Abstract

A highly linear broadband photonic-assisted analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on high-frequency optical sampling utilizing a dual output Mach–Zehnder modulator operating with signal frequencies up to 50 GHz is presented. The pulses employed in the optical sampling were generated by a cavity-less pulse source operated at 10 GHz in preference to conventional mode-locked lasers. The optical sampling front-end greatly extends the operational frequency range of the Nyquist limited electronic digitization back-end. The performance of the sampling system is characterized with 7.1 effective number of bits (ENOBs) at 40 with 5 GHz fully accessible bandwidth, and greater than 99 dB·Hz2/3 spurious free dynamic range for the 30–40 GHz frequency range. Furthermore, more than 8 ENOB was achieved by reducing the effective bandwidth to 1 GHz with a digital filter, demonstrating the additional advantage of using a higher sampling rate compared to previous demonstrations. A new figure of merit of photonic-assisted sub-sampled ADCs is also presented accompanied with a comparison to previous implementations.

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2014 (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

2012 (2)

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

2009 (1)

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

2007 (2)

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 1955–1982, 2007.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319–330, 2007.

2006 (1)

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628–4641, 2006.

2005 (1)

R. Reeder, M. Looney, and J. Hand, “Pushing the state of the art with multichannel A/D converters,” Analog Dialogue, vol. 39, pp. 7–10, 2005.

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

1999 (1)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 539–550, 1999.

1998 (1)

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 1998.

Ackerman, E. I.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, and G. E. Betts, “The role of photonic and electronic gain in the design of analog optical links,” presented at the IEEE Avion. Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2005, Paper TuA1, pp. 71–72.

Alic, N.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “High resolution broadband photonic sampled ADC: 8.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Australian Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Vic., USA, 2014, Paper TU3E-1.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

Andrekson, P. A.

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” presented at the 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. - Post-Deadline Papers, Berlin, Germany, 2007.

Ataie, V.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

Balsamo, S.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Betts, G. E.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, and G. E. Betts, “The role of photonic and electronic gain in the design of analog optical links,” presented at the IEEE Avion. Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2005, Paper TuA1, pp. 71–72.

Boggio, J. M. C.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, P. Ghelfi, and A. Bogoni, “Jitter-limited photonic analog-to-digital converter with 7 effective bits for wideband radar applications,” presented at the Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Ottawa, ON, USA, 2014.

Bres, C.-S.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

Brès, C.-.S.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-.S. Brès, B. P.-.P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic “Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm,” presented at the 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Vienna, Austria, 2009, Paper 5.2.3.

Buckwalter, J. F.

T. D. Gathman and J. F. Buckwalter, “An integrate-and-dump receiver for high dynamic range photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE 12th Top. Meeting Silicon Monolithic Integr. Circuits RF Syst., Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2012, Paper TU1C-4.

Byun, H.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319–330, 2007.

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Cattaneo, C.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Chen, J.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Clark, T.

T. Clark, “Photonic microwave-to-digital-conversion,” presented at the IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, Paper WC4.1, pp. 422–423.

Consonnni, G.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Cox, C. H.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, and G. E. Betts, “The role of photonic and electronic gain in the design of analog optical links,” presented at the IEEE Avion. Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2005, Paper TuA1, pp. 71–72.

Dahlem, M. S.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

DiLello, N. A.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Esman, D. J.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “High resolution broadband photonic sampled ADC: 8.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Australian Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Vic., USA, 2014, Paper TU3E-1.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

Esman, R. D.

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 1998.

Gathman, T. D.

T. D. Gathman and J. F. Buckwalter, “An integrate-and-dump receiver for high dynamic range photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE 12th Top. Meeting Silicon Monolithic Integr. Circuits RF Syst., Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2012, Paper TU1C-4.

Geis, M. W.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, P. Ghelfi, and A. Bogoni, “Jitter-limited photonic analog-to-digital converter with 7 effective bits for wideband radar applications,” presented at the Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Ottawa, ON, USA, 2014.

Golani, O.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Grein, M. E.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Hand, J.

