Abstract

A microfiber-enabled Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) constructed by splicing a section of microfiber between two cleaved standard single-mode fibers (SMFs) with unique relative fiber cross section relationship has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The opening air cavity between the two SMF ends connected by the microfiber serves as an FP cavity and also a direct sensing head. The sensing characteristics of the FPIs with different cavity lengths and microfiber diameters have been studied. A force sensitivity as high as 167.41 nm/N (∼200 pm/μϵ) and a high refractive index (RI) sensitivity of 1330.8 nm/RIU (around a RI of 1.33) have been achieved by using the microfiber-based FPI with ∼21 μm cavity length and ∼44 μm microfiber diameter. Such a device has several merits such as simple configuration, compactness and reliability in operation owing to the extremely low thermal cross-sensitivities.

© 2014 IEEE

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  6. C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, "A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement," Sensors Actuators B 168, 360-364 (2012).
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  10. R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3126-3132 (2012).
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  13. S. Pevec, D. Donlagic, "Nanowire-based refractive index sensor on the tip of an optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 213114-1-213114-4 (2013).
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  20. T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, S. Wang, S. Li, "Simultaneous temperature and force measurement using Fabry-Perot interferometer and bandgap effect of a fluid-filled photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 20, 13320-13325 (2012).
  21. F. C. Favero, L. Araujo, G. Bouwmans, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Spheroidal Fabry-Perot microcavities in optical fibers for high-sensitivity sensing," Opt. Exp. 20 , 7112-7118 (2012).
  22. Y. Rao, M. Deng, D. Duan, X. Yang, T. Zhu, G. Cheng, "Micro Fabry-Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 15, 14123-14128 (2007 ).
  23. T. Wei, Y. Han, H. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry-Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16 , 5764-5769 (2008).
  24. J. Kou, J. Feng, Q. Wang, F. Xu, Y. Lu, " Microfiber-probe-based ultrasmall interferometric sensor," Opt. Lett. 35, 2308-2310 (2010).
  25. J. Kou, J. Feng, L. Ye, F. Xu, Y. Lu, "Miniaturized fiber taper reflective interferometer for high temperature measurement," Opt. Exp. 18, 14245-14250 (2010).
  26. T. Wei, Y. Han, H. L. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Miniaturized fiber inline Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 536-538 (2008).
  27. C. R. Liao, T. Y. Hu, D. N. Wang, "Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and fusion splicing for refractive index sensing ," Opt. Exp. 20, 22813-22818 (2012).
  28. Y. Wang, D. N. Wang, C. R. Liao, T. Hu, J. Guo, H. Wei, "Temperature-insensitive refractive index sensing by use of micro Fabry-Perot cavity based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 38, 269-271 (2013).
  29. L. Zhang, J. Lou, L. Tong, "Micro/nanofiber optical sensors ," Photon. sensors 1, 31-42 (2011).
  30. C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, Y. Wang, "Microfiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for strain sensing," Opt. Lett. 38, 757-760 (2013).
  31. G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, G. Brambilla, "A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors ," The Open Opt. J. 7, 21-57 (2013).
  32. S. Gao, W. Zhang, P. Geng, X. Xue, H. Zhang, Z. Bai, "Highly sensitive in-fiber refractive index sensor based on down-bitaper seeded up-bitaper pair," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1878-1881 (2012).

2013 (8)

M. S. Yoon, H. J. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. G. Han, "Influence of the waist diameters on transmission characteristics and strain sensitivity of microtapered long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 38, 2669-2672 (2013).

S. Gao, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, P. Geng, W. Lin, B. Liu, Z. Bai, X. Xue, "Fiber modal interferometer with embedded fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous measurements of refractive index and temperature," Sensors Actuators B 188, 931-936 (2013).

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, Ying Wang, "Microfiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for strain sensing," Opt. Lett. 38, 757-759 (2013).

Y. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Li, "Single microchannel high-temperature fiber sensor by femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown," Opt. Lett. 38, 335-337 (2013).

S. Pevec, D. Donlagic, "Nanowire-based refractive index sensor on the tip of an optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 213114-1-213114-4 (2013).

Y. Wang, D. N. Wang, C. R. Liao, T. Hu, J. Guo, H. Wei, "Temperature-insensitive refractive index sensing by use of micro Fabry-Perot cavity based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 38, 269-271 (2013).

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, Y. Wang, "Microfiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for strain sensing," Opt. Lett. 38, 757-760 (2013).

