Abstract

Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging $(S^{2}$ imaging) and correlation filter technique (CFT) are two very different, widespread fiber mode analysis techniques. Both techniques have been successfully employed to decompose few-modes and multimode beams respectively. In this study, we present a novel experimental tool combining $S^{2}$ imaging and CFT mode analyses in a unique system. We demonstrate that both methods are complementary with the ability to fully resolve scalar and vector-valued transverse modal fields. Using results from the combined experiment, mode powers (${\rho}^{2})$ evaluated from CFT analysis and $S^{2}$ imaging are directly compared for a wide range of fiber beams (from single- to multi-mode). As a result, we experimentally identify the mode detection limit of each mode analysis and prove that $S^{2}$ imaging accuracy range can be considerably increased employing an analytical mode evaluation method. The conclusion contains a table summarizing the expertise of each mode analysis.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High power fibre lasers ," Nat. Photon. 7, 861-867 (2013).
  2. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: Current status and future perspectives," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27 , B63-B92 (2010 ).
  3. F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation," Opt. Lett. 36, 689-691 (2011).
  4. F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "26 mJ, 130 W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality," Opt. Lett. 37, 1073-1075 (2012).
  5. Y. Kawahitoa, T. Terajimaa, H. Kimurab, T. Kurodaa, K. Nakataa, S. Katayamaa, A. Inoueb, "High-power fiber laser welding and its application to metallic glass Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 148, 105-109 (2008).
  6. P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Peñano, R. Fischer, B. Hafizi, " Incoherent combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power fiber lasers for directed-energy applications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138-148 (2009).
  7. T. Bilici, S. Mutlu, H. Kalaycioqlu, A. Kurt, A. Sennaroqlu, M. Gulsoy, "Development of a thulium (Tm:YAP) laser system for brain tissue ablation," Las. Med. Sci. 26, 699-706 (2011).
  8. C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 440-451 (2012).
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  11. Y. Z. Ma, Y. Sych, G. Onishchukov, S. Ramachandran, U. Peschel, B. Schmauss, G. Leuchs, "Fiber-modes and fiber anisotropy characterization using low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 96, 345 -353 (2009).
  12. T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters," Opt. Exp. 17, 9347-9356 (2009).
  13. D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, S. Ramachandran, "Cross-correlated (C2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes," Opt. Exp. 19, 13008-13019 (2011).
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  22. J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20 , 24575-24584 ( 2012).
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  24. G. Gu, F. Kong, T. W. Hawkins, P. Foy, K. Wei, B. Samson, L. Dong, "Impact of fiber outer boundaries on leaky mode losses in leakage channel fibers," Opt. Exp. 21, 24039-24048 (2013).
  25. J. Jasapara, A. D. Yablon, "Spectrogram approach to $S^{2}$ fiber mode analysis to distinguish between dispersion and distributed scattering," Opt. Lett. 37, 3906-3908 (2012).
  26. M. A. Golub, A. M. Prokhorov, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Soifer, "Synthesis of spatial filters for investigation of the transverse mode composition of coherent radiation," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12 , 1208-1209 (1982 ).
  27. W. H. Lee, "Sampled Fourier transform hologram generated by computer ," Appl. Opt. 9, 639-643 (1970).
  28. D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, C. Schulze, J. Borchardt, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Measuring the spatial polarization distribution of multimode beams emerging from passive step-index large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Lett. 35, 3429-3431 (2010).
  29. C. Schulze, O. A. Schmidt, D. Flamm, M. Duparré, S. Schröter, "Modal analysis of beams emerging from a multi-core fiber using computer-generated holograms ," Proc. SPIE 7914, (2011, doi: 10.1117/12.874732 ).
  30. D. Flamm, D. Naidoo, C. Schulze, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Mode analysis with a spatial light modulator as a correlation filter," Opt. Lett. 37, 2478-2480 (2012).
  31. C. Schulze, A. Lorenz, D. Flamm, A. Hartung, S. Schröter, H. Bartelt, M. Duparré, "Mode resolved bend loss in few-mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 21, 3170-3181 (2013).
  32. A. Dudley, I. A. Litvin, A. Forbes, "Quantitative measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light," Appl. Opt. 51, 823-833 (2012).
  33. D. Flamm, C. Schulze, R. Brüning, O. A. Schmidt, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Fast $M^{2}$ measurement for fiber beams based on mode analysis," Appl. Opt. 51, 987-993 (2012).
  34. C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition," Opt. Exp. 20, 19714-19725 (2012).
  35. S. Shwartz, M. Golub, S. Ruschin, "Diffractive optical elements for mode-division multiplexing of temporal signals with the aid of Laguerre–Gaussian modes," Appl. Opt. 52, 2659-2669 (2013).
  36. D. Flamm, C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, S. Schröter, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "All-digital tool for mode excitation and analysis in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 31, 1023-1032 (2013).
  37. D. Flamm, K.-C. Hou, P. Gelszinnis, C. Schulze, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Modal characterization of fiber-to-fiber coupling processes," Opt. Lett. 38, 2128-2130 (2013).
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  39. H. J. Otto, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Improved modal reconstruction for spatially and spectrally resolved imaging," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 31, 1295-1299 (2013).

