneous gain and phase profile determination on an interferometric BOTDA,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 963419-1–963419-4, 2015.

Angulo Vinuesa, X.

X. Angulo Vinuesa, A. Lopez Gil, A. Dominguez López, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, S. Martin Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Simultaneous gain and phase profile determination on an interferometric BOTDA,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 963419-1–963419-4, 2015.

Angulo-Vinuesa, X.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

Ania-Castanon, J. D.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

Antman, Y.

Y. London, Y. Antman, M. Silbiger, L. Efraim, A. Froochzad, G. Adler, E. Levenberg, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96346N-1–96346N-4, 2015.

Y. London, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin analysis with 8.8 km range and 2 cm resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9364, pp. 96340G-1–96340G-4, 2015.

Y. London, Y. Antman, R. Cohen, N. Kimelfeld, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-range distributed Brillouin analysis using dual-layer phase and amplitude coding,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 27144–27158, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 6453–6463, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Combined time-domain and correlation-domain Brillouin analysis with 1600 meters range and 2 centimeters resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576O-1–91576O-4, 2014.

R. Cohen, Y. London, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 4 millimeter resolution based on amplified spontaneous emission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 12070–12078, 2014.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, and A. Zadok, “Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8998, pp. 89980W-1–89980W-9, 2014.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 4701–4704, 2013.

Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Low-noise delays from dynamic Brillouin gratings based on perfect Golomb coding of pump waves,” Opt. Lett., vol. 37, no. 24, pp. 5259–5261, 2012.

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F. Gyger, E. Rocha, S. Chin, M. Niklès, and L. Thévenaz, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis up to 325 km combining four optical repeaters,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576Q-1–91576Q-4, 2014.

Rochat, E.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

Sagues, M.

J. Urricelqui, F. Lopez-Fernandino, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Polarization diversity scheme for BOTDA sensors based on a double orthogonal pump interaction,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2633–2638, 2015.

J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.

Sancho, J.

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thévenaz, “Random-access distributed fiber sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. L1–L5, 2012.

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thévenaz, and A. Zadok, “Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 7807–7821, 2012.

Silbiger, M.

Y. London, Y. Antman, M. Silbiger, L. Efraim, A. Froochzad, G. Adler, E. Levenberg, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96346N-1–96346N-4, 2015.

Snoddy, J.

Song, K. Y.

K. Y. Song, Y. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with more than 1 million effective sensing points,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96340I-1–96340I-4, 2015.

K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Distributed strain measurement with millimeter-order spatial resolution based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis,” Opt. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 2526–2528, 2006.

Soto, M. A.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramirez, and A. Thevenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fiber sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96342D-1–96342D-4, 2015.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8794, pp. 87943I-1–87943I-4, 2014.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “1’000’000 resolved points along a Brillouin distributed fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 9157D2-1–9157D2-4, 2014.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 21, p. 094024, 2010.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.

Sovran, I.

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1426–1429, 2015.

Tateda, M.

Thevenaz, A.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramirez, and A. Thevenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fiber sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96342D-1–96342D-4, 2015.

Thevenaz, L.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J. C. Beugnot, and L. Thevenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 2993–3003, 2010.

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thevenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21692–21707, 2008.

Thévenaz, L.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8794, pp. 87943I-1–87943I-4, 2014.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “1’000’000 resolved points along a Brillouin distributed fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 9157D2-1–9157D2-4, 2014.

F. Gyger, E. Rocha, S. Chin, M. Niklès, and L. Thévenaz, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis up to 325 km combining four optical repeaters,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576Q-1–91576Q-4, 2014.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thévenaz, “Random-access distributed fiber sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. L1–L5, 2012.

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thévenaz, and A. Zadok, “Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 7807–7821, 2012.

J. C. Beugnot, M. Tur, S. Foaleng Mafang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed Brillouin sensing with sub-meter spatial resolution: modeling and processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 7381–7397, 2011.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 21, p. 094024, 2010.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis,” Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 758–760, 1996.

A. Fellay, L. Thévenaz, M. Facchini, M. Nikles, and P. A. Robert, “Distributed sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering: Towards ultimate resolution,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Exhibition, Washington, DC, USA, 1997, Paper OWD3.

