Abstract

The FEC limit paradigm is the prevalent practice for designing optical communication systems to attain a certain bit error rate (BER) without forward error correction (FEC). This practice assumes that there is an FEC code that will reduce the BER after decoding to the desired level. In this paper, we challenge this practice and show that the concept of a channel-independent FEC limit is invalid for soft-decision bit-wise decoding. It is shown that for low code rates and high-order modulation formats, the use of the soft-decision FEC limit paradigm can underestimate the spectral efficiencies by up to 20%. A better predictor for the BER after decoding is the generalized mutual information, which is shown to give consistent post-FEC BER predictions across different channel conditions and modulation formats. Extensive optical full-field simulations and experiments are carried out in both the linear and nonlinear transmission regimes to confirm the theoretical analysis.

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2015 (2)

S. Beppu, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “2048 QAM (66 Gbit/s) single-carrier coherent optical transmission over 150 km with a potential SE of 15.3 bit/s/Hz,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 4960–4969, 2015.

A. Alvarado and E. Agrell, “Four-dimensional coded modulation with bit-wise decoders for future optical communications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1993–2003, 2015.

2014 (3)

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1999–2001, 2014.

C. Häger, A. Graell i Amat, F. Brännström, A. Alvarado, and E. Agrell, “Improving soft FEC performance for higher-order modulations via optimized bit channel mappings,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 14544–14558, 2014.

A. Alvarado, F. Brännström, E. Agrell, and T. Koch, “High-SNR asymptotics of mutual information for discrete constellations with applications to BICM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 1061–1076, 2014.

2013 (2)

S. Kudekar, T. Richardson, and R. L. Urbanke, “Spatially coupled ensembles universally achieve capacity under belief propagation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 7761–7813, 2013.

M. Ivanov, F. Brännström, A. Alvarado, and E. Agrell, “On the exact BER of bit-wise demodulators for one-dimensional constellations,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1450–1459, 2013.

2012 (1)

L. Szczecinski, “Correction of mismatched L-values in BICM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 3198–3208, 2012.

2011 (4)

T. Nguyen and L. Lampe, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation with mismatched decoding metrics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 437–447, 2011.

E. Agrell and A. Alvarado, “Optimal alphabets and binary labelings for BICM at low SNR,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 6650–6672, 2011.

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. ten Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 1547–1549, 2011.

I. Sason and B. Shuval, “On universal LDPC code ensembles over memoryless symmetric channels,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 5182–5202, 2011.

2010 (4)

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662–701, 2010.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.

A. Alvarado, E. Agrell, L. Szczecinski, and A. Svensson, “Exploiting UEP in QAM-based BICM: Interleaver and code design,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 500–510, 2010.

B. P. Smith and F. R. Kschischang, “Future prospects for FEC in fiber-optic communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1245–1257, 2010.

2009 (5)

A. Alvarado, L. Szczecinski, R. Feick, and L. Ahumada, “Distribution of L-values in Gray-mapped $ {M}^2$-QAM: Closed-form approximations and applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2071–2079, 2009.

I. Sason, “On universal properties of capacity-approaching LDPC code ensembles,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2956–2990, 2009.

A. Martinez, A. Guillén i Fàbregas, G. Caire, and F. M. J. Willems, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation revisited: A mismatched decoding perspective,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2756–2765, 2009.

I. B. Djordjevic, M. Arabaci, and L. L. Minkov, “Next generation FEC for high-capacity communication in optical transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3518–3530, 2009.

H. B. Batshon, I. B. Djordjevic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Multidimensional LDPC-Coded modulation for beyond 400 Gb/s per wavelength transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 1139–1141, 2009.

2008 (1)

A. Guillén i Fàbregas, A. Martinez, and G. Caire, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation,” Found. Trends Commun. Inf. Theory, vol. 5, nos. 1/2, pp. 1–153, 2008.

2007 (2)

I. B. Djordjevic, M. Cvijetic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Using LDPC-coded modulation and coherent detection for ultra highspeed optical transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3619–3625, 2007.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2675–2692, 2007.

2006 (3)

A. Martinez, A. Guillén i Fàbregas, and G. Caire, “Error probability analysis of bit-interleaved coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 262–271, 2006.

M. Franceschini, G. Ferrari, and R. Raheli, “Does the performance of LDPC codes depend on the channel?” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 2129–2132, 2006.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 555–562, 2006.

2004 (1)

T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

2003 (2)

B. Vasic, I. B. Djordjevic, and R. K. Kostuk, “Low-density parity check codes and iterative decoding for long-haul optical communication systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 438–446, 2003.

I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, “Projective geometry LDPC codes for ultralong-haul WDM high-speed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 784–786, 2003.

2002 (2)

B. Vasic and I. B. Djordjevic, “Low-density parity check codes for long-haul optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1208–1210, 2002.

