Abstract

In this paper, transmission scheduling issues related to multicast traffic, which focus on multicast service efficiency, are discussed for downstream packet transmission of a time-division-multiplexed passive optical network. First, the features of multicast traffic-sharing and the effects on multicast efficiency are analyzed in detail. Second, metrics, which are utilized in the measurement of multicast service efficiency, are introduced, and two kinds of fairness issues in multicast packet transmission are defined. Finally, an adaptive multicast packet transmission scheduling mechanism, called multicast-share weighted fair queuing, is proposed in order to stably guarantee fair amounts of effective throughputs to multicast sessions according to changes in the multicast service efficiencies of sessions. Analytic and simulation results confirm that the proposed mechanism guarantees the inter-session fairness in terms of effective throughput efficiently.

© 2014 IEEE

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  2. X. Bai, A. Shami, C. M. Assi, "Statistical bandwidth multiplexing in ethernet passive optical networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (2005) pp. 1920-1924.
  3. A. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).
  4. S. Hussain, X. Fernando, "EPON: An extensive review for up-to-date dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes," Proc. IEEE Can. Conf. Electr. Comput. Eng. (2008) pp. 000511-000516.
  5. N. Kim, H. Lim, H. S. Park, M. Kang, "Traffic load distribution-based excess bandwidth allocation in time-division-multiplexed PONs," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4198-4208 (2009).
  6. R. Seifert, The Switch Book, 1st ed, New York, NY, USA: Wiley, pp. 385–472..
  7. N. Kim, H. Lim, M. Kang, "Fair bandwidth allocation using effective multicast traffic share in TDM-PONs," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 756-767 (2008).
  8. N. Kim, H. Lim, H. S. Park, M. Kang, "Detection of multicast video flooding attack using the pattern of bandwidth provisioning efficiency," IEEE. Commun. Lett. 14, 1170-1172 (2010).
  9. Internet Group Management Protocol Version , IETF RFC 1112, RFC 2236, 1989/1998..
  10. C. H. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, and G. Wu, “Controllable multicast for IPTV over EPON, Frontiers Optoelectron. China, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 222–228, Jun. 2009..
  11. “Global Internet Phenomena Report Fall 2011,” SANDVINE, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2011..
  12. M. L. Muellera and H. Asgharib, “Deep packet inspection and bandwidth management: Battles over BitTorrent in Canada and the United States, Telecommun. Policy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 162–475, Jul. 2012..
  13. Y. Luo, S. Yin, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Resource management for broadband access over time-division multiplexed passive optical networks," IEEE Netw. 21, 20-37 (2007 ).
  14. ‘RTP Payload Format for MPEG1/MPEG2 Video, RFC 2250, Jan. 1998..
  15. P. Choudhury, P. Saengudomlert, "Efficient queue based dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for ethernet PONs ," Proc. IEEE Global Tellecommun. Conf. (2007) pp. 2183-2187.
  16. C. Dovrolis, D. Stiliadis, P. Ramanathan, " Proportional differentiated services: Delay differentiation and packet scheduling," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 12-26 (2002).
  17. W. Lin, C. Wu, C. Moh, "Efficient and fair hierarchical packet scheduling using dynamic deficit round robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 429 -442 (2004).
  18. C. Kim, T. Yoo, C. Y. Kwon, and B. Kim, “Design and implementation of an EPON master bridge function in an ASIC,” in Proc. Comput. Commun. , Jun. 2006, vol. 1, pp. 572–577..
  19. J. Y. Song, J. H. Kim, A. J. Kim, M. H. Lee, S. Y. Lim, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Yoon, “Method for checking multicast LLID transmission in ethernet passive optical network,” U.S. Patent 7 286 538..
  20. L. Valcarenghi and P. Castoldi, “Impact of unicast and multicast traffic on ONU energy savings,” in Proc. Transparent Opt. Netw., Jul. 2012, vol. 1, pp. 1–5..
  21. Broadband Optical Access Sytems Based on Passive Optical Networks, ITU-T Rec. G. 984.2, 2003..
  22. J. Wang, L. Sun, X. Jiang, Z. Wu, "IGMP snooping: A VLAN-based multicast protocol," Proc. IEEE Conf. High Speed Netw. Multimedia Commun. (2002) pp. 335-340.
  23. M. Zhu, J. Zou, R. Lin, "A novel implementation of VLAN-based multicast carried on LLID in EPON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Optoelectron. Expo. Conf. (2006) pp. 1 -4.
  24. A. Gerber, "Traffic types and growth in backbone networks ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (2011 ) pp. 1-3.
  25. A. Popescu, D. Kouvatsos, D. Remondo, and S. Giordano, “Content Distribution over IP: Developments and Challenges, in Network Performance Engineering (Lecture Note Commun. Syst.), vol. 5233. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2011, pp. 979–987..
  26. T. T. Do, K. A. Hua, M. A. Tantaoui, "P2VoD: Providing fault tolerant video-on-demand streaming in peer-to-peer environment," Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (2004) pp. 1467-1472.
  27. L. Gao, D. Towsley, "Threshold-Based multicast for continuous media delivery," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 3, 405-414 (2001).
  28. W. Shu, M.-Y. Wu, "Resource requirements of closed-loop video delivery services," IEEE Multimedia 11, 24-37 (2004).
  29. D. Gross and C. M. Harris, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, 3rd ed, New York, NY, USA: Wiley-Interscience, pp. 56–82.
  30. A. Banerjee, G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, "Fair sharing using dual service-level agreements to achieve open access in a passive optical network," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 24, 32-44 (2006).
  31. J. Bennett, H. Zhang, "WF2Q: Worst-case fair weighted fair queuing algorithms," Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Commun. (1996) pp. 120-128.
  32. P. Pahalawatta, R. Berry, T. Pappas, A. Katsaggelos, "Content-Aware resource allocation and packet scheduling for video transmission over wireless networks," IEEE J. Select. Commun. 25, 749-759 (2007).
  33. J. F. Shortle, M. J. Fisher, "Approximation for a two-class weighted fair queueing discipline," Perform. Eval. 67, 946 -958 (2010).
  34. Z. Dwekata, G. N. Rouskasb, "A practical fair queuing scheduler: Simplification through quantization ," Comput. Netw. 55, 2392-2406 (2011).
  35. A. J. Khan, A. Sahoo, and D. Manjunath, “Implementation of WFQ in a distributed open software router,” in Proc. Local Comput. Netw., Oct. 4–8, 2011, vol. 36, pp. 519–527..
  36. A. Ghodsi, V. Sekar, M. Zaharia, I. Stoica, "Multi-resource fair queueing for packet processing," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (2012) pp. 1-12.
  37. L. Yuheng, Z. Yiping, Y. Ruixi, "Measurement and analysis of a large scale commercial mobile internet TV system," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (2011) pp. 209-224.