R. Reeder, M. Looney, and J. Hand, “Pushing the state of the art with multichannel A/D converters,” Analog Dialogue, vol. 39, pp. 7–10, 2005.

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” presented at the Dig. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting Photon. Time/Freq. Meas. Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2003, Paper MC4.2.

Holzwarth, C. W.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Hoyt, J. L.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Ippen, E. P.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” presented at the Dig. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting Photon. Time/Freq. Meas. Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2003, Paper MC4.2.

Kaertner, F. X.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Kanter, G. S.

D. R. Reilly, S. X. Wang, and G. S. Kanter, “Optical under-sampling for high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2011, Paper TuD3.

Kartner, F. X.

F. X. Kartner, A. Khilo, and A. H. Nejadmelayeri, “Progress in photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA,2013, Paper OTh3D.5.

Kärtner, F. X.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Khilo, A.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

F. X. Kartner, A. Khilo, and A. H. Nejadmelayeri, “Progress in photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA,2013, Paper OTh3D.5.

Kuo, B. P. P.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

Kuo, B. P.-.P.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-.S. Brès, B. P.-.P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic “Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm,” presented at the 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Vienna, Austria, 2009, Paper 5.2.3.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

Kuo, P. P.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

Laghezza, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, P. Ghelfi, and A. Bogoni, “Jitter-limited photonic analog-to-digital converter with 7 effective bits for wideband radar applications,” presented at the Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Ottawa, ON, USA, 2014.

Lazzeri, E.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Liu, L.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

Looney, M.

R. Reeder, M. Looney, and J. Hand, “Pushing the state of the art with multichannel A/D converters,” Analog Dialogue, vol. 39, pp. 7–10, 2005.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Malacarne, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Marom, D. M.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Mauri, L.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Motamedi, A.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Myslivets, E.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-.S. Brès, B. P.-.P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic “Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm,” presented at the 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Vienna, Austria, 2009, Paper 5.2.3.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

Myslivets, Y.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Nejadmelayeri, A. H.

F. X. Kartner, A. Khilo, and A. H. Nejadmelayeri, “Progress in photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA,2013, Paper OTh3D.5.

Nichols, L. T.

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 1998.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319–330, 2007.

O’Donnell, F. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

Onori, D.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Orcutt, J. S.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Pasinato, F.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

Peng, M.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Peng, M. Y.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Perrott, M.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Pinna, S.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Popovic, M. A.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Porzi, C.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Radic, S.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “High resolution broadband photonic sampled ADC: 8.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Australian Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Vic., USA, 2014, Paper TU3E-1.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-.S. Brès, B. P.-.P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic “Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm,” presented at the 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Vienna, Austria, 2009, Paper 5.2.3.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

Ram, R. J.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

Reeder, R.

R. Reeder, M. Looney, and J. Hand, “Pushing the state of the art with multichannel A/D converters,” Analog Dialogue, vol. 39, pp. 7–10, 2005.

Reilly, D. R.

D. R. Reilly, S. X. Wang, and G. S. Kanter, “Optical under-sampling for high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2011, Paper TuD3.

Sander, M. Y.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Scaffardi, M.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Scotti, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, P. Ghelfi, and A. Bogoni, “Jitter-limited photonic analog-to-digital converter with 7 effective bits for wideband radar applications,” presented at the Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Ottawa, ON, USA, 2014.

Seeds, A. J.

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628–4641, 2006.

Serafino, G.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Sköld, M.

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” presented at the 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. - Post-Deadline Papers, Berlin, Germany, 2007.

Smith, H. I.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Sorace, C. M.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Spector, S. J.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Sun, J.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Sunnerud, H.

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” presented at the 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. - Post-Deadline Papers, Berlin, Germany, 2007.

Temprana, E.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

tong, Z.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” presented at the Dig. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting Photon. Time/Freq. Meas. Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2003, Paper MC4.2.

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 1955–1982, 2007.

Vercesi, V.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 539–550, 1999.

Wang, J.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

Wang, J. P.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Wang, S. X.

