Abstract

An optimized study of biconical tapered multi-mode plastic optical fiber sensor for concentration sensing of ethanol (C$_{2}$H $_{5}$OH) is presented. The sensitivity is enhanced through V-number matching as well as by optimizing the taper radius and taper length. The ray-tracing method is used to analyze the evanescent wave penetration depth (EWPD). The theoretical analysis and experimental results are used to optimize the taper ratio and taper length for the achievement of high EWPD and high sensitivity. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of tapered fiber sensor can be improved by decreasing the taper ratio with simultaneous increase in the taper length. The highest sensitivity of 1.527 mV/% is achieved from the tapered fiber with a taper ratio of 0.27 and taper length of 8 cm. The proposed parametric optimized tapered fiber sensor can detect the change in concentration of C $_{2}$H$_{5}\!$OH as small as 6.55 × 10$^{-3}$.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, R. Mutharasan, "A review of fiber optical biosensors," Sens. Actuator B 125, 688 -703 (2007).
  2. W. Love, L. Button, R. Slovacek, in Biosensors With Fiber Optics (Humana Press, 1991).
  3. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983) pp. 109 .
  4. J. P. Golden, P. A. George, Y. R. Sina, S. L. Frances, "An evanescent wave biosensor—Part II: Fluorescent signal acquisition from tapered fiber optics probes," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 585-591 (Jun. 1994).
  5. R. B. Thompson, L. Kondracki, "Sensitivity enhancement of evanescent wave–excited fiber optic fluorescence sensors, time resolved laser spectroscopy in biochemistry, II," Proc. SPIE 1204 , 35-41 (1995).
  6. C. D. Singh, Y. Shibata, M. Ogita, "A theoretical study of tapered, porous clad optical fibers for detection of gases," Sens. Actuator B 92 , 44-48 (2003).
  7. M. C. Jesus, J. A. Francisco, R. M. Ignacio, "Design of humidity sensors based on tapered optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4329-4336 (2006).
  8. M. Batumalay, A. Lokman, F. Ahmad, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, S. W. Harun, "Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with HEC/PVDF for measurement of relative humidity," IEEE Sens. J. 13, 4702-4705 (2013).
  9. D. King, W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, "Interpreting complex data from a three-sensor multipoint optical fiber ethanol concentration sensor system using artificial neural network pattern recognition," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1560-1567 (2004).
  10. N. Nath, S. Anand, " Evanescent wave fiber optic fluorosensor: Effect of tapering configuration on the signal acquisition," Opt. Eng. 37, 220-228 (1998).
  11. H. Golnabi, R. Jafari, " Design and performance of an optical fiber sensor based on light leakage," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 1-3 ( 2006).
  12. H. Golnabi, "Surface profiling using a double-fiber optical design," Opt. Las. Eng. 48, 421-426 (2010).
  13. H. Golnabi, P. Azimi, " Design and performance of a plastic optical fiber leakage sensor," Opt. Las. Technol. 39, 1346-1350 ( 2007).
  14. H. Z. Yang, K. S. Lim, S. W. H. Ahmad, "Enhanced bundled fiber displacement sensor based on concave mirror," Sens. Actuator A 162, 8-12 (2010).
  15. H. Z. Yang, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, "Environment independent liquid level sensing based on fiber-optic displacement sensors," Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 53, 2451-2453 (2011).
  16. M. Naritomi, “CYTOP amorphous fluoropolymers for low loss POF,” POF Asia Pacific Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 1996.
  17. J. Zubia, J. Arrue, " Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).
  18. H. Golnabi, M. Bahar, M. Razani, M. Abrishami, A. Asadpour, "Design and operation of an evanescent optical fiber sensor," Opt. Las. Eng. 45, 12-18 (2007).

2013 (1)

M. Batumalay, A. Lokman, F. Ahmad, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, S. W. Harun, "Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with HEC/PVDF for measurement of relative humidity," IEEE Sens. J. 13, 4702-4705 (2013).

2011 (1)

H. Z. Yang, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, "Environment independent liquid level sensing based on fiber-optic displacement sensors," Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 53, 2451-2453 (2011).

2010 (2)

H. Golnabi, "Surface profiling using a double-fiber optical design," Opt. Las. Eng. 48, 421-426 (2010).

H. Z. Yang, K. S. Lim, S. W. H. Ahmad, "Enhanced bundled fiber displacement sensor based on concave mirror," Sens. Actuator A 162, 8-12 (2010).