2011 (1)

Z. Dwekata, G. N. Rouskasb, "A practical fair queuing scheduler: Simplification through quantization ," Comput. Netw. 55, 2392-2406 (2011).

2010 (2)

J. F. Shortle, M. J. Fisher, "Approximation for a two-class weighted fair queueing discipline," Perform. Eval. 67, 946 -958 (2010).

N. Kim, H. Lim, H. S. Park, M. Kang, "Detection of multicast video flooding attack using the pattern of bandwidth provisioning efficiency," IEEE. Commun. Lett. 14, 1170-1172 (2010).

2009 (1)

N. Kim, H. Lim, H. S. Park, M. Kang, "Traffic load distribution-based excess bandwidth allocation in time-division-multiplexed PONs," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4198-4208 (2009).

2008 (1)

N. Kim, H. Lim, M. Kang, "Fair bandwidth allocation using effective multicast traffic share in TDM-PONs," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 756-767 (2008).

2007 (2)

Y. Luo, S. Yin, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Resource management for broadband access over time-division multiplexed passive optical networks," IEEE Netw. 21, 20-37 (2007 ).

2007 (2)

A. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).

P. Pahalawatta, R. Berry, T. Pappas, A. Katsaggelos, "Content-Aware resource allocation and packet scheduling for video transmission over wireless networks," IEEE J. Select. Commun. 25, 749-759 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Banerjee, G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, "Fair sharing using dual service-level agreements to achieve open access in a passive optical network," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 24, 32-44 (2006).

2004 (2)

W. Shu, M.-Y. Wu, "Resource requirements of closed-loop video delivery services," IEEE Multimedia 11, 24-37 (2004).

W. Lin, C. Wu, C. Moh, "Efficient and fair hierarchical packet scheduling using dynamic deficit round robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 429 -442 (2004).

2002 (1)

C. Dovrolis, D. Stiliadis, P. Ramanathan, " Proportional differentiated services: Delay differentiation and packet scheduling," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 12-26 (2002).

2001 (1)

L. Gao, D. Towsley, "Threshold-Based multicast for continuous media delivery," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 3, 405-414 (2001).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

C. Dovrolis, D. Stiliadis, P. Ramanathan, " Proportional differentiated services: Delay differentiation and packet scheduling," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 12-26 (2002).

Comput. Netw. (1)

Z. Dwekata, G. N. Rouskasb, "A practical fair queuing scheduler: Simplification through quantization ," Comput. Netw. 55, 2392-2406 (2011).

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

A. Banerjee, G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, "Fair sharing using dual service-level agreements to achieve open access in a passive optical network," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 24, 32-44 (2006).

IEEE J. Select. Commun. (1)

P. Pahalawatta, R. Berry, T. Pappas, A. Katsaggelos, "Content-Aware resource allocation and packet scheduling for video transmission over wireless networks," IEEE J. Select. Commun. 25, 749-759 (2007).

IEEE Multimedia (1)

W. Shu, M.-Y. Wu, "Resource requirements of closed-loop video delivery services," IEEE Multimedia 11, 24-37 (2004).

IEEE Netw. (1)

Y. Luo, S. Yin, N. Ansari, T. Wang, "Resource management for broadband access over time-division multiplexed passive optical networks," IEEE Netw. 21, 20-37 (2007 ).

