Abstract

We present a theoretical and experimental investigation on refractive index (RI) sensing characteristics of single mode fiber (SMF) based modal interferometers. Theoretical analysis reveals that interference between different modes in an SMF has a quite different response to the RI variation of the external medium. The interference between the core and lower order cladding modes has negative RI sensitivity whereas that between the core and higher order modes, or between two different order cladding modes have positive sensitivity. A single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) fiber Michelson interferometer with a large-core step-index multimode fiber (MMF) is employed for experimental verification. In the SMS-based Michelson interferometer, the MMF acts as a mode coupler to excite cladding modes in the SMF. The RI response of the SMS-based structures with two different lengths of MMF are respectively tested in sodium-chloride water solutions. Experimental results show excellent agreements with the theoretical analysis.

© 2014 IEEE

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2013 (3)

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, A. Kumar, P. Mikulic, "Temperature insensitive high-precision refractive-index sensor using two concatenated dual-resonance long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 38 , 1666-1668 (2013).

X. Zhang, W. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Pan, "Core–cladding mode recoupling based fiber optic refractive index sensor ," Opt. Commun. 294, 188-191 (2013).

Q. Rong, X. Qiao, Y. Du, D. Feng, R. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Sun, M. Hu, Z. Feng, "In-fiber quasi-Michelson interferometer with a core–cladding-mode fiber end-face mirror," Appl. Opt. 52, 1441-1447 (2013).

2012 (3)

L. Li, L. Xia, Z. Xie, D. Liu, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometers for sensing applications ," Opt. Exp. 20, 11109-11120 (2012).

Q. Rong, X. Qiao, R. Wang, H. Sun, M. Hu, Z. Feng, "High-sensitive fiber-optic refractometer based on a core-diameter-mismatch Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Sensors J. 12, 2501-2505 (2012).

2012 (3)

Y. Ma, X. Qiao, T. Guo, R. Wang, J. Zhag, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, M. Hu, Z. Feng, "Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a sandwich fiber structure for refractive index measurement," IEEE Sensors J 12, 2081-2085 (2012 ).

2012 (3)

F. Xua, D. Chen, B. Peng, J. Xu, G. Wu, "All fiber refractometer based on core mismatch structure," Laser Phys. 22 , 1577-1580 (2012).

2011 (3)

F. Pang, H. Liu, H. Guo, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, N. Chen, Z. Chen, T. Wang, "In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on double cladding fibers for refractive index sensor," IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2395-2400 (2011).

S. Silva, O. Frazao, J. Viegas, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, J. L. Santos, "Temperature and strain-independent curvature sensor based on a singlemode/multimode fiber optic structure," Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, H. Tsai, "High sensitivity of taper-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer embedded in a thinned optical fiber for refractive index sensing," Appl. Opt. 50, 5503-5507 (2011).

2010 (1)

T. Xia, A. Zhang, B. Gu, J. Zhu, "Fiber-optic refractive-index sensors based on transmissive and reflective thin-core fiber modal interferometers," Opt. Commun. 283, 2136-2139 (2010).

2009 (1)

E. Li, "Design and test of multimode interference based optical fiber temperature sensors," Proc. SPIE 7157, 71570F-1-71570F-9 (2009).

2008 (5)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, W. Yan, "Investigation on single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 512-519 (2008).

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, "High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch," Opt. Exp. 16, 11369-11375 (2008).

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, H-P. Loock, "Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387-1389 (2008).

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, K. C. Leong, "Miniature single-mode fiber refractive index interferometer sensor based on high order cladding mode and core-offset," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 359-361 (2008).

Z. Tian, S. S-H. Yam, H-P. Loock, "Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 1105-1107 (2008).

2005 ()

2004 (1)

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, E. G. Johnson, "Wavelength tunable fiber lens based on multimode interference," J. Lightw. Technol. 22 , 469-477 (2004).

2002 (1)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, H-P. Loock, "Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387-1389 (2008).

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, Y. F. Zhang, K. C. Leong, "Miniature single-mode fiber refractive index interferometer sensor based on high order cladding mode and core-offset," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 359-361 (2008).

IEEE Sensors J (1)

Y. Ma, X. Qiao, T. Guo, R. Wang, J. Zhag, Y. Weng, Q. Rong, M. Hu, Z. Feng, "Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a sandwich fiber structure for refractive index measurement," IEEE Sensors J 12, 2081-2085 (2012 ).

IEEE Sensors J. (2)

Q. Rong, X. Qiao, R. Wang, H. Sun, M. Hu, Z. Feng, "High-sensitive fiber-optic refractometer based on a core-diameter-mismatch Mach–Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Sensors J. 12, 2501-2505 (2012).

F. Pang, H. Liu, H. Guo, Y. Liu, X. Zeng, N. Chen, Z. Chen, T. Wang, "In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on double cladding fibers for refractive index sensor," IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2395-2400 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, W. Yan, "Investigation on single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 512-519 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, E. G. Johnson, "Wavelength tunable fiber lens based on multimode interference," J. Lightw. Technol. 22 , 469-477 (2004).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

Laser Phys. (1)

F. Xua, D. Chen, B. Peng, J. Xu, G. Wu, "All fiber refractometer based on core mismatch structure," Laser Phys. 22 , 1577-1580 (2012).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Silva, O. Frazao, J. Viegas, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araujo, F. X. Malcata, J. L. Santos, "Temperature and strain-independent curvature sensor based on a singlemode/multimode fiber optic structure," Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 085201 (2011).

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Zhang, W. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Pan, "Core–cladding mode recoupling based fiber optic refractive index sensor ," Opt. Commun. 294, 188-191 (2013).

T. Xia, A. Zhang, B. Gu, J. Zhu, "Fiber-optic refractive-index sensors based on transmissive and reflective thin-core fiber modal interferometers," Opt. Commun. 283, 2136-2139 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (2)

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, "High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch," Opt. Exp. 16, 11369-11375 (2008).

L. Li, L. Xia, Z. Xie, D. Liu, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometers for sensing applications ," Opt. Exp. 20, 11109-11120 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Z. Tian, S. S-H. Yam, H-P. Loock, "Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 1105-1107 (2008).

S. M. Tripathi, W. J. Bock, A. Kumar, P. Mikulic, "Temperature insensitive high-precision refractive-index sensor using two concatenated dual-resonance long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 38 , 1666-1668 (2013).

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Li, "Design and test of multimode interference based optical fiber temperature sensors," Proc. SPIE 7157, 71570F-1-71570F-9 (2009).

Other (2)

R. Soft. (2013). [Online]. Available. http://optics.synopsys.com/rsoft/.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

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