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, G. Brambilla, "A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors ," The Open Opt. J. 7, 21-57 (2013).

2012 (10)

S. Gao, W. Zhang, P. Geng, X. Xue, H. Zhang, Z. Bai, "Highly sensitive in-fiber refractive index sensor based on down-bitaper seeded up-bitaper pair," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1878-1881 (2012).

T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, S. Wang, S. Li, "Simultaneous temperature and force measurement using Fabry-Perot interferometer and bandgap effect of a fluid-filled photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 20, 13320-13325 (2012).

F. C. Favero, L. Araujo, G. Bouwmans, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Spheroidal Fabry-Perot microcavities in optical fibers for high-sensitivity sensing," Opt. Exp. 20 , 7112-7118 (2012).

C. R. Liao, T. Y. Hu, D. N. Wang, "Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and fusion splicing for refractive index sensing ," Opt. Exp. 20, 22813-22818 (2012).

J. Zhang, Q. Sun, R. Liang, J. Wo, D. Liu, P. Shum, "Microfiber Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated by taper-drawing technique and its application as a radio frequency interrogated refractive index sensor ," Opt. Lett. 37, 2925-2927 (2012).

M. S. Ferreira, J. Bierlich, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, J. L. Santos, O. Frazao, "Towards the control of highly sensitive Fabry-Perot strain sensor based on hollow-core ring photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 20, 21946-21952 (2012).

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3126-3132 (2012).

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, "A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement," Sensors Actuators B 168, 360-364 (2012).

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, H. Y. Choi, "Interferometric fiber optic sensors," Sensors 12 , 2467-2486 (2012).

W. Luo, J. l. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y. Q. Lu, "Ultra-highly sensitive surface-corrugated microfiber Bragg grating force sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502-1-133502-4 (2012).

2011 (4)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer-analysis and experiment ," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937-7944 (2011).

M. S. Ferreira, J. M. Baptista, P. Roy, R. Jamier, S. Fevrier, O. Frazao, "Highly birefringent photonic bandgap Bragg fiber loop mirror for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Opt. Lett. 36, 993-995 (2011).

C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, K. K. Qureshi, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, " High-pressure and high-temperature characteristics of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on photonic crystal fiber ," Opt. Lett. 36, 412-414 (2011).

L. Zhang, J. Lou, L. Tong, "Micro/nanofiber optical sensors ," Photon. sensors 1, 31-42 (2011).

2010 (2)

J. Kou, J. Feng, Q. Wang, F. Xu, Y. Lu, " Microfiber-probe-based ultrasmall interferometric sensor," Opt. Lett. 35, 2308-2310 (2010).

J. Kou, J. Feng, L. Ye, F. Xu, Y. Lu, "Miniaturized fiber taper reflective interferometer for high temperature measurement," Opt. Exp. 18, 14245-14250 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Coviello, V. Pruneri, "Photonic-crystal-fiber enabled micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer ," Opt. Lett. 34, 2441-2443 (2009).

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, Y. B. Pavan Kumar, E. Marin, J. P. Meunier, "Strain and temperature sensing characteristics of single-mode-multimode-single-mode structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2348-2356 (2009).

2008 (2)

T. Wei, Y. Han, H. L. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Miniaturized fiber inline Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 536-538 (2008).

T. Wei, Y. Han, H. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry-Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16 , 5764-5769 (2008).

2007 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, "Quadrature phase-shifted, extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors ," Opt. Lett. 16, 274-275 (1991).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Pevec, D. Donlagic, "Nanowire-based refractive index sensor on the tip of an optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 213114-1-213114-4 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, Z. Wu, S. Wang, S. Li, "Simultaneous temperature and force measurement using Fabry-Perot interferometer and bandgap effect of a fluid-filled photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 20, 13320-13325 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Luo, J. l. Kou, Y. Chen, F. Xu, Y. Q. Lu, "Ultra-highly sensitive surface-corrugated microfiber Bragg grating force sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133502-1-133502-4 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Gao, W. Zhang, P. Geng, X. Xue, H. Zhang, Z. Bai, "Highly sensitive in-fiber refractive index sensor based on down-bitaper seeded up-bitaper pair," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1878-1881 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, Y. B. Pavan Kumar, E. Marin, J. P. Meunier, "Strain and temperature sensing characteristics of single-mode-multimode-single-mode structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2348-2356 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3126-3132 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (2)

M. S. Ferreira, J. M. Baptista, P. Roy, R. Jamier, S. Fevrier, O. Frazao, "Highly birefringent photonic bandgap Bragg fiber loop mirror for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Opt. Lett. 36, 993-995 (2011).

