Abstract

In the hybrid optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) architectures using different types of optical encoder/decoder (E/Ds) between an optical line terminal and optical network units, a hybrid 40G-OCDMA-PON with a single multi-port and super-structured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) E/Ds is studied as a candidate system beyond next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2). In this paper, we have developed uniformed and sampled SSFBG E/Ds with different refractive index profiles and have compared their code performances in a hybrid 40G-OCDMA-PON system. The experimental results show that the sampled profile improves the code dependent performances presented in many OCDMA systems. We have also demonstrated a full-duplex 4-user $\times$ 40 Gb/s hybrid OCDMA-PON system by applying the sampled SSFBG E/Ds. An asynchronous full-duplex 50 km transmission with a total capacity of 160 Gb/s (4-user $\times$ 40 Gb/s) has been achieved for the first time. Furthermore, we focus on major requirements in NG-PON2 and discuss several issues to introduce the hybrid 40G-OCDMA-PON for optical access networks.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. Physical Layer Specifications and Management Parameters for 10 Gb/s Passive Optical Networks, IEEE Std. 802.3av-2009..
  2. 10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON) systems, ITU-T Recommendation G987..
  3. P. Chanclou, A. Cui, F. Geihardt, H. Nakamura, D. Nesset, " Network operator requirements for the next generation of optical access networks," IEEE Netw. 26, 8-14 (2012).
  4. Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenbeger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, Y. Ma, "Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2)," J. Lightw. Technol. 31 , 587-593 (2013).
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  6. T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Noise suppression using optimum filtering of OCs generated by a multiport encoder/decoder ," Opt. Exp. 20, 10320-10329 (2012).
  7. T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, K. Kitayama, "Asynchronous OCDM-based 10 G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 3258-3266 (2013 ).
  8. P. Prucnal, Optical Code Divison Muliple Access (CRC Press, 2005).
  9. K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).
  10. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part I: Modeling and design ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).
  11. N. Kataoka, G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Demonstration of asynchronous, 40 Gbps  $\times$  4-user DPSK-OCDMA transmission using a multi-port encoder/decoder," Opt. Exp. 19, 965-970 (2011).
  12. N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, K. Kitayama, "Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps  $\times$  8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16  $\times$  16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 299- 305 (2009).
  13. S. Yoshima, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Suzuki, M. Noda, M. Nogami, J. Nakagawa, K. Kitayama, "10 Gb/s-based PON over OCDMA uplink burst transmission using SSFBG encoder/multi-port decoder and burst-mode receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 365-371 (2010 ).
  14. P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Demonstration of a four-channel WDM/OCDMA systme using 255-chip 320-Gchip/s quaternary phase coding gratings," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 227-229 (2002).
  15. G. Manzacca, A. Maria, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, K. Kitayama, "Performance analysis of a multiport encoder/decoder in OCDMA senario," J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 13 , 1415-1421 (2007).
  16. K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1263-1274 (1997).
  17. N. Kataoka, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, Y. Terada, and K. Kitayama, “8  $\times$  8 full-duplex demonstration of asynchronous, 10 Gbps, DPSK-OCDMA system using apodized SSFBG and multi-port en/decoder,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2009, paper no. 655, pp. 1–2. .
  18. Y. Nasu, S. Yamashita, "Densification of sampled fiber Bragg gratings using multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technique ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1808-1817 (2005).
  19. M . Lima, A. Teixeria, and J. Rocha, “Optimization of apodized fiber grating filters for WDM systems,” in Proc. 12th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., Nov. 1999, pp. 876–877, Paper Thz2..
  20. S. Ugale, V. Mishra, "Fiber Bragg grating modeling, characterization and optimization with different index profiles ," J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2, 4463-4468 (2010).
  21. S. Yoshima, Y. Tanaka, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, J. Nakagawa, K. Kitayama, "Full-duplex, extended-reach 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON system without En/decoder at ONU," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 43-49 (2013).
  22. N. Kataoka, G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps  $\times$  8-wavelength  $\times$  4-OC  $\times$  2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2011, pp. 1–3, Paper Th.13.B.6. .
  23. E. Wong, "Next-generation broadband access networks and technologies ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 597-608 (2012).
  24. T. Kodama, Y. Tanaka, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, J. Nakagawa, S. Shimizu, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Scaling the system capacity and reach of a 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON system without an en/decoder at an ONU," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 134 -143 (2013).
  25. S. Kobayashi, S. Kutsuzawa, K. Sasaki, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, A. Nishiki, "Demonstration of 80-km-long SMF transmission on time-spread wavelength-hopping-type OCDM with dispersion compensators," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1350-1352 (2007).
  26. J. Kim, C. Park, "Optical design and analysis of CWDM upstream TWDM PON for NG-PON2," J. Opt. Fiber. Technol. 19, 250-258 (2013).
  27. S. Yamashita, T. Yoshida, S. Set, P. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, "Passively mode-locked short-cavity 10GHz Er:Yb-codoped phosphate-fiber laser using carbon nanotubes ," Proc. SPIE. (2007) pp. Y1-Y9.
  28. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Grating (USA Academic, 1993).
  29. X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "High reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent optical code generation and recognition ," Opt. Exp. 12, 5457-5468 (2004).
  30. C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks (Academic , 2007).