M. A. Kousa and A. H. Mugaibel, “Puncturing effects on turbo codes,” Proc. IEE, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 132–138, 2002.

2000 (1)

J. Vogt and A. Finger, “Improving the max-log-MAP turbo decoder,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 23, pp. 1937–1939, 2000.

1999 (1)

O. Açikel and W. Ryan, “Punctured turbo-codes for BPSK/QPSK channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1325–1323, 1999.

1998 (4)

A. J. Viterbi, “An intuitive justification and a simplified implementation of the MAP decoder for convolutional codes,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 260–264, 1998.

G. Caire, G. Taricco, and E. Biglieri, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 927–946, 1998.

S. ten Brink, J. Speidel, and R.-H. Yan, “Iterative demapping for QPSK modulation,” IEEE Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 15, pp. 1459–1460, 1998.

S. Benedetto, G. Montorsi, D. Divsalar, and F. Pollara, “Soft-input soft-output modules for the construction and distributed iterative decoding of code networks,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 155–172, 1998.

1997 (1)

X. Li and J. A. Ritcey, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 169–171, 1997.

1994 (1)

S. Verdú and T. S. Han, “A general formula for channel capacity,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1147–1157, 1994.

1992 (1)

E. Zehavi, “8-PSK trellis codes for a Rayleigh channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 873–884, 1992.

1987 (1)

C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 174–176, 1987.

Abay, Ü.

H. Bülow, Ü. Abay, A. Schenk, and J. B. Huber, “Coded modulation of polarization- and space-multiplexed signals,” in Proc. Asia Communications Photonics Conf. Exhib., Shanghai, China, Nov. 2011.

Açikel, O.

O. Açikel and W. Ryan, “Punctured turbo-codes for BPSK/QPSK channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1325–1323, 1999.

Agrell, E.

A. Alvarado and E. Agrell, “Four-dimensional coded modulation with bit-wise decoders for future optical communications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1993–2003, 2015.

A. Alvarado, F. Brännström, E. Agrell, and T. Koch, “High-SNR asymptotics of mutual information for discrete constellations with applications to BICM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 1061–1076, 2014.

C. Häger, A. Graell i Amat, F. Brännström, A. Alvarado, and E. Agrell, “Improving soft FEC performance for higher-order modulations via optimized bit channel mappings,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 14544–14558, 2014.

M. Ivanov, F. Brännström, A. Alvarado, and E. Agrell, “On the exact BER of bit-wise demodulators for one-dimensional constellations,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1450–1459, 2013.

E. Agrell and A. Alvarado, “Optimal alphabets and binary labelings for BICM at low SNR,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 6650–6672, 2011.

A. Alvarado, E. Agrell, L. Szczecinski, and A. Svensson, “Exploiting UEP in QAM-based BICM: Interleaver and code design,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 500–510, 2010.

A. Alvarado and E. Agrell, “Achievable rates for four-dimensional coded modulation with a bit-wise receiver,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

Ahumada, L.

A. Alvarado, L. Szczecinski, R. Feick, and L. Ahumada, “Distribution of L-values in Gray-mapped $ {M}^2$-QAM: Closed-form approximations and applications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2071–2079, 2009.

Ait, O.

O. Ait Sab and V. Lemaire, “Block turbo code performances for long-haul DWDM optical transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Baltimore, MD, USA, Mar. 2000.

Akita, M.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

Alvarado, A.

A. Alvarado and E. Agrell, “Four-dimensional coded modulation with bit-wise decoders for future optical communications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1993–2003, 2015.

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M. Ivanov, F. Brännström, A. Alvarado, and E. Agrell, “On the exact BER of bit-wise demodulators for one-dimensional constellations,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1450–1459, 2013.

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A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. ten Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 1547–1549, 2011.

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H. Bülow and E. Masalkina, “Coded modulation in optical communications,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011.

H. Bülow, Ü. Abay, A. Schenk, and J. B. Huber, “Coded modulation of polarization- and space-multiplexed signals,” in Proc. Asia Communications Photonics Conf. Exhib., Shanghai, China, Nov. 2011.

H. Bülow, and T. Rankl, “Soft coded modulation for sensitivity enhancement of coherent 100-Gbit/s transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2009.

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F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.

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H. B. Batshon, I. B. Djordjevic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Multidimensional LDPC-Coded modulation for beyond 400 Gb/s per wavelength transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 1139–1141, 2009.

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I. B. Djordjevic, M. Cvijetic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Using LDPC-coded modulation and coherent detection for ultra highspeed optical transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3619–3625, 2007.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 555–562, 2006.

B. Vasic, I. B. Djordjevic, and R. K. Kostuk, “Low-density parity check codes and iterative decoding for long-haul optical communication systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 438–446, 2003.

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B. Vasic and I. B. Djordjevic, “Low-density parity check codes for long-haul optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1208–1210, 2002.

