Abstract

We demonstrate an all-solid Nd$^{3+}$-doped silicate photonic crystal fiber with 13.1 W output power at 1061 nm and 64.5% slope efficiency. We also theoretically investigate and prove the effects of confinement loss and overlap fraction on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber laser. An innovative design is suggested to improve the laser beam quality.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, A. Tiinnermann, "The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 537- 545 (2007).
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  6. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. J. Russell, J. Arriaga, "Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fibre laser ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
  7. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11 , 818-823 (2003).
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  9. E. Coscelli, F. Poli, T. T. Alkeskjold, F. Salin, L. Leick, J. Broeng, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, "Single-mode design guidelines for 19-cell double-cladding photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1909 -1914 (2012).
  10. C. Wang, G. Zhou, Y. Han, W. Wang, C. Xia, L. Hou, "Spectral evolution of NIR luminescence in a Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fiber prepared bynon-chemical vapor deposition," Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 61601-1-61601-10 (2013).
  11. F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, J. Laegsgaard, J. Broeng, "Single-mode regime in large-mode-area rare-earth-doped rod-type PCFs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 54-60 (2009).
  12. G. Zhang, C. Yu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, L. Hu, D. Chen, "Local-cooled watt-level nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ phosphate single-mode fiber laser," Laser Phys. 22, 1235-1239 (2012).
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  14. G. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. L. Shen, Q. L. Zhou, L. L. Hu, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, "Phase locking of a compact Nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ phosphate multicore fiber laser," Laser Phys. 21, 410-413 (2011).
  15. T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. U. R. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 19, 13218-13224 (2011).
  16. F. Stutzki, H. U. R. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers ," Opt. Lett. 36, 4572-4574 (2011).
  17. C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. U. R. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems ," Opt. Exp. 20, 12912-12925 (2012).
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  19. X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, D. Hewak, " Solid microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 11, 2225-2230 (2003).
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  21. W. Li, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, S. Wang, M. Wang, C. Yu, S. Feng, D. Chen, L. Hu, "Watt-level Yb-doped silica glass fiber laser with a core made by sol-gel method ," Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 91601-1 -91601-3 (2013).
  22. P. Glas, D. Fisher, " Cladding pumped large-mode-area Nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ holey fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 10, 286-290 (2002).
  23. L. Li, A. Sch, U. Lzgen, V. L. Temyanko, H. Li, S. Sabet, M. M. Morrell, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, N. Peyghambarian, "Investigation of modal properties of microstructured optical fibers with large depressed-index cores," Opt. Lett. 30, 3275-3277 (2005).
  24. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, M. J. Steel, "Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 1660-1662 ( 2001).
  25. T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. M. De Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. formulation ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2320 -2330 (2002).
  26. B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).
  27. T. Eidam, S. H. A. Drich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers," Opt. Exp. 19 , 8656-8661 (2011).
  28. F. Poli, J. L. Ae Gsgaard, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Broeng, "Suppression of higher-order modes by segmented core doping in rod-type photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4935-4942 (2009).
  29. M. M. Jørgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. Laurila, J. Lægsgaard, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Optimizing single mode robustness of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 7263 -7273 (2012).
  30. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H. J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers ," Opt. Exp. 18, 26834-26842 (2010).

2013

C. Wang, G. Zhou, Y. Han, W. Wang, C. Xia, L. Hou, "Spectral evolution of NIR luminescence in a Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fiber prepared bynon-chemical vapor deposition," Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 61601-1-61601-10 (2013).

W. Li, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, S. Wang, M. Wang, C. Yu, S. Feng, D. Chen, L. Hu, "Watt-level Yb-doped silica glass fiber laser with a core made by sol-gel method ," Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 91601-1 -91601-3 (2013).

2012

M. M. Jørgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. Laurila, J. Lægsgaard, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Optimizing single mode robustness of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 7263 -7273 (2012).

G. Zhang, Q. Zhou, C. Yu, L. Hu, D. Chen, " Neodymium-doped phosphate fiber lasers with an all-solid microstructured inner cladding," Opt. Lett. 37, 2259-2261 (2012).

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. U. R. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems ," Opt. Exp. 20, 12912-12925 (2012).

G. Zhang, C. Yu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, L. Hu, D. Chen, "Local-cooled watt-level nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ phosphate single-mode fiber laser," Laser Phys. 22, 1235-1239 (2012).

2012

X. Wang, L. Hu, K. Li, Y. Tian, S. Fan, "Spectroscopic properties of thulium ions in bismuth silicate glass," Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 101601-1-101601-5 (2012 ).

2012

E. Coscelli, F. Poli, T. T. Alkeskjold, F. Salin, L. Leick, J. Broeng, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, "Single-mode design guidelines for 19-cell double-cladding photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1909 -1914 (2012).

2011

F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, S. Selleri, "Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 19, 9896-9907 (2011).

K. P. Hansen, C. B. Olausson, J. Broeng, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, T. Nikolajsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. H. Sørensen, M. Denninger, C. Jakobsen, H. R. Simonsen, "Airclad fiber laser technology," Opt. Eng. 50, 111609-1-111609-9 (2011).

G. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. L. Shen, Q. L. Zhou, L. L. Hu, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, "Phase locking of a compact Nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ phosphate multicore fiber laser," Laser Phys. 21, 410-413 (2011).

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. U. R. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 19, 13218-13224 (2011).