2013 (4)

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenbeger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, Y. Ma, "Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2)," J. Lightw. Technol. 31 , 587-593 (2013).

S. Yoshima, Y. Tanaka, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, J. Nakagawa, K. Kitayama, "Full-duplex, extended-reach 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON system without En/decoder at ONU," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 43-49 (2013).

T. Kodama, Y. Tanaka, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, J. Nakagawa, S. Shimizu, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Scaling the system capacity and reach of a 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON system without an en/decoder at an ONU," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 134 -143 (2013).

J. Kim, C. Park, "Optical design and analysis of CWDM upstream TWDM PON for NG-PON2," J. Opt. Fiber. Technol. 19, 250-258 (2013).

2012 (3)

E. Wong, "Next-generation broadband access networks and technologies ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 597-608 (2012).

P. Chanclou, A. Cui, F. Geihardt, H. Nakamura, D. Nesset, " Network operator requirements for the next generation of optical access networks," IEEE Netw. 26, 8-14 (2012).

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Noise suppression using optimum filtering of OCs generated by a multiport encoder/decoder ," Opt. Exp. 20, 10320-10329 (2012).

2011 (1)

N. Kataoka, G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Demonstration of asynchronous, 40 Gbps  $\times$  4-user DPSK-OCDMA transmission using a multi-port encoder/decoder," Opt. Exp. 19, 965-970 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. Ugale, V. Mishra, "Fiber Bragg grating modeling, characterization and optimization with different index profiles ," J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2, 4463-4468 (2010).

2009 (1)

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, K. Kitayama, "Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps  $\times$  8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16  $\times$  16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 299- 305 (2009).

2007 (2)

G. Manzacca, A. Maria, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, K. Kitayama, "Performance analysis of a multiport encoder/decoder in OCDMA senario," J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 13 , 1415-1421 (2007).

S. Kobayashi, S. Kutsuzawa, K. Sasaki, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, A. Nishiki, "Demonstration of 80-km-long SMF transmission on time-spread wavelength-hopping-type OCDM with dispersion compensators," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1350-1352 (2007).

2006 (2)

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part I: Modeling and design ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

2005 (1)

Y. Nasu, S. Yamashita, "Densification of sampled fiber Bragg gratings using multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technique ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1808-1817 (2005).

2004 (1)

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "High reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent optical code generation and recognition ," Opt. Exp. 12, 5457-5468 (2004).

2002 (1)

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Demonstration of a four-channel WDM/OCDMA systme using 255-chip 320-Gchip/s quaternary phase coding gratings," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 227-229 (2002).

1997 (1)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1263-1274 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, K. Kitayama, "Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps  $\times$  8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16  $\times$  16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 299- 305 (2009).

