Abstract

The direct patterning of hybrid-polymer microring resonators with minimal residual layers by UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography is reported. The proposed stamp-and-repeat technology requires no post-processing. The imprint polymer was applied by spin-coating as a 130–150 nm thin initial film for an optimized processing. The importance of the initial film thickness is discussed in detail. Aspect ratios of more than 5:1 were realized with 2 µm high ridge-waveguides and sub-400 nm coupling gaps on maximal 130 nm thin residual layers. The achieved ratio of structure height to residual layer thickness of 15.4 (2 µm versus 130 nm) was much larger than the typical values in high-resolution imprinting and superseded the removal of the residual layer completely. The resonators are thought as biosensor transducers. High quality devices with Q-factors up to 13 000 were produced with a minimal set of process steps.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. European Technology Platform Photonics21, “ Towards 2020—Photonics Driving Economic Growth in Europe (Multiannual Strategic Roadmap 2014-2020),” (2013). [Online]. Available: www.photonics21.org.
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  22. A. Finn, R. Hensel, F. Hagemann, R. Kirchner, A. Jahn, W.-J. Fischer, "Geometrical properties of multilayer nano-imprint-lithography molds for optical applications," Microelectron. Eng. 98, 284-287 (2012 ).
  23. A. Schleunitz and H. Schift, “Fabrication of 3D nanoimprint stamps with continuous reliefs using dose-modulated electron beam lithography and thermal reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 20, pp. 095002-1–095002-6, 2010..
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  26. M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, "Reactive ion etching of silica structures for integrated optics applications ," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 2994-3003 (1996).
  27. D. Nilsson, S. Jensen, A. Menon, "Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S57-S61 (2003).
  28. R. Kirchner, L. Teng, B. Lu, B. Adolphi, and W.-J. Fischer, “Degradation of perfluorotrichlorosilane antisticking layers: The impact on mold cleaning, UV-Nanoimprinting, and bonded UV-nanoimprint molds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, pp. 06GK13-1–06GK13-8, 2011..
  29. Micro Resist Technology GmbH, Processing Guidelines: OrmoCore, 2011..
  30. R. Kirchner, A. Finn, R. Landgraf, L. Nueske, M. Vogler, W.-J. Fischer, "UV-based nanoimprint lithography: Towards direct patterning of functional polymers," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25, 197-206 (2012).
  31. M. Otto, M. Bender, B. Hadam, B. Spangenberg, H. Kurz, " Characterization and application of a UV-based imprint technique," Microelectron. Eng. 57--58, 361-366 ( 2001).
  32. S. Reddy, R. T. Bonnecaze, "Simulation of fluid flow in the step and flash imprint lithography process ," Microelectron. Eng. 82, 60 -70 (2005).
  33. H. Schift, A. Kristensen, Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology (Springer-Verlag , 2007) pp. 239-278.
  34. M. Colburn, I. Suez, B. J. Choi, M. Meissl, T. Bailey, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. G. Ekerdt, C. G. Willson, "Characterization and modelling of volumetric and mechanical properties for step and flash imprint lithography polymers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2685-2689 (2001).

2012 (3)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. KumarSelvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Silicon microring resonators ," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47-73 (2012).

R. Kirchner, L. Nueske, A. Finn, B. Lu, W.-J. Fischer, "Stamp-and-repeat UV-imprinting of spin-coated films: Pre-exposure and imprint defects ," Microelectron. Eng. 97, 117 -121 (2012).

R. Kirchner, A. Finn, R. Landgraf, L. Nueske, M. Vogler, W.-J. Fischer, "UV-based nanoimprint lithography: Towards direct patterning of functional polymers," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25, 197-206 (2012).

2011 (2)

R. Kirchner, A. Finn, L. Teng, M. Ploetner, A. Jahn, L. Nueske, W.-J. Fischer, "UV-nanoimprinting using non-transparent molds and non-transparent substrates," Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2004-2008 (2011).