IEEE Trans. Multimedia (1)

L. Gao, D. Towsley, "Threshold-Based multicast for continuous media delivery," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 3, 405-414 (2001).

IEEE. Commun. Lett. (1)

N. Kim, H. Lim, H. S. Park, M. Kang, "Detection of multicast video flooding attack using the pattern of bandwidth provisioning efficiency," IEEE. Commun. Lett. 14, 1170-1172 (2010).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

W. Lin, C. Wu, C. Moh, "Efficient and fair hierarchical packet scheduling using dynamic deficit round robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 429 -442 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).

N. Kim, H. Lim, M. Kang, "Fair bandwidth allocation using effective multicast traffic share in TDM-PONs," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 756-767 (2008).

N. Kim, H. Lim, H. S. Park, M. Kang, "Traffic load distribution-based excess bandwidth allocation in time-division-multiplexed PONs," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4198-4208 (2009).

Perform. Eval. (1)

J. F. Shortle, M. J. Fisher, "Approximation for a two-class weighted fair queueing discipline," Perform. Eval. 67, 946 -958 (2010).

Other (24)

J. Bennett, H. Zhang, "WF2Q: Worst-case fair weighted fair queuing algorithms," Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Commun. (1996) pp. 120-128.

A. J. Khan, A. Sahoo, and D. Manjunath, “Implementation of WFQ in a distributed open software router,” in Proc. Local Comput. Netw., Oct. 4–8, 2011, vol. 36, pp. 519–527..

A. Ghodsi, V. Sekar, M. Zaharia, I. Stoica, "Multi-resource fair queueing for packet processing," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (2012) pp. 1-12.

L. Yuheng, Z. Yiping, Y. Ruixi, "Measurement and analysis of a large scale commercial mobile internet TV system," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (2011) pp. 209-224.

R. Seifert, The Switch Book, 1st ed, New York, NY, USA: Wiley, pp. 385–472..

‘RTP Payload Format for MPEG1/MPEG2 Video, RFC 2250, Jan. 1998..

P. Choudhury, P. Saengudomlert, "Efficient queue based dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for ethernet PONs ," Proc. IEEE Global Tellecommun. Conf. (2007) pp. 2183-2187.

D. Gross and C. M. Harris, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, 3rd ed, New York, NY, USA: Wiley-Interscience, pp. 56–82.

S. Hussain, X. Fernando, "EPON: An extensive review for up-to-date dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes," Proc. IEEE Can. Conf. Electr. Comput. Eng. (2008) pp. 000511-000516.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

X. Bai, A. Shami, C. M. Assi, "Statistical bandwidth multiplexing in ethernet passive optical networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (2005) pp. 1920-1924.

Internet Group Management Protocol Version , IETF RFC 1112, RFC 2236, 1989/1998..

C. H. Zhang, D. Liu, L. Zhang, and G. Wu, “Controllable multicast for IPTV over EPON, Frontiers Optoelectron. China, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 222–228, Jun. 2009..

“Global Internet Phenomena Report Fall 2011,” SANDVINE, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2011..

M. L. Muellera and H. Asgharib, “Deep packet inspection and bandwidth management: Battles over BitTorrent in Canada and the United States, Telecommun. Policy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 162–475, Jul. 2012..

C. Kim, T. Yoo, C. Y. Kwon, and B. Kim, “Design and implementation of an EPON master bridge function in an ASIC,” in Proc. Comput. Commun. , Jun. 2006, vol. 1, pp. 572–577..

J. Y. Song, J. H. Kim, A. J. Kim, M. H. Lee, S. Y. Lim, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Yoon, “Method for checking multicast LLID transmission in ethernet passive optical network,” U.S. Patent 7 286 538..

L. Valcarenghi and P. Castoldi, “Impact of unicast and multicast traffic on ONU energy savings,” in Proc. Transparent Opt. Netw., Jul. 2012, vol. 1, pp. 1–5..

Broadband Optical Access Sytems Based on Passive Optical Networks, ITU-T Rec. G. 984.2, 2003..

J. Wang, L. Sun, X. Jiang, Z. Wu, "IGMP snooping: A VLAN-based multicast protocol," Proc. IEEE Conf. High Speed Netw. Multimedia Commun. (2002) pp. 335-340.

M. Zhu, J. Zou, R. Lin, "A novel implementation of VLAN-based multicast carried on LLID in EPON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Optoelectron. Expo. Conf. (2006) pp. 1 -4.

A. Gerber, "Traffic types and growth in backbone networks ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (2011 ) pp. 1-3.

A. Popescu, D. Kouvatsos, D. Remondo, and S. Giordano, “Content Distribution over IP: Developments and Challenges, in Network Performance Engineering (Lecture Note Commun. Syst.), vol. 5233. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2011, pp. 979–987..

T. T. Do, K. A. Hua, M. A. Tantaoui, "P2VoD: Providing fault tolerant video-on-demand streaming in peer-to-peer environment," Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (2004) pp. 1467-1472.

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