IEEE Netw. (1)

P. Chanclou, A. Cui, F. Geihardt, H. Nakamura, D. Nesset, " Network operator requirements for the next generation of optical access networks," IEEE Netw. 26, 8-14 (2012).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Demonstration of a four-channel WDM/OCDMA systme using 255-chip 320-Gchip/s quaternary phase coding gratings," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 227-229 (2002).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Kobayashi, S. Kutsuzawa, K. Sasaki, H. Iwamura, N. Minato, A. Nishiki, "Demonstration of 80-km-long SMF transmission on time-spread wavelength-hopping-type OCDM with dispersion compensators," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1350-1352 (2007).

J. Opt. Fiber. Technol. (1)

J. Kim, C. Park, "Optical design and analysis of CWDM upstream TWDM PON for NG-PON2," J. Opt. Fiber. Technol. 19, 250-258 (2013).

J. Eng. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Ugale, V. Mishra, "Fiber Bragg grating modeling, characterization and optimization with different index profiles ," J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2, 4463-4468 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1263-1274 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

Y. Nasu, S. Yamashita, "Densification of sampled fiber Bragg gratings using multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technique ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1808-1817 (2005).

S. Yoshima, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Suzuki, M. Noda, M. Nogami, J. Nakagawa, K. Kitayama, "10 Gb/s-based PON over OCDMA uplink burst transmission using SSFBG encoder/multi-port decoder and burst-mode receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 365-371 (2010 ).

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenbeger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, Y. Ma, "Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2)," J. Lightw. Technol. 31 , 587-593 (2013).

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, K. Kitayama, "Asynchronous OCDM-based 10 G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 3258-3266 (2013 ).

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part I: Modeling and design ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

S. Yoshima, Y. Tanaka, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, J. Nakagawa, K. Kitayama, "Full-duplex, extended-reach 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON system without En/decoder at ONU," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 43-49 (2013).

E. Wong, "Next-generation broadband access networks and technologies ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 597-608 (2012).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

T. Kodama, Y. Tanaka, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, J. Nakagawa, S. Shimizu, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Scaling the system capacity and reach of a 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON system without an en/decoder at an ONU," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 134 -143 (2013).

J. Sel. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Manzacca, A. Maria, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, K. Kitayama, "Performance analysis of a multiport encoder/decoder in OCDMA senario," J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 13 , 1415-1421 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (3)

N. Kataoka, G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Demonstration of asynchronous, 40 Gbps  $\times$  4-user DPSK-OCDMA transmission using a multi-port encoder/decoder," Opt. Exp. 19, 965-970 (2011).

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "High reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent optical code generation and recognition ," Opt. Exp. 12, 5457-5468 (2004).

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Noise suppression using optimum filtering of OCs generated by a multiport encoder/decoder ," Opt. Exp. 20, 10320-10329 (2012).

Other (10)

C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks (Academic , 2007).

N. Kataoka, G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps  $\times$  8-wavelength  $\times$  4-OC  $\times$  2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2011, pp. 1–3, Paper Th.13.B.6. .

S. Yamashita, T. Yoshida, S. Set, P. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, "Passively mode-locked short-cavity 10GHz Er:Yb-codoped phosphate-fiber laser using carbon nanotubes ," Proc. SPIE. (2007) pp. Y1-Y9.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Grating (USA Academic, 1993).

P. Prucnal, Optical Code Divison Muliple Access (CRC Press, 2005).

H. Nakamura, "NG-PON2 technology," Proc. Opti. Fiber Comumun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2013) pp. 1-51.

Physical Layer Specifications and Management Parameters for 10 Gb/s Passive Optical Networks, IEEE Std. 802.3av-2009..

10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON) systems, ITU-T Recommendation G987..

M . Lima, A. Teixeria, and J. Rocha, “Optimization of apodized fiber grating filters for WDM systems,” in Proc. 12th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., Nov. 1999, pp. 876–877, Paper Thz2..

N. Kataoka, X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, Y. Terada, and K. Kitayama, “8  $\times$  8 full-duplex demonstration of asynchronous, 10 Gbps, DPSK-OCDMA system using apodized SSFBG and multi-port en/decoder,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2009, paper no. 655, pp. 1–2. .

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