Abstract

Fibers with a longitudinal strain distribution can be used to shape the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain spectrum or to increase the SBS threshold power. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on the SBS gain spectrum of coiled fibers with a continuous and arbitrary distribution of longitudinal strain are presented. The concept of a critical gain factor for determining the SBS threshold power with a simple formula is reviewed for fibers with different parameters and spectral shapes. A fiber coiling machine for high coiling forces is described for realizing permanent strain distributions with a maximum strain of more than 3%. SBS spectra were broadened to a spectral width of 1.7 GHz. Measurements verify a significant SBS gain suppression by a factor of 40, which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis. Finally, synthetic triangular and broadened Lorentzian SBS spectral shapes with a spectral width of 550 MHz are demonstrated. The results can be used to suppress SBS in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers or to tailor almost any arbitrary SBS spectral shapes, which could be useful for slow-light or active optical filter applications.

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2013 (2)

L. Zhang, S. Cui, C. Liu, J. Zhou, Y. Feng, " 170 W, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly-polarized, Yb-doped all-fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 21, 5456-5462 (2013).

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Gruner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, "Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 234-237 (2013).

2012 (3)

A. Evert, A. James, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, P. Dragic, L. Dong, R. Rice, J. Ballato, "Longitudinally-graded optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 20, 17393-17401 (2012).

L. Zhang, J. Hu, J. Wang, Y. Feng, "Stimulated-Brillouin-scattering-suppressed high-power single-frequency polarization-maintaining Raman fiber amplifier with longitudinally varied strain for laser guide star ," Opt. Lett. 37, 4796-4798 (2012).

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, "Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016-1032 (2012).

2011 (1)

X. Bao, L. Chen, "Recent progress in Brillouin scattering based fiber sensors," Sensors 11, 4152-4187 (2011).

2010 (3)

L. Ursini, M. Santagiustina, L. Palmieri, "Polarization-dependent Brillouin gain in randomly birefringent fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 712-714 (2010).

P. D. Dragic, "The acoustic velocity of Ge-doped silica fibers: A comparison of two models," Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 330-337 (2010).

M. Takahashi, M. Tadakuma, T. Yagi, "Dispersion and brillouin managed HNLFs by strain control techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 59-64 (2010).

2009 (3)

E. Myslivets, C. Lundstrom, J. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C. S. Bres, N. Alic, P. Andrekson, S. Radic, "Spatial equalization of zero-dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1807-1809 (2009).

S. Gray, D. Walton, X. Chen, J. Wang, M.-J. Li, A. Liu, A. Ruffin, J. DeMeritt, L. Zenteno, "Optical fibers with tailored acoustic speed profiles for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in high-power, single-frequency sources," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 37-46 (2009).

M. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Gruner-Nielsen, K. Rottwitt, " Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation," Electron. Lett 45, 125-126 (2009).

2008 (3)

S. Radic, "Parametric amplification and processing in optical fibers ," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 498-513 (2008).

L. Thévenaz, "Slow and fast light in optical fibres ," Nature Photon. 2, 474-481 (2008).

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thévenaz, M. Tur, " Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 21692-21707 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. Schneider, R. Henker, K.-U. Lauterbach, M. Junker, "Adapting Brillouin spectrum for slow light delays ," Electron. Lett 43, 682-683 (2007).

M.-J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, L. A. Zenteno, "Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold ," Opt. Exp. 15, 8290-8299 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, " Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 1395-1400 (2006).

A. Kobyakov, S. Darmanyan, D. Chowdhury, "Exact analytical treatment of noise initiation of SBS in the presence of loss," Opt. Commun. 260, 46-49 (2006).

2005 (3)

J. M. Subias Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, E. Pellejer, "Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855-857 (2005).

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold ," Opt. Exp 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

K. Brown, A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, "Characterization of optical fibers for optimization of a Brillouin scattering based fiber optic sensor," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 131- 145 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. Marconi, J. Boggio, H. L. Fragnito, "Narrow linewidth fibre-optical wavelength converter with strain suppression of SBS," Electron. Lett 40, 1213-1214 (2004).

P. Weßels, P. Adel, M. Auerbach, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "Novel suppression scheme for Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 12, 4443-4448 (2004).

2003 (3)

H. Lee, G. Agrawal, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using fiber Bragg gratings ," Opt. Exp. 11, 3467-3472 (2003).