2013 (9)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High power fibre lasers ," Nat. Photon. 7, 861-867 (2013).

J. M. Fini, J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, L. Meng, B. Mangan, A. DeSantolo, F. V. DiMarcello, "Low-loss hollow-core fibers with improved single-modedness," Opt. Exp. 21, 6233-6242 (2013).

J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. K. Doylend, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, "Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform," Opt. Exp. 21, 544-555 (2013).

G. Gu, F. Kong, T. W. Hawkins, P. Foy, K. Wei, B. Samson, L. Dong, "Impact of fiber outer boundaries on leaky mode losses in leakage channel fibers," Opt. Exp. 21, 24039-24048 (2013).

C. Schulze, A. Lorenz, D. Flamm, A. Hartung, S. Schröter, H. Bartelt, M. Duparré, "Mode resolved bend loss in few-mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 21, 3170-3181 (2013).

S. Shwartz, M. Golub, S. Ruschin, "Diffractive optical elements for mode-division multiplexing of temporal signals with the aid of Laguerre–Gaussian modes," Appl. Opt. 52, 2659-2669 (2013).

D. Flamm, C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, S. Schröter, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "All-digital tool for mode excitation and analysis in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 31, 1023-1032 (2013).

D. Flamm, K.-C. Hou, P. Gelszinnis, C. Schulze, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Modal characterization of fiber-to-fiber coupling processes," Opt. Lett. 38, 2128-2130 (2013).

H. J. Otto, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Improved modal reconstruction for spatially and spectrally resolved imaging," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 31, 1295-1299 (2013).

2012 (12)

D. Flamm, D. Naidoo, C. Schulze, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Mode analysis with a spatial light modulator as a correlation filter," Opt. Lett. 37, 2478-2480 (2012).

D. M. Nguyen, S. Blin, T. N. Nguyen, S. D. Le, L. Provino, M. Thual, T. Chartier, "Modal decomposition technique for multimode fibers," Appl. Opt. 51, 450-456 (2012).

A. Dudley, I. A. Litvin, A. Forbes, "Quantitative measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light," Appl. Opt. 51, 823-833 (2012).

D. Flamm, C. Schulze, R. Brüning, O. A. Schmidt, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Fast $M^{2}$ measurement for fiber beams based on mode analysis," Appl. Opt. 51, 987-993 (2012).

C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition," Opt. Exp. 20, 19714-19725 (2012).

J. Jasapara, A. D. Yablon, "Spectrogram approach to $S^{2}$ fiber mode analysis to distinguish between dispersion and distributed scattering," Opt. Lett. 37, 3906-3908 (2012).

J. W. Nicholson, L. Meng, J. M. Fini, R. S. Windeler, A. DeSantolo, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, Y. Dulashko, M. Hassan, R. Ortiz, "Measuring higher-order modes in a low-loss, hollow-core, photonic-bandgap fiber ," Opt. Exp. 20, 20494-20505 (2012).

P. Kadwani, C. Jollivet, R. A. Sims, A. Schülzgen, L. Shah, M. Richardson, "Comparison of higher-order mode suppression and Q-switched laser performances in thulium-doped large mode area and photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 20, 24295-24303 (2012).

J. Kerttula, V. Filippov, V. Ustimchik, Y. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, "Mode evolution in long tapered fibers with high tapering ratio," Opt. Exp. 20, 25461-25470 (2012).

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "26 mJ, 130 W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality," Opt. Lett. 37, 1073-1075 (2012).

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 440-451 (2012).

F. Kong, K. Saitoh, D. Mcclane, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, G. Gu, L. Dong, "Mode area scaling with all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 20, 26363-26372 (2012).

2011 (5)

J. Bromage, J. M. Fini, C. Dorrer, J. D. Zuegel, "Characterization and optimization of Yb-doped photonic-crystal fiber rod amplifier using spatially resolved spectral interferometry," App. Opt. 50, 2001-2007 (2011).

D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, S. Ramachandran, "Cross-correlated (C2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes," Opt. Exp. 19, 13008-13019 (2011).

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers ," Opt. Lett. 36, 4572-4574 (2011).

T. Bilici, S. Mutlu, H. Kalaycioqlu, A. Kurt, A. Sennaroqlu, M. Gulsoy, "Development of a thulium (Tm:YAP) laser system for brain tissue ablation," Las. Med. Sci. 26, 699-706 (2011).

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation," Opt. Lett. 36, 689-691 (2011).

2010 (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: Current status and future perspectives," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27 , B63-B92 (2010 ).

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Peñano, R. Fischer, B. Hafizi, " Incoherent combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power fiber lasers for directed-energy applications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138-148 (2009).