T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, L. J. Guo, "Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer micro-ring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector ," Opt. Exp. 19, 861-869 (2011).

2010 (3)

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buss, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, "Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal laser," J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 115025-1-115025-6 (2010).

Y. Ofir, I. W. Moran, C. Subramani, K. R. Carter, V. M. Rotello, "Nanoimprint lithography for functional three-dimensional patterns," Adv. Mater. 22, 3608-3614 (2010).

C. Peroz, S. Dhuey, M. Vogler, Y. Wu, D. Olynick, S. Cabrini, "Step and repeat UV nanoimprint lithography on pre-spin coated resist film: A promising route for fabricating nanodevices," Nanotechnology 21, 445301-1- 445301-5 (2010).

2007 (1)

H. S. Lee, D. S. Kim, T. H. Kwon, "UV nano embossing for polymer nano structures with non-transparent mold insert," Microsyst. Technol. 13, 593-599 (2007).

2006 (2)

D. Rezzonico, A. Guarino, C. Herzog, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, "High-finesse laterally coupled organic-inorganic hybrid polymer microring resonators for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 865-867 (2006).

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, "Polymer Microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. Reddy, R. T. Bonnecaze, "Simulation of fluid flow in the step and flash imprint lithography process ," Microelectron. Eng. 82, 60 -70 (2005).

2004 (2)

L. J. Guo, "Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R123-R141 (2004).

M. Colburn, B. J. Choi, S. Sreenivasan, R. T. Bonnecaze, C. G. Willson, "Ramifications of lubrication theory on imprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 75, 321-329 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Nilsson, S. Jensen, A. Menon, "Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S57-S61 (2003).

2001 (2)

H.-C. Scheer, H. Schulz, "A contribution to the flow behaviour of thin polymer films during hot embossing lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 56, 311-332 (2001).

M. Colburn, I. Suez, B. J. Choi, M. Meissl, T. Bailey, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. G. Ekerdt, C. G. Willson, "Characterization and modelling of volumetric and mechanical properties for step and flash imprint lithography polymers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2685-2689 (2001).

2000 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).

1996 (2)

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, J. van den Berg, "Mold-assisted nanolithography: A process for reliable pattern replication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124-4128 (1996).

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, "Reactive ion etching of silica structures for integrated optics applications ," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 2994-3003 (1996).

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Ofir, I. W. Moran, C. Subramani, K. R. Carter, V. M. Rotello, "Nanoimprint lithography for functional three-dimensional patterns," Adv. Mater. 22, 3608-3614 (2010).

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Material, processing, and devices," Adv. Mater. 14 , 1339-1365 (2002 ).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 ( 1995).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, "Polymer Microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).

D. Rezzonico, A. Guarino, C. Herzog, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, "High-finesse laterally coupled organic-inorganic hybrid polymer microring resonators for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 865-867 (2006).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buss, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, "Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal laser," J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 115025-1-115025-6 (2010).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

D. Nilsson, S. Jensen, A. Menon, "Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S57-S61 (2003).

J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Kirchner, A. Finn, R. Landgraf, L. Nueske, M. Vogler, W.-J. Fischer, "UV-based nanoimprint lithography: Towards direct patterning of functional polymers," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25, 197-206 (2012).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

L. J. Guo, "Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R123-R141 (2004).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Colburn, I. Suez, B. J. Choi, M. Meissl, T. Bailey, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. G. Ekerdt, C. G. Willson, "Characterization and modelling of volumetric and mechanical properties for step and flash imprint lithography polymers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2685-2689 (2001).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, "Reactive ion etching of silica structures for integrated optics applications ," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 2994-3003 (1996).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. Haisma, M. Verheijen, K. van den Heuvel, J. van den Berg, "Mold-assisted nanolithography: A process for reliable pattern replication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4124-4128 (1996).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. KumarSelvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Silicon microring resonators ," Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 47-73 (2012).

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

A. Finn, R. Hensel, F. Hagemann, R. Kirchner, A. Jahn, W.-J. Fischer, "Geometrical properties of multilayer nano-imprint-lithography molds for optical applications," Microelectron. Eng. 98, 284-287 (2012 ).

