Abstract

We provide for the first time the detailed study of the radiation performance of an optical leaky wave antenna (OLWA) integrated into a Fabry–Pérot resonator. We show that the radiation pattern can be expressed as the one generated by the interference of two leaky waves counter-propagating in the resonator leading to a design procedure for achieving optimized broadside radiation, i.e., normal to the waveguide axis. We thus report a realizable implementation of the OLWA made of semiconductor and dielectric regions. The theoretical modeling is supported by full-wave simulation results, which are found to be in good agreement. We aim to control the radiation intensity in the broadside direction via excess carrier generation in the semiconductor regions. We show that the presence of the resonator can provide an effective way of enhancing the radiation level modulation, which reaches values as high as 13.5 dB, paving the way for novel promising radiation control capabilities that might allow the generation of very fast optical switches, as an example.

© 2014 IEEE

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  3. T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, "Guided complex waves. I. Fields at an interface," Proc. IEE 110, 310-324324 ( 1963).
  4. T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, "Guided complex waves. II. Relation to radiation patterns," Proc. IEE 110, 325-334334 ( 1963).
  5. P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, D. R. Wilton, Applications of Metamaterials (CRC Press , 2009) pp. 19.
  6. D. R. Jackson, A. A. Oliner, Modern Antenna Handbook (Wiley, 2008) pp. 325-367.
  7. D. R. Jackson, P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, J. Chen, D. R. Wilton, A. A. Oliner, "The fundamental physics of directive beaming at microwave and optical frequencies and the role of leaky waves," Proc. IEEE 99, 1780-1805 (2011 ).
  8. D. R. Jackson, C. Caloz, T. Itoh, "Leaky-wave antennas," Proc. IEEE 100, 2194-2206 (2012).
  9. Q. Song, S. Campione, O. Boyraz, F. Capolino, "Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation ," Opt. Exp. 19, 8735-8749 (2011).
  10. Q. Song, F. Qian, E. K. Tien, I. Tomov, J. Meyer, X. Z. Sang, O. Boyraz, "Imaging by silicon on insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).
  11. C. K. Toth, "R&D of mobile LIDAR mapping and future trends," ASPRS Annu. Conf. presented at theBaltimore MDUSA (2009).
  12. P. Baccarelli, P. Burghignoli, F. Frezza, A. Galli, P. Lampariello, G. Lovat, S. Paulotto, "Effects of leaky-wave propagation in metamaterial grounded slabs excited by a dipole source," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 53, 32-44 (2005).
  13. K. C. Gupta, "Narrow-beam antennas using an artificial dielectric medium with permittivity less than unity," Electron. Lett. 7, 16-18 (1971).
  14. I. Bahl, K. Gupta, " A leaky-wave antenna using an artificial dielectric medium," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-22, 119-122 (1974).
  15. S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, "A metamaterial for directive emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, (2002).
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  28. S. Akiyama, F. J. Grawert, J. Liu, K. Wada, G. K. Celler, L. C. Kimerling, F. X. Kaertner, "Fabrication of highly reflecting epitaxy-ready Si-SiO2 Bragg reflectors ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1456-1458 (2005).
  29. O. Boyraz, X. Sang, E. Tien, Q. Song, F. Qian, M. Akdas, "Silicon based optical pulse shaping and characterization ," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120U-1-72120U-13 (2009).
  30. S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra high bandwidth WDM using silicon microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 16858-16867 (2010).

2012 (2)

D. R. Jackson, C. Caloz, T. Itoh, "Leaky-wave antennas," Proc. IEEE 100, 2194-2206 (2012).

S. Campione, C. Guclu, Q. Song, O. Boyraz, F. Capolino, "An optical leaky wave antenna with Si perturbations inside a resonator for enhanced optical control of the radiation ," Opt. Exp. 20, 21305-21317 (2012).

2011 (3)

Q. Song, S. Campione, O. Boyraz, F. Capolino, "Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation ," Opt. Exp. 19, 8735-8749 (2011).

