Abstract

We report the fabrication of InAs planar avalanche photodiodes (APDs) using Be ion implantation. The planar APDs have a low background doping of $2 \times 10^{14} {\rm cm}^{-3}$ and large depletion widths approaching 8 μm. The thick depletion width enabled a gain of 330 to be achieved at −26 V at 200 K without inducing a significant tunneling current. No edge breakdown was observed within the APDs. The surface leakage current was found to be low with a gain normalized dark current density of 400 μAcm−2 at −20 V at 200 K.

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  1. J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.
  2. F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.
  3. W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.
  4. A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.
  5. X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.
  6. A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.
  7. A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.
  8. B. R. H. Saul, F. S. Chen, and P. W. Shumate, “Reliability of InGaAs photodiodes for SL applications,” AT&T Tech. J., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 861–882, 1985.
  9. J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.
  10. B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.
  11. J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.
  12. P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.
  13. S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.
  14. W. Sun, S. J. Maddox, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Record high gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes at room temperature,” in Proc. 72nd Annu. Device Res. Conf., Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2014, pp. 47–48.
  15. S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.
  16. (2003). J12 Indium Arsenide Detectors, Teledyne Judson Technologies LLC, Montgomeryville, PA, USA. [Online]. Available: http://www.judsontechnologies.com/files/pdf/InAs_shortform_Mar2003.pdf
  17. P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 1123–1128, 2012.
  18. B. Dutt, R. McCoy, and J. Zuber, “A low dark-current, planar InGaAs p-i-n photodiode with a quaternary InGaAsP cap layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 1985.

2015 (2)

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.

2014 (1)

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

2012 (5)

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 1123–1128, 2012.

2011 (3)

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

2007 (1)

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

1993 (1)

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

1988 (1)

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

1985 (2)

B. Dutt, R. McCoy, and J. Zuber, “A low dark-current, planar InGaAs p-i-n photodiode with a quaternary InGaAsP cap layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 1985.

B. R. H. Saul, F. S. Chen, and P. W. Shumate, “Reliability of InGaAs photodiodes for SL applications,” AT&T Tech. J., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 861–882, 1985.

Aqariden, F.

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

Arias, J. M.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Bank, S. R.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

W. Sun, S. J. Maddox, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Record high gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes at room temperature,” in Proc. 72nd Annu. Device Res. Conf., Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2014, pp. 47–48.

Beck, J. D.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Bonnouvrier, G.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Bosson, S.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Brown, J. M.

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

Bubulac, L. O.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Campbell, J. C.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

W. Sun, S. J. Maddox, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Record high gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes at room temperature,” in Proc. 72nd Annu. Device Res. Conf., Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2014, pp. 47–48.

Chen, F. S.

B. R. H. Saul, F. S. Chen, and P. W. Shumate, “Reliability of InGaAs photodiodes for SL applications,” AT&T Tech. J., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 861–882, 1985.

David, J. P. R.

B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.

P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 1123–1128, 2012.

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

Dewames, R. E.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Dutt, B.

B. Dutt, R. McCoy, and J. Zuber, “A low dark-current, planar InGaAs p-i-n photodiode with a quaternary InGaAsP cap layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 1985.

Elsworth, J.

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

Foubert, K.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Gatti, S.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Gleckler, A. D.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Grein, C. H.

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

Hopkinson, M.

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

Ker, P. J.

P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 1123–1128, 2012.

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

Kerlain, A.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Krysa, A.

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

Krysa, A. B.

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

Lu, Z.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

Maddox, S. J.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

W. Sun, S. J. Maddox, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Record high gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes at room temperature,” in Proc. 72nd Annu. Device Res. Conf., Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2014, pp. 47–48.

Marshall, A.

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

Marshall, A. R. J.

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

Martin, R. J.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

McCoy, R.

B. Dutt, R. McCoy, and J. Zuber, “A low dark-current, planar InGaAs p-i-n photodiode with a quaternary InGaAsP cap layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 1985.

Meng, X.

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

Mitra, P.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Mollard, L.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Nair, H. P.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

Ng, J. S.

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

Oster, L. J.

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

Pacaud, O.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Pasko, J. G.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

Rothman, J.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Salveti, F.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Sandall, I. C.

B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.

Saul, B. R. H.