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A. Martinez, A. Guillén i Fàbregas, and G. Caire, “Error probability analysis of bit-interleaved coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 262–271, 2006.

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H. Buelow, X. Lu, L. Schmalen, A. Klekamp, and F. Buchali, “Experimental performance of 4D optimized constellation alternatives for PM-8QAM and PM-16QAM,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

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A. Alvarado, F. Brännström, E. Agrell, and T. Koch, “High-SNR asymptotics of mutual information for discrete constellations with applications to BICM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 1061–1076, 2014.

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D. S. Millar, T. Koike-Akino, R. Maher, D. Lavery, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental demonstration of 24-dimensional extended Golay coded modulation with LDPC,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

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Maher, R.

D. S. Millar, T. Koike-Akino, R. Maher, D. Lavery, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental demonstration of 24-dimensional extended Golay coded modulation with LDPC,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

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A. Guillén i Fàbregas, A. Martinez, and G. Caire, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation,” Found. Trends Commun. Inf. Theory, vol. 5, nos. 1/2, pp. 1–153, 2008.

A. Martinez, A. Guillén i Fàbregas, and G. Caire, “Error probability analysis of bit-interleaved coded modulation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 262–271, 2006.

Masalkina, E.

H. Bülow and E. Masalkina, “Coded modulation in optical communications,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011.

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D. S. Millar, T. Koike-Akino, R. Maher, D. Lavery, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental demonstration of 24-dimensional extended Golay coded modulation with LDPC,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

Minkov, L. L.

I. B. Djordjevic, M. Arabaci, and L. L. Minkov, “Next generation FEC for high-capacity communication in optical transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3518–3530, 2009.

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T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

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F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

Montorsi, G.

S. Benedetto, G. Montorsi, D. Divsalar, and F. Pollara, “Soft-input soft-output modules for the construction and distributed iterative decoding of code networks,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 155–172, 1998.

Motoshima, K.

T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

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M. A. Kousa and A. H. Mugaibel, “Puncturing effects on turbo codes,” Proc. IEE, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 132–138, 2002.

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Nguyen, T.

T. Nguyen and L. Lampe, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation with mismatched decoding metrics,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 437–447, 2011.

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F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.

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T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

Parsons, K.

D. S. Millar, T. Koike-Akino, R. Maher, D. Lavery, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental demonstration of 24-dimensional extended Golay coded modulation with LDPC,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

Paskov, M.

D. S. Millar, T. Koike-Akino, R. Maher, D. Lavery, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental demonstration of 24-dimensional extended Golay coded modulation with LDPC,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

Pollara, F.

S. Benedetto, G. Montorsi, D. Divsalar, and F. Pollara, “Soft-input soft-output modules for the construction and distributed iterative decoding of code networks,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 155–172, 1998.

Puc, A.

A. Puc, F. Kerfoot, A. Simons, and D. L. Wilson, “Concatenated FEC experiment over 5000 km long straight line WDM test bed,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Feb. 1999.

Rankl, T.

H. Bülow, and T. Rankl, “Soft coded modulation for sensitivity enhancement of coherent 100-Gbit/s transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2009.

Richardson, T.

S. Kudekar, T. Richardson, and R. L. Urbanke, “Spatially coupled ensembles universally achieve capacity under belief propagation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 7761–7813, 2013.

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X. Li and J. A. Ritcey, “Bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 169–171, 1997.

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W. E. Ryan and S. Lin, Channel Codes: Classical and Modern. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009.

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I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. K. Chilappagari, and B. Vasic, “Low-density parity-check codes for 40-Gb/s optical transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 555–562, 2006.

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D. S. Millar, T. Koike-Akino, R. Maher, D. Lavery, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental demonstration of 24-dimensional extended Golay coded modulation with LDPC,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

Schenk, A.

H. Bülow, Ü. Abay, A. Schenk, and J. B. Huber, “Coded modulation of polarization- and space-multiplexed signals,” in Proc. Asia Communications Photonics Conf. Exhib., Shanghai, China, Nov. 2011.

Schmalen, L.

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L. Schmalen, “Energy efficient FEC for optical transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

H. Buelow, X. Lu, L. Schmalen, A. Klekamp, and F. Buchali, “Experimental performance of 4D optimized constellation alternatives for PM-8QAM and PM-16QAM,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2014.

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L. Szczecinski and A. Alvarado, Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation: Fundamentals, Analysis, and Design. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2015.

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T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

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T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Tagami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 376–386, 2004.

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I. Sason and B. Shuval, “On universal LDPC code ensembles over memoryless symmetric channels,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 5182–5202, 2011.

S. Kudekar, T. Richardson, and R. L. Urbanke, “Spatially coupled ensembles universally achieve capacity under belief propagation,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 7761–7813, 2013.

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