Abstract

A novel configuration for a dual-wavelength fiber ring laser with improved lasing stability realized through the use of an injection-coupled optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed and demonstrated, and its application to transverse load sensing is studied. The OEO-coupled dual-wavelength laser has two mutually coupled loops: the fiber ring loop and the OEO loop. In the fiber ring loop, a polarization-maintaining phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is incorporated to generate two optical wavelengths with the wavelength spacing determined by the birefringence of the polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber. In the OEO loop, a microwave signal with its frequency also determined by the birefringence of the PM fiber is generated, which is fed into the fiber ring loop to injection lock the dual wavelengths. Due to the injection locking, a very stable dual-wavelength operation is established. The use of the dual wavelengths for high-resolution and high-speed transverse load sensing is then implemented. The sensitivity of the transverse load sensor is measured as high as +9.7573 and −9.7350 GHz/(N/mm), along the fast and slow axes, respectively. The high frequency purity and stability of the generated microwave signal permits very reliable and high accuracy measurement and the microwave frequency interrogation allows the system to operate at an ultra-high speed.

© 2014 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Zhang, P. L. Chu, R. Lai, G. R. Chen, "Dual-wavelength chaos generation and synchronization in erbium-doped fiber lasers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 549-551 (2005).
  2. L. Morvan, N. D. Lai, D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, "Building blocks for a two-frequency laser lidar-radar: A preliminary study," Appl. Opt. 41, 5702-5712 (2002).
  3. T. Suzuki, T. Yazawa, O. Sasaki, "Two-wavelength laser diode interferometer with time-sharing sinusoidal phase modulation," Appl. Opt. 41, 1972-1976 (2002).
  4. A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "Interrogation of a suspended-core Fabry–Perot temperature sensor through a dual wavelength raman fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3149 -3155 (2010).
  5. X. F. Chen, Z. C. Deng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signal using a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 804-809 (2006).
  6. S. Rota-Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez-Cobo, M. A. Quintela, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, M. Lopez-Amo, "Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal mode fiber laser using phase-shift Bragg gratings ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20, 1-5 ( 2014).
  7. S. Feng, O. Xu, C. Lu, S. Lu, T. Ning, S. Jian, "Switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on one polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating incorporating saturable absorber and feedback fiber loop," Opt. Commun. 282, 2165-2168 (2009).
  8. Y. T. Dai, X. F. Chen, J. Sun, Y. Yao, S. Z. Xie, " Dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on a chirped structure and the equivalent phase shift method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1964-1966 (2006).
  9. J. Sun, Y. T. Dai, Y. J. Zhang, X. F. Chen, S. Z. Xie, " Dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on unequalized phase shifts," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2493-2495 (2006).
  10. X. Y. He, X. Fang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Q. Sun, "A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21773-21781 (2009).
  11. L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. C. Liu, Z. W. Yin, X. F. Chen, "Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Load Using a Fiber Laser Sensor," IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1513-1517 (2012 ).
  12. B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, "Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1097-1112 (2012).
  13. M. Jones, "Structural-health monitoring: A sensitive issue," Nature Photon. 2, 153-154 (2008).
  14. H. L. Guo, G. Z. Xiao, N. Mrad, J. P. Yao, "Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms ," Sensors 11, 3687-3705 (2011).
  15. E. Pinet, "Medical applications: Saving lives," Nature Photon. 2, 150-152 (2008).
  16. H. Nakstad, J. T. Kringlebotn, "Oil and gas applications: Probing oil fields," Nature Photon. 2, 147-149 (2008).
  17. N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. I. Sakai, H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267-1271 (1980).
  18. L. Y. Shao, A. Laronche, M. Smietana, P. Mikulic, W. J. Bock, J. Albert, "Highly sensitive bend sensor with hybrid long-period and tilted fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 283, 2690-2694 (2010).
  19. R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, W. Eickhoff, "Bending-induced birefringence in single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 5, 273-275 (1980).
  20. H. Chi, X. M. Tao, D. X. Yang, K. S. Chen, "Simultaneous measurement of axial strain, temperature, and transverse load by a superstructure fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 26, 1949-1951 (2001 ).
  21. M. LeBlanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, "Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings ," Opt. Lett. 24, 1091-1093 (1999).
  22. F. Kong, W. Li, J. Yao, "Transverse load sensing based on a dual-frequency optoelectronic oscillator," Opt. Lett. 38, 2611-2613 (2013).
  23. F. Zhang, J. W. Y. Lit, "Temperature and strain sensitivity measurements of high-birefringent polarization-maintaining fibers ," Appl. Opt. 32, 2213-2218 (1993).
  24. Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement," Opt. Commun. 281, 4619-4622 (2008).
  25. H. Y. Fu, X. W. Shu, C. B. Mou, L. Zhang, S. L. He, I. Bennion, "Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21 , 987-989 (2009).
  26. W. Z. Li, M. Li, J. P. Yao, "A narrow-passband and frequency-tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 1287-1296 (2012).
  27. W. Z. Li, J. P. Yao, " A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 1735-1742 (2012).
  28. J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, "Polarimetric Er3 + -doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements," Opt. Lett. 21, 1869-1871 (1996).

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, "Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1097-1112 (2012).

