Abstract

We propose a hollow core Bragg fiber (HC-BF) with a heterostructured cladding based on the ternary 1-D photonic crystal (T-1DPC) in this paper. The distinguishing ternary unit cell of T-1DPC is formed from a polyetherimide (PEI) layer sandwiched by two As$_{2}$Se $_{3}$ layers of the same thickness. We demonstrate its capability for mid-infrared broadband and low-loss transmission by numerically simulating and analyzing the omnidirectional photonic bandgap (OPBG) and the modal loss characteristics. The results show that the T-1DPC-based heterostructured cladding can effectively broaden the OPBG, which is only due to the blue-shift of the lower bandgap edge wavelength. Compared with that for the binary-1DPC-based HC-BF, the transmission loss for the T-1DPC-based HC-BF can be reduced by three orders of magnitude over most of the OPBG range. The large loss contrast is essentially attributed to the enhancement of the multilayer reflection from the T-1DPC-based cladding. Most notably, for a T-1DPC-based cladding with three groups, the transmission band with loss lower than 0.01 dB/m for the HE$_{11}$ mode can cover almost the whole 3 to 5 μm range, with the exception of several loss peaks near the short-wavelength edge. Even with the cladding material absorption included, the transmission loss for the HE$_{11}$ mode in the T-1DPC-based HC-BF can be still lower than 0.1 dB/m over the whole OPBG range.

© 2014 IEEE

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  4. R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, "All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 18 , 345-348 (2012).
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  21. D. Lusk, I. Abdulhalim, F. Placido, "Omnidirectional reflection from Fibonacci quasi-periodic one-dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Commun. 198, 273-279 (2001).
  22. Y. H. Lu, M. D. Huang, S. Y. Park, P. J. Kim, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, C. K. Hwangbo, L. Y. Chen, "Fabrication and analysis of one-dimensional defect-induced ultrawide photonic band gaps," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103103 (2007).
  23. M. Miyagi, "Waveguide-loss evaluation in circular hollow waveguides and its ray-optical treatment," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 303-307 (1985).
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  26. K. S. Wu, J. W. Dong, H. Z. Wang, "Phase engineering of one-dimensional defective photonic crystal and applications," Appl. Phys. B 91 , 145-148 (2008).
  27. K. J. Rowland, S. Afshar, V. A. Stolyarov, Y. Fink, T. M. Monro, "Bragg waveguides with low-index liquid cores," Opt. Exp. 20, 48-62 (2011).
  28. K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Exp. 12, 1510 -1517 (2004).
  29. Y. Zhang, I. D. Robertson, "Single-mode terahertz Bragg fiber design using a modal filtering approach," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 1985-1992 (2010).
  30. O. Shapira, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Complete modal decomposition for optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143902 (2005).
  31. K. J. Rowland, S. Afshar V., T. M. Monro, "Bandgaps and antiresonances in integrated-ARROWs and Bragg fibers; a simple model," Opt. Exp. 16 , 17935-17951 (2008).
  32. G. Xu, W. Zhang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Loss characteristics of single-HE $_{11}$ -mode Bragg fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 359-366 (2007).

2013 (2)

J. Chang, C. Zhang, Z. Tao, Y. Ge, T. Wang, " Multiwavelength midinfrared difference frequency generation based on a uniform grating periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Eng. 52, 096107 (2013).

L. Shang, L. Zhang, " Enlargement of omnidirectional bandgap in a hollow core Bragg fiber with linearly-chirped multilayered cladding for mid-infrared multicomponent trace-gas detection," Opt. Commun. 301–302, 78-83 (2013).

2012 (2)

L. Shi, W. Zhang, J. Jin, Y. Huang, J. Peng, " Multi-wavelength transmission of hollow-core Bragg fiber with modified binary one-dimensional photonic crystal cladding ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1492 -1498 (2012).

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, "All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 18 , 345-348 (2012).

2011 (2)

H. Qu, M. Skorobogatiy, "Liquid-core low-refractive-index-contrast Bragg fiber sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201114 (2011).