M. Otto, M. Bender, B. Hadam, B. Spangenberg, H. Kurz, " Characterization and application of a UV-based imprint technique," Microelectron. Eng. 57--58, 361-366 ( 2001).

Microelectron. Eng. (5)

S. Reddy, R. T. Bonnecaze, "Simulation of fluid flow in the step and flash imprint lithography process ," Microelectron. Eng. 82, 60 -70 (2005).

R. Kirchner, A. Finn, L. Teng, M. Ploetner, A. Jahn, L. Nueske, W.-J. Fischer, "UV-nanoimprinting using non-transparent molds and non-transparent substrates," Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2004-2008 (2011).

R. Kirchner, L. Nueske, A. Finn, B. Lu, W.-J. Fischer, "Stamp-and-repeat UV-imprinting of spin-coated films: Pre-exposure and imprint defects ," Microelectron. Eng. 97, 117 -121 (2012).

M. Colburn, B. J. Choi, S. Sreenivasan, R. T. Bonnecaze, C. G. Willson, "Ramifications of lubrication theory on imprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 75, 321-329 (2004).

H.-C. Scheer, H. Schulz, "A contribution to the flow behaviour of thin polymer films during hot embossing lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 56, 311-332 (2001).

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

H. S. Lee, D. S. Kim, T. H. Kwon, "UV nano embossing for polymer nano structures with non-transparent mold insert," Microsyst. Technol. 13, 593-599 (2007).

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Peroz, S. Dhuey, M. Vogler, Y. Wu, D. Olynick, S. Cabrini, "Step and repeat UV nanoimprint lithography on pre-spin coated resist film: A promising route for fabricating nanodevices," Nanotechnology 21, 445301-1- 445301-5 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, L. J. Guo, "Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer micro-ring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector ," Opt. Exp. 19, 861-869 (2011).

Other (10)

European Technology Platform Photonics21, “ Towards 2020—Photonics Driving Economic Growth in Europe (Multiannual Strategic Roadmap 2014-2020),” (2013). [Online]. Available: www.photonics21.org.

A. Schleunitz, C. Spreu, M. Vogler, H. Atasoy, and H. Schift, “Combining nanoimprint lithography and a molecular weight selective thermal reflow for the generation of mixed 3D structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 06FC01-1–06FC01-4, 2011..

N. Bogdanski, H. Schulz, M. Wissen, H.-C. Scheer, J. Zajadacz, and K. Zimmer, “3D-Hot embossing of undercut structures—An approach to micro-zippers,” Microelectron. Eng., vols. 73/74, pp. 190–195, 2004..

H. Schroeder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, W. Scheel, "Polymer optical interconnects for PCB," Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf. Polym. Adh. Microelectron. Photon. (2001) pp. 337-343.

A. Schleunitz and H. Schift, “Fabrication of 3D nanoimprint stamps with continuous reliefs using dose-modulated electron beam lithography and thermal reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 20, pp. 095002-1–095002-6, 2010..

M. Köfferlein. KLayout—High performance layout viewer and editor. (2013). [Online]. Available: http://www.klayout.de.

R. Landgraf, T. Haugwitz, R. Kirchner, A. Finn, W.-J. Fischer, "Planar optical waveguide design for UV-nanoimprinted microring resonator based biosensors ," Proc. IEEE Sens. (2011) pp. 596 -599.

H. Schift, A. Kristensen, Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology (Springer-Verlag , 2007) pp. 239-278.

R. Kirchner, L. Teng, B. Lu, B. Adolphi, and W.-J. Fischer, “Degradation of perfluorotrichlorosilane antisticking layers: The impact on mold cleaning, UV-Nanoimprinting, and bonded UV-nanoimprint molds,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, pp. 06GK13-1–06GK13-8, 2011..

Micro Resist Technology GmbH, Processing Guidelines: OrmoCore, 2011..

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