Tur, M.

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1426–1429, 2015.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, and A. Zadok, “Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8998, pp. 89980W-1–89980W-9, 2014.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 4701–4704, 2013.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, I. Kressel, and M. Tur, “Monitoring the propagation of mechanical waves using an optical fiber distributed and dynamic strain sensor based on BOTDA,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 10697–10705, 2013.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.

J. C. Beugnot, M. Tur, S. Foaleng Mafang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed Brillouin sensing with sub-meter spatial resolution: modeling and processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 7381–7397, 2011.

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J. C. Beugnot, and L. Thevenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 2993–3003, 2010.

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thevenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21692–21707, 2008.

Urricelqui, J.

J. Urricelqui, F. Lopez-Fernandino, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Polarization diversity scheme for BOTDA sensors based on a double orthogonal pump interaction,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2633–2638, 2015.

J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.

Wang, F.

Webb, D. J.

Yaron, L.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, and A. Zadok, “Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8998, pp. 89980W-1–89980W-9, 2014.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 4701–4704, 2013.

Zadok, A.

N. Levanon, I. Cohen, N. Arbel, and A. Zadok, “Non-coherent pulse compression—Aperiodic and periodic waveforms,” IET Radar Sonar Navigation, vol. 10, pp. 216–224, 2016.

Y. London, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin analysis with 8.8 km range and 2 cm resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9364, pp. 96340G-1–96340G-4, 2015.

Y. London, Y. Antman, M. Silbiger, L. Efraim, A. Froochzad, G. Adler, E. Levenberg, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96346N-1–96346N-4, 2015.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, and A. Zadok, “Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8998, pp. 89980W-1–89980W-9, 2014.

Y. London, Y. Antman, R. Cohen, N. Kimelfeld, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-range distributed Brillouin analysis using dual-layer phase and amplitude coding,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 27144–27158, 2014.

R. Cohen, Y. London, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 4 millimeter resolution based on amplified spontaneous emission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 12070–12078, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Combined time-domain and correlation-domain Brillouin analysis with 1600 meters range and 2 centimeters resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576O-1–91576O-4, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 6453–6463, 2014.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 4701–4704, 2013.

Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Low-noise delays from dynamic Brillouin gratings based on perfect Golomb coding of pump waves,” Opt. Lett., vol. 37, no. 24, pp. 5259–5261, 2012.

D. Kravitz, D. Grodensky, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution low-sidelobe laser ranging based on incoherent pulse compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 2119–2121, 2012.

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thévenaz, and A. Zadok, “Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 7807–7821, 2012.

A. Zadok, Y. Antman, N. Primerov, A. Denisov, J. Sancho, and L. Thévenaz, “Random-access distributed fiber sensing,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. L1–L5, 2012.

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thevenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21692–21707, 2008.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zeni, L.

A. Minardo, A. Coscetta, S. Pirozzi, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Modal analysis of a cantilever beam by use of Brillouin based distributed dynamic strain measurements,” Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 21, no. 12, p. 125022, 2012.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.

Zilka, E.

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thevenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21692–21707, 2008.

Zornoza, A.

J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.

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IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Urricelqui, F. Lopez-Fernandino, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Polarization diversity scheme for BOTDA sensors based on a double orthogonal pump interaction,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2633–2638, 2015.

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I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 1426–1429, 2015.

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D. Kravitz, D. Grodensky, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution low-sidelobe laser ranging based on incoherent pulse compression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 2119–2121, 2012.

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N. Levanon, I. Cohen, N. Arbel, and A. Zadok, “Non-coherent pulse compression—Aperiodic and periodic waveforms,” IET Radar Sonar Navigation, vol. 10, pp. 216–224, 2016.

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S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J. C. Beugnot, and L. Thevenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 2993–3003, 2010.

M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, S. Chin, J. D. Ania-Castanon, P. Corredera, E. Rochat, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, and L. Thevenaz, “Extending the real remoteness of long-range Brillouin optical time domain fiber analyzers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 152–162, 2014.

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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 21, p. 094024, 2010.