D. R. Reilly, S. X. Wang, and G. S. Kanter, “Optical under-sampling for high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2011, Paper TuD3.

Wasserman, J. L.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

Westlund, M.

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” presented at the 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. - Post-Deadline Papers, Berlin, Germany, 2007.

Wiberg, A. O. J.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “High resolution broadband photonic sampled ADC: 8.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Australian Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Vic., USA, 2014, Paper TU3E-1.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-.S. Brès, B. P.-.P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic “Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm,” presented at the 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Vienna, Austria, 2009, Paper 5.2.3.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

Williams, K. J.

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628–4641, 2006.

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 1998.

Williamson, R. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” presented at the Dig. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting Photon. Time/Freq. Meas. Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2003, Paper MC4.2.

Yang, M.-H.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

Yoon, J. U.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” presented at the Dig. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting Photon. Time/Freq. Meas. Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2003, Paper MC4.2.

Zhou, G. R.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

Analog Dialogue (1)

R. Reeder, M. Looney, and J. Hand, “Pushing the state of the art with multichannel A/D converters,” Analog Dialogue, vol. 39, pp. 7–10, 2005.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 539–550, 1999.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1612–1614, 2009.

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1840–1853, 2001.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, and R. D. Esman, “Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 1998.

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4628–4641, 2006.

Nature (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature, vol. 507, pp. 341–345, 2014.

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, pp. 319–330, 2007.

Opt. Exp. (3)

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 1955–1982, 2007.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: Overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 4454–4469, 2012.

A. O. J. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. B419–B427, 2012.

Other (17)

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. - Laser Appl. Photonic Appl., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2011, Paper CThI6.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-.S. Brès, B. P.-.P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic “Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm,” presented at the 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Vienna, Austria, 2009, Paper 5.2.3.

A. O. J. Wiberg, D. J. Esman, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 74 GHz parametric optical sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the 39th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., 2013, Paper Tu.1.C.1.

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” presented at the Dig. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting Photon. Time/Freq. Meas. Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2003, Paper MC4.2.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “High resolution broadband photonic sampled ADC: 8.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” presented at the. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Australian Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Vic., USA, 2014, Paper TU3E-1.

T. Clark, “Photonic microwave-to-digital-conversion,” presented at the IEEE Photon. Conf., 2013, Paper WC4.1, pp. 422–423.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Temprana, Y. Myslivets, P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “A fully frequency referenced parametric polychromatically sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.4.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, and G. E. Betts, “The role of photonic and electronic gain in the design of analog optical links,” presented at the IEEE Avion. Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2005, Paper TuA1, pp. 71–72.

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” presented at the 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. - Post-Deadline Papers, Berlin, Germany, 2007.

FCC Bulletin 70, “Millimeter wave propagation: Spectrum management implication,” (1997, ). [Available]: www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/oet-bulletins-line#70

T. D. Gathman and J. F. Buckwalter, “An integrate-and-dump receiver for high dynamic range photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE 12th Top. Meeting Silicon Monolithic Integr. Circuits RF Syst., Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2012, Paper TU1C-4.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE Std. 1241–2000, 2001.

D. R. Reilly, S. X. Wang, and G. S. Kanter, “Optical under-sampling for high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2011, Paper TuD3.

O. Golani, L. Mauri, F. Pasinato, C. Cattaneo, G. Consonnni, S. Balsamo, and D. M. Marom, “High-resolution, photonically-sampled, analog-to-digital conversion employing spatial oversampling,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper TH3D.1.

F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, P. Ghelfi, and A. Bogoni, “Jitter-limited photonic analog-to-digital converter with 7 effective bits for wideband radar applications,” presented at the Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Ottawa, ON, USA, 2014.

F. X. Kartner, A. Khilo, and A. H. Nejadmelayeri, “Progress in photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA,2013, Paper OTh3D.5.

D. J. Esman, A. O. J. Wiberg, M.-H. Yang, L. Liu, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic parametric sampled analog-to-digital conversion at 100 GHz and 6 ENOBs,” presented at the 40th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, Paper Mo.3.5.6.

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