2007 (2)

A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, R. Mutharasan, "A review of fiber optical biosensors," Sens. Actuator B 125, 688 -703 (2007).

H. Golnabi, M. Bahar, M. Razani, M. Abrishami, A. Asadpour, "Design and operation of an evanescent optical fiber sensor," Opt. Las. Eng. 45, 12-18 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. C. Jesus, J. A. Francisco, R. M. Ignacio, "Design of humidity sensors based on tapered optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4329-4336 (2006).

2004 (1)

D. King, W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, "Interpreting complex data from a three-sensor multipoint optical fiber ethanol concentration sensor system using artificial neural network pattern recognition," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1560-1567 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. D. Singh, Y. Shibata, M. Ogita, "A theoretical study of tapered, porous clad optical fibers for detection of gases," Sens. Actuator B 92 , 44-48 (2003).

2001 (1)

J. Zubia, J. Arrue, " Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).

1998 (1)

N. Nath, S. Anand, " Evanescent wave fiber optic fluorosensor: Effect of tapering configuration on the signal acquisition," Opt. Eng. 37, 220-228 (1998).

1995 (1)

R. B. Thompson, L. Kondracki, "Sensitivity enhancement of evanescent wave–excited fiber optic fluorescence sensors, time resolved laser spectroscopy in biochemistry, II," Proc. SPIE 1204 , 35-41 (1995).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

M. Batumalay, A. Lokman, F. Ahmad, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, S. W. Harun, "Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with HEC/PVDF for measurement of relative humidity," IEEE Sens. J. 13, 4702-4705 (2013).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. P. Golden, P. A. George, Y. R. Sina, S. L. Frances, "An evanescent wave biosensor—Part II: Fluorescent signal acquisition from tapered fiber optics probes," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 585-591 (Jun. 1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. C. Jesus, J. A. Francisco, R. M. Ignacio, "Design of humidity sensors based on tapered optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4329-4336 (2006).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. King, W. B. Lyons, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, "Interpreting complex data from a three-sensor multipoint optical fiber ethanol concentration sensor system using artificial neural network pattern recognition," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1560-1567 (2004).

Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. (1)

H. Z. Yang, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, H. Ahmad, "Environment independent liquid level sensing based on fiber-optic displacement sensors," Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 53, 2451-2453 (2011).

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Nath, S. Anand, " Evanescent wave fiber optic fluorosensor: Effect of tapering configuration on the signal acquisition," Opt. Eng. 37, 220-228 (1998).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Zubia, J. Arrue, " Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).

Opt. Las. Eng. (1)

H. Golnabi, M. Bahar, M. Razani, M. Abrishami, A. Asadpour, "Design and operation of an evanescent optical fiber sensor," Opt. Las. Eng. 45, 12-18 (2007).

Opt. Las. Eng. (1)

H. Golnabi, "Surface profiling using a double-fiber optical design," Opt. Las. Eng. 48, 421-426 (2010).

Opt. Las. Technol. (1)

H. Golnabi, P. Azimi, " Design and performance of a plastic optical fiber leakage sensor," Opt. Las. Technol. 39, 1346-1350 ( 2007).

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. B. Thompson, L. Kondracki, "Sensitivity enhancement of evanescent wave–excited fiber optic fluorescence sensors, time resolved laser spectroscopy in biochemistry, II," Proc. SPIE 1204 , 35-41 (1995).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Golnabi, R. Jafari, " Design and performance of an optical fiber sensor based on light leakage," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 1-3 ( 2006).

Sens. Actuator A (1)

H. Z. Yang, K. S. Lim, S. W. H. Ahmad, "Enhanced bundled fiber displacement sensor based on concave mirror," Sens. Actuator A 162, 8-12 (2010).

Sens. Actuator B (2)

C. D. Singh, Y. Shibata, M. Ogita, "A theoretical study of tapered, porous clad optical fibers for detection of gases," Sens. Actuator B 92 , 44-48 (2003).

A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, R. Mutharasan, "A review of fiber optical biosensors," Sens. Actuator B 125, 688 -703 (2007).

Other (3)

W. Love, L. Button, R. Slovacek, in Biosensors With Fiber Optics (Humana Press, 1991).

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983) pp. 109 .

M. Naritomi, “CYTOP amorphous fluoropolymers for low loss POF,” POF Asia Pacific Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 1996.

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