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M. A. Soto, S. Le Floch, and L. Thévenaz, “Bipolar optical pulse coding for performance enhancement in BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16390–16397, 2013.

Y. London, Y. Antman, R. Cohen, N. Kimelfeld, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-range distributed Brillouin analysis using dual-layer phase and amplitude coding,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 27144–27158, 2014.

R. Cohen, Y. London, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 4 millimeter resolution based on amplified spontaneous emission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 12070–12078, 2014.

Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thévenaz, and A. Zadok, “Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 7807–7821, 2012.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 6453–6463, 2014.

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21616–21625, 2008.

J. C. Beugnot, M. Tur, S. Foaleng Mafang, and L. Thévenaz, “Distributed Brillouin sensing with sub-meter spatial resolution: modeling and processing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 7381–7397, 2011.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 8584–8591, 2012.

Y. Peled, A. Motil, I. Kressel, and M. Tur, “Monitoring the propagation of mechanical waves using an optical fiber distributed and dynamic strain sensor based on BOTDA,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 10697–10705, 2013.

J. Urricelqui, A. Zornoza, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Dynamic BOTDA measurements based on Brillouin phase-shift and RF demodulation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26942–26949, 2012.

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thevenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21692–21707, 2008.

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 31347–31366, 2013.

Opt. Lett. (9)

Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Low-noise delays from dynamic Brillouin gratings based on perfect Golomb coding of pump waves,” Opt. Lett., vol. 37, no. 24, pp. 5259–5261, 2012.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis,” Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 758–760, 1996.

K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Distributed strain measurement with millimeter-order spatial resolution based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis,” Opt. Lett., vol. 31, no. 17, pp. 2526–2528, 2006.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Di Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–261, 2010.

A. Ilovitsh, E. Preter, N. Levanon, and Z. Zalevsky, “Time multiplexing super resolution using a Barker-based array,” Opt. Lett., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 163–165, 2015.

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Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett., vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 4701–4704, 2013.

Proc. SPIE (12)

A. López-Gil, A. Domínguez, S. Martín-López, and M. González-Herráez, “Simple method for the elimination of polarization noise in BOTDA using balanced detection of orthogonally polarized Stokes and anti-Stokes probe sidebands,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91573U-1–91573U-4, 2014.

Y. London, Y. Antman, M. Silbiger, L. Efraim, A. Froochzad, G. Adler, E. Levenberg, and A. Zadok, “High-resolution Brillouin analysis of composite materials beams,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96346N-1–96346N-4, 2015.

M. A. Soto, J. A. Ramirez, and A. Thevenaz, “Intensifying Brillouin distributed fiber sensors using image processing,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96342D-1–96342D-4, 2015.

F. Gyger, E. Rocha, S. Chin, M. Niklès, and L. Thévenaz, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis up to 325 km combining four optical repeaters,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576Q-1–91576Q-4, 2014.

Y. London, Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Brillouin analysis with 8.8 km range and 2 cm resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9364, pp. 96340G-1–96340G-4, 2015.

O. Matsuoka, M. Kishi, and K. Hotate, “Brillouin optical correlation domain reflectometry with double frequency modulation and phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576G-1–91576G-4, 2014.

D. Elooz, Y. Antman, and A. Zadok, “Combined time-domain and correlation-domain Brillouin analysis with 1600 meters range and 2 centimeters resolution,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 91576O-1–91576O-4, 2014.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “1’000’000 resolved points along a Brillouin distributed fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9157, pp. 9157D2-1–9157D2-4, 2014.

K. Y. Song, Y. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with more than 1 million effective sensing points,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96340I-1–96340I-4, 2015.

A. Denisov, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fiber sensor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8794, pp. 87943I-1–87943I-4, 2014.

X. Angulo Vinuesa, A. Lopez Gil, A. Dominguez López, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, S. Martin Lopez, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Simultaneous gain and phase profile determination on an interferometric BOTDA,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 963419-1–963419-4, 2015.

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, and A. Zadok, “Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8998, pp. 89980W-1–89980W-9, 2014.

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N. Levenon and E. Mozeson, Radar Signals. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2004.

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