Abstract

This paper reports a hybrid integrated light source fabricated on a Si platform using a spot-size converter (SSC) with a trident Si waveguide. Low-loss coupling for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths was achieved with merely the simple planar form of a Si waveguide with no use of complicated structures such as vertical tapers or an extra dielectric core overlaid on the waveguide. The coupling loss tolerance up to a 1 dB loss increase was larger than the accuracy of our passive alignment technology. The coupling efficiency was quite robust against manufacturing variations in the waveguide width compared with that of a conventional SSC with an inverse taper waveguide. A multi-channel light source with highly uniform output power and a high-temperature light source were fabricated with a 1.55 μm quantum well laser and a 1.3 μm quantum dot laser, respectively. The integration scheme we report can be used to fabricate light sources for high-density, multi-channel Si optical interposers.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kem, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, P. L. D. Chang, "Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184 -191 (2010).
  2. Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate," Opt. Exp. 20, B256 -B263 (2012).
  3. S. Saito, T. Takahama, K. Tani, M. Takahashi, T. Mine, Y. Suwa, D. Hisamoto, "Stimulated emission of near-infrared radiation in silicon fin light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261104-1 -261104-3 (2011).
  4. J. Michel, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, B. Dutt, L. C. Kimerling, "An electrically pumped Ge-on-Si Laser," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition presented at theLos AngelesCA USA (2012) Paper PDP5 A.6.
  5. T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, A. Seeds, "1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates," Opt. Exp. 19, 11381-11386 (2011).
  6. M. N. Sysak, H. Park, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Paniccia, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of a hybrid silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 15 , 15041-15046 (2007).
  7. K. Tanabe, D. Guimard, D. Bordel, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, " Electrically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates by metal-mediated wafer bonding and layer transfer," Opt. Exp. 18, 10604-10608 ( 2010).
  8. T. Okumura, T. Maruyama, H. Yonezawa, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, " Injection-type GaInAsP–InP–Si distributed-feedback laser directly bonded on silicon-on-insulator substrate ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 283-285 (2009).
  9. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Exp. 14, 8154-8159 (2006).
  10. K. Ohira, K. Kobayashi, N. Iizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Ezaki, H. Uemura, A. Kojima, K. Nakamura, H. Furuyama, H. Shibata, "On-chip optical interconnection by using integrated III-V laser diode and photodetector with silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15440-15447 (2006).
  11. T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection," Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (2011) pp. 181-183 .
  12. N. Fujioka, T. Chu, M. Ishizaka, "Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3115-3120 (2010).
  13. T. Takeuchi, M. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Watanabe, H. Yamazaki, "Wavelength tunable laser with silica-waveguide ring resonators," IEICE Trans. Electron. E92-C, 198-204 (2009).
  14. Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, D. A. Ackerman, "Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389-2391 (1989).
  15. N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system," 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics presented at theSan DiegoCA USA (2012) Paper ThB2.
  16. N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "First demonstration of a hybrid integrated light source on a Si platform using a quantum dot laser under wide temperature range," IEEE Photonics Conf. presented at theSeattleWAUSA (2013) Paper PD2.
  17. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005 ).
  18. S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, T. Usuki, "12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode ," Opt. Exp. 20, 2911-2923 (2012).
  19. N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, T. Horikawa, "Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits ," Int. Conf. on Solid State Devices and Materials presented at theKyotoJapan (2012 ) Paper A-2–2.
  20. J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, M. Miura, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, Y. Arakawa, "45 GHz bandwidth of Si waveguide-integrated PIN Ge photodiode, and its zero-bias voltage operation," Int. Conf. on Solid State Devices and Materials presented at theKyotoJapan (2012) Paper A-7–3.
  21. Y. Urino, S. Akiyama, T. Akagawa, T. Baba, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, E. Saito, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, Y. Onawa, H. Yaegashi, H. Nishi, H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "Demonstration of 30-Tbps/cm $^{2}$ bandwidth density by silicon optical interposers fully integrated with optical components," 39th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication presented at theLondonU.K. (2013) Paper Mo.4.B.2.
  22. T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "High-density hybridly integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform," Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics presented at theColorado Springs COUSA (2012) Paper ITu4B.5.
  23. Assembly and Packaging, Table AP2, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2012. Available: http://www.itrs.net/Links/2012ITRS/2012Tables/AssemblyPkg_2012Tables.xlsx.
  24. Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, K. Takada, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, Y. Nakata, M. Yamaguchi, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, Y. Arakawa, "25 Gbps direct modulation in 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs high-density quantum dot lasers," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics presented at theSan JoseCAUSA (2010) Paper CTuZ1.

2012 (2)

Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate," Opt. Exp. 20, B256 -B263 (2012).

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, T. Usuki, "12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode ," Opt. Exp. 20, 2911-2923 (2012).

2011 (2)

S. Saito, T. Takahama, K. Tani, M. Takahashi, T. Mine, Y. Suwa, D. Hisamoto, "Stimulated emission of near-infrared radiation in silicon fin light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261104-1 -261104-3 (2011).

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, A. Seeds, "1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates," Opt. Exp. 19, 11381-11386 (2011).