F. Stutzki, H. U. R. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers ," Opt. Lett. 36, 4572-4574 (2011).

T. Eidam, S. H. A. Drich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers," Opt. Exp. 19 , 8656-8661 (2011).

2010

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H. J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers ," Opt. Exp. 18, 26834-26842 (2010).

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited]," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, B63-B92 (2010).

2009

F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, J. Laegsgaard, J. Broeng, "Single-mode regime in large-mode-area rare-earth-doped rod-type PCFs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 54-60 (2009).

F. Poli, J. L. Ae Gsgaard, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Broeng, "Suppression of higher-order modes by segmented core doping in rod-type photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4935-4942 (2009).

2008

O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, D. V. Kuksenkov, "Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20-μm mode-field diameter," Opt. Exp. 16, 11735 -11740 (2008).

2007

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, A. Tiinnermann, "The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 537- 545 (2007).

2005

2003

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11 , 818-823 (2003).

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, D. Hewak, " Solid microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 11, 2225-2230 (2003).

2002

T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. M. De Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. formulation ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2320 -2330 (2002).

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).

P. Glas, D. Fisher, " Cladding pumped large-mode-area Nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ holey fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 10, 286-290 (2002).

2000

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. J. Russell, J. Arriaga, "Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fibre laser ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).

1996

Opt. Lett.

G. Zhang, Q. Zhou, C. Yu, L. Hu, D. Chen, " Neodymium-doped phosphate fiber lasers with an all-solid microstructured inner cladding," Opt. Lett. 37, 2259-2261 (2012).

Chin. Opt. Lett.

W. Li, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, S. Wang, M. Wang, C. Yu, S. Feng, D. Chen, L. Hu, "Watt-level Yb-doped silica glass fiber laser with a core made by sol-gel method ," Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 91601-1 -91601-3 (2013).

X. Wang, L. Hu, K. Li, Y. Tian, S. Fan, "Spectroscopic properties of thulium ions in bismuth silicate glass," Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 101601-1-101601-5 (2012 ).

C. Wang, G. Zhou, Y. Han, W. Wang, C. Xia, L. Hou, "Spectral evolution of NIR luminescence in a Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fiber prepared bynon-chemical vapor deposition," Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 61601-1-61601-10 (2013).

Electron. Lett.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. J. Russell, J. Arriaga, "Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fibre laser ," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, S. Klingebiel, T. Schreiber, C. Wirth, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, A. Tiinnermann, "The rising power of fiber lasers and amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 537- 545 (2007).

F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, D. Passaro, S. Selleri, J. Laegsgaard, J. Broeng, "Single-mode regime in large-mode-area rare-earth-doped rod-type PCFs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 54-60 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol.

E. Coscelli, F. Poli, T. T. Alkeskjold, F. Salin, L. Leick, J. Broeng, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, "Single-mode design guidelines for 19-cell double-cladding photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1909 -1914 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol.

F. Poli, J. L. Ae Gsgaard, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Broeng, "Suppression of higher-order modes by segmented core doping in rod-type photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4935-4942 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. M. De Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. formulation ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2320 -2330 (2002).

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited]," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, B63-B92 (2010).

Laser Phys.

G. Zhang, C. Yu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, J. Qiu, L. Hu, D. Chen, "Local-cooled watt-level nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ phosphate single-mode fiber laser," Laser Phys. 22, 1235-1239 (2012).

G. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. L. Shen, Q. L. Zhou, L. L. Hu, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, "Phase locking of a compact Nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ phosphate multicore fiber laser," Laser Phys. 21, 410-413 (2011).

Opt. Eng.

K. P. Hansen, C. B. Olausson, J. Broeng, D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, T. Nikolajsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. H. Sørensen, M. Denninger, C. Jakobsen, H. R. Simonsen, "Airclad fiber laser technology," Opt. Eng. 50, 111609-1-111609-9 (2011).

Opt. Exp.

F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, S. Selleri, "Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 19, 9896-9907 (2011).

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11 , 818-823 (2003).

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. U. R. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 19, 13218-13224 (2011).

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. U. R. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems ," Opt. Exp. 20, 12912-12925 (2012).

O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. F. Kosolapov, A. N. Denisov, A. D. Pryamikov, D. A. Gaponov, A. S. Biriukov, E. M. Dianov, M. Y. Salganskii, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Gurianov, D. V. Kuksenkov, "Single-mode all-silica photonic bandgap fiber with 20-μm mode-field diameter," Opt. Exp. 16, 11735 -11740 (2008).

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, D. Hewak, " Solid microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 11, 2225-2230 (2003).

T. Eidam, S. H. A. Drich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers," Opt. Exp. 19 , 8656-8661 (2011).

M. M. Jørgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. Laurila, J. Lægsgaard, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Optimizing single mode robustness of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 7263 -7273 (2012).

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H. J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers ," Opt. Exp. 18, 26834-26842 (2010).

P. Glas, D. Fisher, " Cladding pumped large-mode-area Nd $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ holey fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 10, 286-290 (2002).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. Bonati, H. Voelckel, T. Gabler, U. Krause, A. Tünnermann, J. Limpert, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, "1.53 kW from a single Yb $^{3+}{\rm -doped}$ photonic crystal fiber laser," Proc. Photon. West, San Jose, Late Breaking Developments Session 5709–2 a (2005).

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