B. R. H. Saul, F. S. Chen, and P. W. Shumate, “Reliability of InGaAs photodiodes for SL applications,” AT&T Tech. J., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 861–882, 1985.

Scritchfield, R.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Shin, S. H.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Short, K. T.

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

Shumate, P. W.

B. R. H. Saul, F. S. Chen, and P. W. Shumate, “Reliability of InGaAs photodiodes for SL applications,” AT&T Tech. J., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 861–882, 1985.

Sivananthan, S.

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

Strittmatter, R.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Sullivan, W. W.

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Sun, W.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

W. Sun, S. J. Maddox, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Record high gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes at room temperature,” in Proc. 72nd Annu. Device Res. Conf., Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2014, pp. 47–48.

Tan, C. H.

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.

P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 1123–1128, 2012.

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

Tennant, W. E.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Vines, P.

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

Vojetta, G.

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

Von Neida, A. R.

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

White, B. S.

B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.

Williams, G. M.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Willmott, J.

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

Zandian, M.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

Zhao, J.

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

Zheng, X.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

Zuber, J.

B. Dutt, R. McCoy, and J. Zuber, “A low dark-current, planar InGaAs p-i-n photodiode with a quaternary InGaAsP cap layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 1985.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. Dewames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p-on-n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 976–978, 1993.

S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, “Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 101, no. 15, p. 151124, 2012.

AT&T Tech. J. (1)

B. R. H. Saul, F. S. Chen, and P. W. Shumate, “Reliability of InGaAs photodiodes for SL applications,” AT&T Tech. J., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 861–882, 1985.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Marshall, P. Vines, P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Avalanche multiplication and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes at 77 K,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 858–864, 2011.

W. Sun, Z. Lu, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, S. J. Maddox, H. P. Nair, and S. R. Bank, “High-Gain InAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2012.

B. Dutt, R. McCoy, and J. Zuber, “A low dark-current, planar InGaAs p-i-n photodiode with a quaternary InGaAsP cap layer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 1985.

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

X. Zhou, X. Meng, A. Krysa, J. Willmott, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InAs photodiodes for 3.43 μm radiation thermometry,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5555–5560, 2015.

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

B. S. White, I. C. Sandall, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “InAs diodes fabricated using be ion implantation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2928–2932, 2015.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Pearton, A. R. Von Neida, J. M. Brown, K. T. Short, and L. J. Oster, “Ion implantation damage and annealing in InAs, GaSb, and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 1988.

J. Electron. Mater. (2)

J. Rothman, L. Mollard, S. Bosson, G. Vojetta, K. Foubert, S. Gatti, G. Bonnouvrier, F. Salveti, A. Kerlain, and O. Pacaud, “Short-wave infrared HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2928–2936, 2012.

F. Aqariden, J. Elsworth, J. Zhao, C. H. Grein, and S. Sivananthan, “MBE HgCdTe for HDVIP Devices: Horizontal Integration in the US HgCdTe FPA Industry,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2700–2706, 2012.

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Ker, A. R. J. Marshall, A. B. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of leakage current in InAs avalanche photodiodes,” J. Quantum Electron., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1123–1128, 2011.

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. D. Beck, R. Scritchfield, P. Mitra, W. W. Sullivan, A. D. Gleckler, R. Strittmatter, and R. J. Martin, “Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Eng., vol. 53, no. 8, p. 081905, 2014.

Opt. Exp. (2)

A. R. J. Marshall, P. J. Ker, A. Krysa, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 23341–23349, 2011.

P. J. Ker, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, “Temperature dependence of gain and excess noise in InAs electron avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 1123–1128, 2012.

Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV (1)

A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, J. S. Ng, and M. Hopkinson, “Fabrication of InAs photodiodes with reduced surface leakage current,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Mater. Defence Syst. Technol. IV, vol. 6740, p. 67400H, 2007.

Other (2)

(2003). J12 Indium Arsenide Detectors, Teledyne Judson Technologies LLC, Montgomeryville, PA, USA. [Online]. Available: http://www.judsontechnologies.com/files/pdf/InAs_shortform_Mar2003.pdf

W. Sun, S. J. Maddox, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Record high gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes at room temperature,” in Proc. 72nd Annu. Device Res. Conf., Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 2014, pp. 47–48.

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