2011 (3)

D. R. Jackson, P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, J. Chen, D. R. Wilton, A. A. Oliner, "The fundamental physics of directive beaming at microwave and optical frequencies and the role of leaky waves," Proc. IEEE 99, 1780-1805 (2011 ).

2011 (3)

S. Campione, S. Steshenko, F. Capolino, "Complex bound and leaky modes in chains of plasmonic nanospheres," Opt. Exp. 19, 18345-18363 (2011).

A. L. Fructos, S. Campione, F. Capolino, F. Mesa, "Characterization of complex plasmonic modes in two-dimensional periodic arrays of metal nanospheres," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 1446-1458 (2011).

2010 (2)

X. Liu, A. Alu, " Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles ," Phys. Rev. B 82, 144305-1-144305-12 (2010).

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra high bandwidth WDM using silicon microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 16858-16867 (2010).

2009 (2)

O. Boyraz, X. Sang, E. Tien, Q. Song, F. Qian, M. Akdas, "Silicon based optical pulse shaping and characterization ," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120U-1-72120U-13 (2009).

Q. Song, F. Qian, E. K. Tien, I. Tomov, J. Meyer, X. Z. Sang, O. Boyraz, "Imaging by silicon on insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).

2008 (3)

P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, D. R. Wilton, "Modal propagation and excitation on a wire-medium slab," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 1112-1124 (2008).

P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, D. R. Wilton, "Directive leaky-wave radiation from a dipole source in a wire-medium slab," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1329-1339 (2008).

D. R. Jackson, J. Chen, R. Qiang, F. Capolino, A. A. Oliner, "The role of leaky plasmon waves in the directive beaming of light through a subwavelength aperture," Opt. Exp. 16, 21271-21281 (2008).

2005 (2)

S. Akiyama, F. J. Grawert, J. Liu, K. Wada, G. K. Celler, L. C. Kimerling, F. X. Kaertner, "Fabrication of highly reflecting epitaxy-ready Si-SiO2 Bragg reflectors ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1456-1458 (2005).

P. Baccarelli, P. Burghignoli, F. Frezza, A. Galli, P. Lampariello, G. Lovat, S. Paulotto, "Effects of leaky-wave propagation in metamaterial grounded slabs excited by a dipole source," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 53, 32-44 (2005).

2002 (2)

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, "A metamaterial for directive emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, (2002).

T. Akalin, J. Danglot, O. Vanbesien, D. Lippens, "A highly directive dipole antenna embedded in a fabry-Perot type cavity ," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 48-50 (2002).

1995 (1)

H. Ostner, J. Detlefsen, D. R. Jackson, "Radiation from one-dimensional dielectric leaky-wave antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43 , 331-339 (1995).

1993 (1)

D. R. Jackson, A. A. Oliner, A. Ip, "Leaky-wave propagation and radiation for a narrow-beam multiple-layer dielectric structure," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 41, 344-348 (1993).

1988 (1)

D. R. Jackson, A. A. Oliner, "A leaky-wave analysis of the high-gain printed antenna configuration," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 905-910 (1988).

1987 (1)

H. Y. Yang, N. G. Alexopoulos, "Gain enhancement methods for printed-circuit antennas through multiple superstrates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-35, 860-863 (1987).

1974 (1)

I. Bahl, K. Gupta, " A leaky-wave antenna using an artificial dielectric medium," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-22, 119-122 (1974).

1971 (1)

K. C. Gupta, "Narrow-beam antennas using an artificial dielectric medium with permittivity less than unity," Electron. Lett. 7, 16-18 (1971).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. R. Jackson, A. A. Oliner, "A leaky-wave analysis of the high-gain printed antenna configuration," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 905-910 (1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Song, F. Qian, E. K. Tien, I. Tomov, J. Meyer, X. Z. Sang, O. Boyraz, "Imaging by silicon on insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. C. Gupta, "Narrow-beam antennas using an artificial dielectric medium with permittivity less than unity," Electron. Lett. 7, 16-18 (1971).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