Y. Wang, D. N. Wang, C. R. Liao, T. Hu, J. Guo, H. Wei, "Temperature-insensitive refractive index sensing by use of micro Fabry-Perot cavity based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 38, 269-271 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (2)

J. Kou, J. Feng, L. Ye, F. Xu, Y. Lu, "Miniaturized fiber taper reflective interferometer for high temperature measurement," Opt. Exp. 18, 14245-14250 (2010).

M. S. Ferreira, J. Bierlich, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, J. L. Santos, O. Frazao, "Towards the control of highly sensitive Fabry-Perot strain sensor based on hollow-core ring photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 20, 21946-21952 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (5)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer-analysis and experiment ," Opt. Exp. 19, 7937-7944 (2011).

F. C. Favero, L. Araujo, G. Bouwmans, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Spheroidal Fabry-Perot microcavities in optical fibers for high-sensitivity sensing," Opt. Exp. 20 , 7112-7118 (2012).

Y. Rao, M. Deng, D. Duan, X. Yang, T. Zhu, G. Cheng, "Micro Fabry-Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 15, 14123-14128 (2007 ).

T. Wei, Y. Han, H. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry-Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16 , 5764-5769 (2008).

C. R. Liao, T. Y. Hu, D. N. Wang, "Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and fusion splicing for refractive index sensing ," Opt. Exp. 20, 22813-22818 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (12)

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, Y. Wang, "Microfiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for strain sensing," Opt. Lett. 38, 757-760 (2013).

J. Kou, J. Feng, Q. Wang, F. Xu, Y. Lu, " Microfiber-probe-based ultrasmall interferometric sensor," Opt. Lett. 35, 2308-2310 (2010).

T. Wei, Y. Han, H. L. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Miniaturized fiber inline Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 536-538 (2008).

M. S. Yoon, H. J. Kim, S. J. Kim, Y. G. Han, "Influence of the waist diameters on transmission characteristics and strain sensitivity of microtapered long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 38, 2669-2672 (2013).

C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, Ying Wang, "Microfiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for strain sensing," Opt. Lett. 38, 757-759 (2013).

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Coviello, V. Pruneri, "Photonic-crystal-fiber enabled micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer ," Opt. Lett. 34, 2441-2443 (2009).

Y. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Li, "Single microchannel high-temperature fiber sensor by femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown," Opt. Lett. 38, 335-337 (2013).

J. Zhang, Q. Sun, R. Liang, J. Wo, D. Liu, P. Shum, "Microfiber Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated by taper-drawing technique and its application as a radio frequency interrogated refractive index sensor ," Opt. Lett. 37, 2925-2927 (2012).

C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, K. K. Qureshi, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, " High-pressure and high-temperature characteristics of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on photonic crystal fiber ," Opt. Lett. 36, 412-414 (2011).

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, "Quadrature phase-shifted, extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors ," Opt. Lett. 16, 274-275 (1991).

J. S. Sirkis, D. D. Brennan, M. A. Putman, T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, "In-line fiber etalon for strain measurement," Opt. Lett. 18, 1973-1975 (1993).

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, X. C. Yang, D. W. Duan, "In-line fiber-optic etalon formed by hollow-core photonic crystal fiber ," Opt. Lett. 32, 2662-2664 (2007).

Photon. sensors (1)

L. Zhang, J. Lou, L. Tong, "Micro/nanofiber optical sensors ," Photon. sensors 1, 31-42 (2011).

Sensors Actuators B (1)

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, Y. Jin, J. Wang, "A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement," Sensors Actuators B 168, 360-364 (2012).

Sensors (1)

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, H. Y. Choi, "Interferometric fiber optic sensors," Sensors 12 , 2467-2486 (2012).

Sensors Actuators B (1)

S. Gao, W. Zhang, H. Zhang, P. Geng, W. Lin, B. Liu, Z. Bai, X. Xue, "Fiber modal interferometer with embedded fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous measurements of refractive index and temperature," Sensors Actuators B 188, 931-936 (2013).

The Open Opt. J. (1)

G. Y. Chen, M. Ding, T. P. Newson, G. Brambilla, "A review of microfiber and nanofiber based optical sensors ," The Open Opt. J. 7, 21-57 (2013).

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