K. J. Rowland, S. Afshar, V. A. Stolyarov, Y. Fink, T. M. Monro, "Bragg waveguides with low-index liquid cores," Opt. Exp. 20, 48-62 (2011).

2010 (4)

Y. Zhang, I. D. Robertson, "Single-mode terahertz Bragg fiber design using a modal filtering approach," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 1985-1992 (2010).

Y. Zhang, I. D. Robertson, "Analysis and design of Bragg fibers using a novel confinement loss diagram approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3197-3206 (2010).

D. J. J. Hu, G. Alagappan, Y. Yeo, P. P. Shum, P. Wu, "Broadband transmission in hollow-core Bragg fibers with geometrically distributed multilayered cladding," Opt. Exp. 18, 18671-18684 (2010).

S. Ghosh, R. K. Varshney, B. P. Pal, G. Monnom, "A Bragg-like chirped clad all-solid microstructured optical fiber with ultra-wide bandwidth for short pulse delivery and pulse reshaping," Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 1-14 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, "Chirped multilayer hollow waveguides with broadband transmission," Opt. Exp. 17, 3016-3024 (2009).

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 um in a fluoride fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 2015 -2017 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, G. Steinmeyer, "A chirped photonic-crystal fibre," Nature Photon. 2, 679-683 (2008).

K. S. Wu, J. W. Dong, H. Z. Wang, "Phase engineering of one-dimensional defective photonic crystal and applications," Appl. Phys. B 91 , 145-148 (2008).

K. J. Rowland, S. Afshar V., T. M. Monro, "Bandgaps and antiresonances in integrated-ARROWs and Bragg fibers; a simple model," Opt. Exp. 16 , 17935-17951 (2008).

2007 (2)

G. Xu, W. Zhang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Loss characteristics of single-HE $_{11}$ -mode Bragg fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 359-366 (2007).

Y. H. Lu, M. D. Huang, S. Y. Park, P. J. Kim, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, C. K. Hwangbo, L. Y. Chen, "Fabrication and analysis of one-dimensional defect-induced ultrawide photonic band gaps," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103103 (2007).

2006 (2)

S. K. Awasthi, U. Malaviya, S. P. Ojha, "Enhancement of omnidirectional total-reflection wavelength range by using one-dimensional ternary photonic bandgap material," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2566-2571 (2006).

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

2005 (1)

O. Shapira, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Complete modal decomposition for optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143902 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Exp. 12, 1510 -1517 (2004).

G. Vienne, Y. Xu, C. Jakobsen, H. Deyerl, J. B. Jensen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, Y. Huang, M. Terrel, R. K. Lee, N. A. Mortensen, J. Broeng, H. Simonsen, A. Bjarklev, A. Yariv, "Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports," Opt. Exp. 12, 3500-3508 (2004).

N. Croitoru, A. Inberg, M. Ben-David, I. Gannot, "Broad band and low loss mid-IR flexible hollow waveguides ," Opt. Exp. 12, 1341-1352 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers," Phy. Rev. E 67, 046608 (2003).

2002 (1)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, " Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO $_{2}$ laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. Lusk, I. Abdulhalim, F. Placido, "Omnidirectional reflection from Fibonacci quasi-periodic one-dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Commun. 198, 273-279 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. A. Harrington, "A review of IR transmitting hollow waveguides ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211 -227 (2000).

1985 (1)

M. Miyagi, "Waveguide-loss evaluation in circular hollow waveguides and its ray-optical treatment," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 303-307 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Qu, M. Skorobogatiy, "Liquid-core low-refractive-index-contrast Bragg fiber sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201114 (2011).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. S. Wu, J. W. Dong, H. Z. Wang, "Phase engineering of one-dimensional defective photonic crystal and applications," Appl. Phys. B 91 , 145-148 (2008).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

J. A. Harrington, "A review of IR transmitting hollow waveguides ," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211 -227 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, "Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1435-1444 ( 2011).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

Y. Zhang, I. D. Robertson, "Single-mode terahertz Bragg fiber design using a modal filtering approach," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 1985-1992 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. H. Lu, M. D. Huang, S. Y. Park, P. J. Kim, Y. P. Lee, J. Y. Rhee, C. K. Hwangbo, L. Y. Chen, "Fabrication and analysis of one-dimensional defect-induced ultrawide photonic band gaps," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103103 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Miyagi, "Waveguide-loss evaluation in circular hollow waveguides and its ray-optical treatment," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 303-307 (1985).