T. Akalin, J. Danglot, O. Vanbesien, D. Lippens, "A highly directive dipole antenna embedded in a fabry-Perot type cavity ," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 48-50 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Akiyama, F. J. Grawert, J. Liu, K. Wada, G. K. Celler, L. C. Kimerling, F. X. Kaertner, "Fabrication of highly reflecting epitaxy-ready Si-SiO2 Bragg reflectors ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1456-1458 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (3)

H. Ostner, J. Detlefsen, D. R. Jackson, "Radiation from one-dimensional dielectric leaky-wave antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43 , 331-339 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

I. Bahl, K. Gupta, " A leaky-wave antenna using an artificial dielectric medium," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-22, 119-122 (1974).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (3)

H. Y. Yang, N. G. Alexopoulos, "Gain enhancement methods for printed-circuit antennas through multiple superstrates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-35, 860-863 (1987).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

D. R. Jackson, A. A. Oliner, A. Ip, "Leaky-wave propagation and radiation for a narrow-beam multiple-layer dielectric structure," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 41, 344-348 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (3)

P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, D. R. Wilton, "Directive leaky-wave radiation from a dipole source in a wire-medium slab," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1329-1339 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (2)

P. Baccarelli, P. Burghignoli, F. Frezza, A. Galli, P. Lampariello, G. Lovat, S. Paulotto, "Effects of leaky-wave propagation in metamaterial grounded slabs excited by a dipole source," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 53, 32-44 (2005).

P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, D. R. Wilton, "Modal propagation and excitation on a wire-medium slab," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56, 1112-1124 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

A. L. Fructos, S. Campione, F. Capolino, F. Mesa, "Characterization of complex plasmonic modes in two-dimensional periodic arrays of metal nanospheres," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 1446-1458 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (5)

S. Campione, C. Guclu, Q. Song, O. Boyraz, F. Capolino, "An optical leaky wave antenna with Si perturbations inside a resonator for enhanced optical control of the radiation ," Opt. Exp. 20, 21305-21317 (2012).

D. R. Jackson, J. Chen, R. Qiang, F. Capolino, A. A. Oliner, "The role of leaky plasmon waves in the directive beaming of light through a subwavelength aperture," Opt. Exp. 16, 21271-21281 (2008).

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra high bandwidth WDM using silicon microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 16858-16867 (2010).

S. Campione, S. Steshenko, F. Capolino, "Complex bound and leaky modes in chains of plasmonic nanospheres," Opt. Exp. 19, 18345-18363 (2011).

Q. Song, S. Campione, O. Boyraz, F. Capolino, "Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation ," Opt. Exp. 19, 8735-8749 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. Liu, A. Alu, " Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles ," Phys. Rev. B 82, 144305-1-144305-12 (2010).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, "A metamaterial for directive emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, (2002).

Proc. IEE (2)

T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, "Guided complex waves. I. Fields at an interface," Proc. IEE 110, 310-324324 ( 1963).

T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, "Guided complex waves. II. Relation to radiation patterns," Proc. IEE 110, 325-334334 ( 1963).

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. R. Jackson, P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, J. Chen, D. R. Wilton, A. A. Oliner, "The fundamental physics of directive beaming at microwave and optical frequencies and the role of leaky waves," Proc. IEEE 99, 1780-1805 (2011 ).

D. R. Jackson, C. Caloz, T. Itoh, "Leaky-wave antennas," Proc. IEEE 100, 2194-2206 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Boyraz, X. Sang, E. Tien, Q. Song, F. Qian, M. Akdas, "Silicon based optical pulse shaping and characterization ," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120U-1-72120U-13 (2009).

Other (4)

A. A. Oliner, Antenna Engineering Handbook ( McGraw Hill, 1993).

P. Burghignoli, G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, D. R. Wilton, Applications of Metamaterials (CRC Press , 2009) pp. 19.

D. R. Jackson, A. A. Oliner, Modern Antenna Handbook (Wiley, 2008) pp. 325-367.

C. K. Toth, "R&D of mobile LIDAR mapping and future trends," ASPRS Annu. Conf. presented at theBaltimore MDUSA (2009).

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