2010 (2)

N. Fujioka, T. Chu, M. Ishizaka, "Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3115-3120 (2010).

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kem, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, P. L. D. Chang, "Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184 -191 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Takeuchi, M. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Watanabe, H. Yamazaki, "Wavelength tunable laser with silica-waveguide ring resonators," IEICE Trans. Electron. E92-C, 198-204 (2009).

T. Okumura, T. Maruyama, H. Yonezawa, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, " Injection-type GaInAsP–InP–Si distributed-feedback laser directly bonded on silicon-on-insulator substrate ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 283-285 (2009).

2007 (1)

M. N. Sysak, H. Park, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Paniccia, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of a hybrid silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 15 , 15041-15046 (2007).

2006 (2)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Exp. 14, 8154-8159 (2006).

K. Ohira, K. Kobayashi, N. Iizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Ezaki, H. Uemura, A. Kojima, K. Nakamura, H. Furuyama, H. Shibata, "On-chip optical interconnection by using integrated III-V laser diode and photodetector with silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15440-15447 (2006).

1989 (1)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, D. A. Ackerman, "Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389-2391 (1989).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

N. Fujioka, T. Chu, M. Ishizaka, "Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3115-3120 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, D. A. Ackerman, "Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389-2391 (1989).

S. Saito, T. Takahama, K. Tani, M. Takahashi, T. Mine, Y. Suwa, D. Hisamoto, "Stimulated emission of near-infrared radiation in silicon fin light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261104-1 -261104-3 (2011).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

I. A. Young, E. M. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kem, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, P. L. D. Chang, "Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 184 -191 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005 ).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Okumura, T. Maruyama, H. Yonezawa, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, " Injection-type GaInAsP–InP–Si distributed-feedback laser directly bonded on silicon-on-insulator substrate ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 283-285 (2009).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. Takeuchi, M. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Watanabe, H. Yamazaki, "Wavelength tunable laser with silica-waveguide ring resonators," IEICE Trans. Electron. E92-C, 198-204 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, A. Seeds, "1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates," Opt. Exp. 19, 11381-11386 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (6)

M. N. Sysak, H. Park, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Paniccia, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of a hybrid silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 15 , 15041-15046 (2007).

K. Tanabe, D. Guimard, D. Bordel, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, " Electrically pumped 1.3 μm room-temperature InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates by metal-mediated wafer bonding and layer transfer," Opt. Exp. 18, 10604-10608 ( 2010).

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Exp. 14, 8154-8159 (2006).

K. Ohira, K. Kobayashi, N. Iizuka, H. Yoshida, M. Ezaki, H. Uemura, A. Kojima, K. Nakamura, H. Furuyama, H. Shibata, "On-chip optical interconnection by using integrated III-V laser diode and photodetector with silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15440-15447 (2006).

Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate," Opt. Exp. 20, B256 -B263 (2012).

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, T. Usuki, "12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm VπL using silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode ," Opt. Exp. 20, 2911-2923 (2012).

Other (10)

N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Yamagishi, T. Horikawa, "Low-loss Si waveguides with variable-shaped-beam EB lithography for large-scaled photonic circuits ," Int. Conf. on Solid State Devices and Materials presented at theKyotoJapan (2012 ) Paper A-2–2.

J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, M. Miura, D. Okamoto, T. Horikawa, Y. Arakawa, "45 GHz bandwidth of Si waveguide-integrated PIN Ge photodiode, and its zero-bias voltage operation," Int. Conf. on Solid State Devices and Materials presented at theKyotoJapan (2012) Paper A-7–3.

Y. Urino, S. Akiyama, T. Akagawa, T. Baba, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, E. Saito, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, Y. Onawa, H. Yaegashi, H. Nishi, H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "Demonstration of 30-Tbps/cm $^{2}$ bandwidth density by silicon optical interposers fully integrated with optical components," 39th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication presented at theLondonU.K. (2013) Paper Mo.4.B.2.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, Y. Urino, T. Yamamoto, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "High-density hybridly integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform," Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics presented at theColorado Springs COUSA (2012) Paper ITu4B.5.

Assembly and Packaging, Table AP2, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2012. Available: http://www.itrs.net/Links/2012ITRS/2012Tables/AssemblyPkg_2012Tables.xlsx.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, K. Takada, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, Y. Nakata, M. Yamaguchi, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, Y. Arakawa, "25 Gbps direct modulation in 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs high-density quantum dot lasers," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics presented at theSan JoseCAUSA (2010) Paper CTuZ1.

J. Michel, R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, B. Dutt, L. C. Kimerling, "An electrically pumped Ge-on-Si Laser," Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition presented at theLos AngelesCA USA (2012) Paper PDP5 A.6.

T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "High density hybrid integrated light source with a laser diode array on a silicon optical waveguide platform for inter-chip optical interconnection," Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics (2011) pp. 181-183 .

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "A novel spot size convertor for hybrid integrated light sources on photonics-electronics convergence system," 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics presented at theSan DiegoCA USA (2012) Paper ThB2.

N. Hatori, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, Y. Urino, M. Mori, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "First demonstration of a hybrid integrated light source on a Si platform using a quantum dot laser under wide temperature range," IEEE Photonics Conf. presented at theSeattleWAUSA (2013) Paper PD2.

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