W. Z. Li, M. Li, J. P. Yao, "A narrow-passband and frequency-tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 1287-1296 (2012).

W. Z. Li, J. P. Yao, " A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 1735-1742 (2012).

2011 (1)

H. L. Guo, G. Z. Xiao, N. Mrad, J. P. Yao, "Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms ," Sensors 11, 3687-3705 (2011).

2010 (2)

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "Interrogation of a suspended-core Fabry–Perot temperature sensor through a dual wavelength raman fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3149 -3155 (2010).

L. Y. Shao, A. Laronche, M. Smietana, P. Mikulic, W. J. Bock, J. Albert, "Highly sensitive bend sensor with hybrid long-period and tilted fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 283, 2690-2694 (2010).

2009 (3)

X. Y. He, X. Fang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Q. Sun, "A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21773-21781 (2009).

S. Feng, O. Xu, C. Lu, S. Lu, T. Ning, S. Jian, "Switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on one polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating incorporating saturable absorber and feedback fiber loop," Opt. Commun. 282, 2165-2168 (2009).

H. Y. Fu, X. W. Shu, C. B. Mou, L. Zhang, S. L. He, I. Bennion, "Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21 , 987-989 (2009).

2008 (4)

E. Pinet, "Medical applications: Saving lives," Nature Photon. 2, 150-152 (2008).

H. Nakstad, J. T. Kringlebotn, "Oil and gas applications: Probing oil fields," Nature Photon. 2, 147-149 (2008).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement," Opt. Commun. 281, 4619-4622 (2008).

M. Jones, "Structural-health monitoring: A sensitive issue," Nature Photon. 2, 153-154 (2008).

2006 (3)

Y. T. Dai, X. F. Chen, J. Sun, Y. Yao, S. Z. Xie, " Dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on a chirped structure and the equivalent phase shift method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1964-1966 (2006).

J. Sun, Y. T. Dai, Y. J. Zhang, X. F. Chen, S. Z. Xie, " Dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on unequalized phase shifts," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2493-2495 (2006).

X. F. Chen, Z. C. Deng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signal using a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 804-809 (2006).

2005 (1)

F. Zhang, P. L. Chu, R. Lai, G. R. Chen, "Dual-wavelength chaos generation and synchronization in erbium-doped fiber lasers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 549-551 (2005).

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1980 (2)

R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, W. Eickhoff, "Bending-induced birefringence in single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 5, 273-275 (1980).

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. I. Sakai, H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267-1271 (1980).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, "Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1097-1112 (2012).

Nature Photon. (1)

E. Pinet, "Medical applications: Saving lives," Nature Photon. 2, 150-152 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. I. Sakai, H. Tsuchiya, "Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1267-1271 (1980).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Rota-Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez-Cobo, M. A. Quintela, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, M. Lopez-Amo, "Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal mode fiber laser using phase-shift Bragg gratings ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20, 1-5 ( 2014).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Sun, Y. T. Dai, Y. J. Zhang, X. F. Chen, S. Z. Xie, " Dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on unequalized phase shifts," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2493-2495 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. T. Dai, X. F. Chen, J. Sun, Y. Yao, S. Z. Xie, " Dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser based on a chirped structure and the equivalent phase shift method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1964-1966 (2006).

F. Zhang, P. L. Chu, R. Lai, G. R. Chen, "Dual-wavelength chaos generation and synchronization in erbium-doped fiber lasers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 549-551 (2005).

H. Y. Fu, X. W. Shu, C. B. Mou, L. Zhang, S. L. He, I. Bennion, "Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21 , 987-989 (2009).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. C. Liu, Z. W. Yin, X. F. Chen, "Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Load Using a Fiber Laser Sensor," IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1513-1517 (2012 ).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

X. F. Chen, Z. C. Deng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signal using a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 804-809 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

W. Z. Li, M. Li, J. P. Yao, "A narrow-passband and frequency-tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 1287-1296 (2012).

W. Z. Li, J. P. Yao, " A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 1735-1742 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "Interrogation of a suspended-core Fabry–Perot temperature sensor through a dual wavelength raman fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3149 -3155 (2010).

Nature Photon. (1)

H. Nakstad, J. T. Kringlebotn, "Oil and gas applications: Probing oil fields," Nature Photon. 2, 147-149 (2008).

Nature Photon. (1)

M. Jones, "Structural-health monitoring: A sensitive issue," Nature Photon. 2, 153-154 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement," Opt. Commun. 281, 4619-4622 (2008).

L. Y. Shao, A. Laronche, M. Smietana, P. Mikulic, W. J. Bock, J. Albert, "Highly sensitive bend sensor with hybrid long-period and tilted fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 283, 2690-2694 (2010).

S. Feng, O. Xu, C. Lu, S. Lu, T. Ning, S. Jian, "Switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on one polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating incorporating saturable absorber and feedback fiber loop," Opt. Commun. 282, 2165-2168 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

X. Y. He, X. Fang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, J. Q. Sun, "A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity," Opt. Exp. 17, 21773-21781 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Sensors (1)

H. L. Guo, G. Z. Xiao, N. Mrad, J. P. Yao, "Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms ," Sensors 11, 3687-3705 (2011).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.