Y. Zhang, I. D. Robertson, "Analysis and design of Bragg fibers using a novel confinement loss diagram approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3197-3206 (2010).

G. Xu, W. Zhang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Loss characteristics of single-HE $_{11}$ -mode Bragg fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 359-366 (2007).

L. Shi, W. Zhang, J. Jin, Y. Huang, J. Peng, " Multi-wavelength transmission of hollow-core Bragg fiber with modified binary one-dimensional photonic crystal cladding ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1492 -1498 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

S. K. Awasthi, U. Malaviya, S. P. Ojha, "Enhancement of omnidirectional total-reflection wavelength range by using one-dimensional ternary photonic bandgap material," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2566-2571 (2006).

Nature (1)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, " Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO $_{2}$ laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).

Nature Photon. (1)

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, G. Steinmeyer, "A chirped photonic-crystal fibre," Nature Photon. 2, 679-683 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, "Chirped multilayer hollow waveguides with broadband transmission," Opt. Exp. 17, 3016-3024 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Shang, L. Zhang, " Enlargement of omnidirectional bandgap in a hollow core Bragg fiber with linearly-chirped multilayered cladding for mid-infrared multicomponent trace-gas detection," Opt. Commun. 301–302, 78-83 (2013).

D. Lusk, I. Abdulhalim, F. Placido, "Omnidirectional reflection from Fibonacci quasi-periodic one-dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Commun. 198, 273-279 (2001).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Chang, C. Zhang, Z. Tao, Y. Ge, T. Wang, " Multiwavelength midinfrared difference frequency generation based on a uniform grating periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Eng. 52, 096107 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (2)

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Opt. Exp. 14, 3929-3935 ( 2006).

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljačić, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Exp. 9, 748-779 (2001 ).

Opt. Exp. (6)

G. Vienne, Y. Xu, C. Jakobsen, H. Deyerl, J. B. Jensen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, Y. Huang, M. Terrel, R. K. Lee, N. A. Mortensen, J. Broeng, H. Simonsen, A. Bjarklev, A. Yariv, "Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports," Opt. Exp. 12, 3500-3508 (2004).

D. J. J. Hu, G. Alagappan, Y. Yeo, P. P. Shum, P. Wu, "Broadband transmission in hollow-core Bragg fibers with geometrically distributed multilayered cladding," Opt. Exp. 18, 18671-18684 (2010).

N. Croitoru, A. Inberg, M. Ben-David, I. Gannot, "Broad band and low loss mid-IR flexible hollow waveguides ," Opt. Exp. 12, 1341-1352 (2004).

K. J. Rowland, S. Afshar, V. A. Stolyarov, Y. Fink, T. M. Monro, "Bragg waveguides with low-index liquid cores," Opt. Exp. 20, 48-62 (2011).

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications," Opt. Exp. 12, 1510 -1517 (2004).

K. J. Rowland, S. Afshar V., T. M. Monro, "Bandgaps and antiresonances in integrated-ARROWs and Bragg fibers; a simple model," Opt. Exp. 16 , 17935-17951 (2008).

Opt. Fiber. Technol. (1)

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, J. S. Sanghera, "All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 18 , 345-348 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 um in a fluoride fiber," Opt. Lett. 34, 2015 -2017 (2009).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Ghosh, R. K. Varshney, B. P. Pal, G. Monnom, "A Bragg-like chirped clad all-solid microstructured optical fiber with ultra-wide bandwidth for short pulse delivery and pulse reshaping," Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 1-14 (2010).

Phy. Rev. E (1)

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljačić, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers," Phy. Rev. E 67, 046608 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

O. Shapira, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Complete modal decomposition for optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143902 (2005).

Science (1)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 ( 1998).

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