S. Radic, C. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar, C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).

S. Le Floch, P. Cambon, "Theoretical evaluation of the Brillouin threshold and the steady-state Brillouin equations in standard single-mode optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 20, 1132-1137 (2003).

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13 , 194-196 (2001).

2000 (1)

C. Lee, S. Chi, "Measurement of stimulated-Brillouin-scattering threshold for various types of fibers using brillouin optical-time-domain reflectometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12 , 672-674 (2000).

1997 (2)

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P. A. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1842-1851 (1997).

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, "Temperature and strain dependence of the power level and frequency of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 787-789 (1997).

1996 (1)

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 14 , 50-57 (1996).

1994 (2)

M. van Deventer, A. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers ," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).

F. Willems, W. Muys, J. S. Leong, "Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1476-1478 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. Fishman, J. Nagel, "Degradations due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1721-1728 (1993).

1992 (2)

Y. Takushima, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering using optical isolators ," Electron. Lett. 28, 1155-1157 (1992).

K. Byron, M. Bedgood, A. Finney, C. McGauran, S. Savory, I. Watson, "Shifts in zero dispersion wavelength due to pressure, temperature and strain in dispersion shifted singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 1712- 1714 (1992).

1990 (3)

T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, "Thermal effects on the Brillouin frequency shift in jacketed optical silica fibers ," Appl. Opt. 29, 2219-2222 (1990).

M. Tateda, T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, K. Ishihara, "First measurement of strain distribution along field-installed optical fibers using Brillouin spectroscopy," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1269-1272 (1990).

P. Bayvel, P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibres and implications for fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 26, 434-436 (1990).

1989 (3)

N. Shibata, K. Okamoto, Y. Azuma, "Longitudinal acoustic modes and Brillouin-gain spectra for GeO $_2$ -doped-core single-mode fibers ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 1167-1174 (1989).

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, "Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107-108 (1989).

D. Culverhouse, F. Farahi, C. Pannell, D. Jackson, "Potential of stimulated Brillouin scattering as sensing mechanism for distributed temperature sensors," Electron. Lett. 25, 913-915 (1989).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, R. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical-fibre characterisation," Electron. Lett. 22, 1011-1013 (1986).

1983 (1)

D. Cotter, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in monomode optical fiber ," J. Opt. Commun. 4, 10-19 (1983).

1980 (1)

1972 (2)

E. Ippen, R. Stolen, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539-541 (1972).

R. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972).

1964 (1)

F. Mallinder, B. Proctor, "Elastic constants of fused silica as a function of large tensile strain ," Phys. Chem. Glasses 5, 91-103 (1964).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Byron, M. Bedgood, A. Finney, C. McGauran, S. Savory, I. Watson, "Shifts in zero dispersion wavelength due to pressure, temperature and strain in dispersion shifted singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 1712- 1714 (1992).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. Weßels, P. Adel, M. Auerbach, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "Novel suppression scheme for Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 12, 4443-4448 (2004).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

K. Brown, A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, "Characterization of optical fibers for optimization of a Brillouin scattering based fiber optic sensor," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 131- 145 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, "Temperature and strain dependence of the power level and frequency of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 787-789 (1997).

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Ippen, R. Stolen, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539-541 (1972).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005 ).

Electron. Lett (1)

J. Marconi, J. Boggio, H. L. Fragnito, "Narrow linewidth fibre-optical wavelength converter with strain suppression of SBS," Electron. Lett 40, 1213-1214 (2004).

Electron. Lett (2)

M. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Gruner-Nielsen, K. Rottwitt, " Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation," Electron. Lett 45, 125-126 (2009).

T. Schneider, R. Henker, K.-U. Lauterbach, M. Junker, "Adapting Brillouin spectrum for slow light delays ," Electron. Lett 43, 682-683 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, R. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical-fibre characterisation," Electron. Lett. 22, 1011-1013 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (3)

D. Culverhouse, F. Farahi, C. Pannell, D. Jackson, "Potential of stimulated Brillouin scattering as sensing mechanism for distributed temperature sensors," Electron. Lett. 25, 913-915 (1989).

P. Bayvel, P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibres and implications for fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 26, 434-436 (1990).

Y. Takushima, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering using optical isolators ," Electron. Lett. 28, 1155-1157 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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