Y. Z. Ma, Y. Sych, G. Onishchukov, S. Ramachandran, U. Peschel, B. Schmauss, G. Leuchs, "Fiber-modes and fiber anisotropy characterization using low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 96, 345 -353 (2009).

T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters," Opt. Exp. 17, 9347-9356 (2009).

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, M. D. Mermelstein, "Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area- fibers ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 61-70 (2009).

2008 (2)

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, "Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 7233-7243 (2008).

Y. Kawahitoa, T. Terajimaa, H. Kimurab, T. Kurodaa, K. Nakataa, S. Katayamaa, A. Inoueb, "High-power fiber laser welding and its application to metallic glass Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 148, 105-109 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. Wielandy, "Implication of higher-order mode content is large mode area fiber with good beam quality," Opt. Exp. 15, 15402-15409 (2007).

1982 ()

M. A. Golub, A. M. Prokhorov, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Soifer, "Synthesis of spatial filters for investigation of the transverse mode composition of coherent radiation," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12 , 1208-1209 (1982 ).

1970 (1)

W. H. Lee, "Sampled Fourier transform hologram generated by computer ," Appl. Opt. 9, 639-643 (1970).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. Schulze, A. Lorenz, D. Flamm, A. Hartung, S. Schröter, H. Bartelt, M. Duparré, "Mode resolved bend loss in few-mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 21, 3170-3181 (2013).

App. Opt. (1)

J. Bromage, J. M. Fini, C. Dorrer, J. D. Zuegel, "Characterization and optimization of Yb-doped photonic-crystal fiber rod amplifier using spatially resolved spectral interferometry," App. Opt. 50, 2001-2007 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

W. H. Lee, "Sampled Fourier transform hologram generated by computer ," Appl. Opt. 9, 639-643 (1970).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Z. Ma, Y. Sych, G. Onishchukov, S. Ramachandran, U. Peschel, B. Schmauss, G. Leuchs, "Fiber-modes and fiber anisotropy characterization using low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Phys. B 96, 345 -353 (2009).

IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. (2)

H. J. Otto, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Improved modal reconstruction for spatially and spectrally resolved imaging," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 31, 1295-1299 (2013).

D. Flamm, C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, S. Schröter, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "All-digital tool for mode excitation and analysis in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Tech. 31, 1023-1032 (2013).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Peñano, R. Fischer, B. Hafizi, " Incoherent combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power fiber lasers for directed-energy applications ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138-148 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, M. D. Mermelstein, "Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area- fibers ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 61-70 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: Current status and future perspectives," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27 , B63-B92 (2010 ).

Las. Med. Sci. (1)

T. Bilici, S. Mutlu, H. Kalaycioqlu, A. Kurt, A. Sennaroqlu, M. Gulsoy, "Development of a thulium (Tm:YAP) laser system for brain tissue ablation," Las. Med. Sci. 26, 699-706 (2011).

Mat. Sci. Eng. B (1)

Y. Kawahitoa, T. Terajimaa, H. Kimurab, T. Kurodaa, K. Nakataa, S. Katayamaa, A. Inoueb, "High-power fiber laser welding and its application to metallic glass Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 148, 105-109 (2008).

Nat. Photon. (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "High power fibre lasers ," Nat. Photon. 7, 861-867 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (13)

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 440-451 (2012).

S. Wielandy, "Implication of higher-order mode content is large mode area fiber with good beam quality," Opt. Exp. 15, 15402-15409 (2007).

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, "Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 7233-7243 (2008).

F. Kong, K. Saitoh, D. Mcclane, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, G. Gu, L. Dong, "Mode area scaling with all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 20, 26363-26372 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. M. Fini, J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, L. Meng, B. Mangan, A. DeSantolo, F. V. DiMarcello, "Low-loss hollow-core fibers with improved single-modedness," Opt. Exp. 21, 6233-6242 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (13)

J. Kerttula, V. Filippov, V. Ustimchik, Y. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, "Mode evolution in long tapered fibers with high tapering ratio," Opt. Exp. 20, 25461-25470 (2012).

J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. K. Doylend, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. E. Bowers, "Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform," Opt. Exp. 21, 544-555 (2013).

J. W. Nicholson, L. Meng, J. M. Fini, R. S. Windeler, A. DeSantolo, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, Y. Dulashko, M. Hassan, R. Ortiz, "Measuring higher-order modes in a low-loss, hollow-core, photonic-bandgap fiber ," Opt. Exp. 20, 20494-20505 (2012).

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20 , 24575-24584 ( 2012).

P. Kadwani, C. Jollivet, R. A. Sims, A. Schülzgen, L. Shah, M. Richardson, "Comparison of higher-order mode suppression and Q-switched laser performances in thulium-doped large mode area and photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 20, 24295-24303 (2012).

G. Gu, F. Kong, T. W. Hawkins, P. Foy, K. Wei, B. Samson, L. Dong, "Impact of fiber outer boundaries on leaky mode losses in leakage channel fibers," Opt. Exp. 21, 24039-24048 (2013).

T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters," Opt. Exp. 17, 9347-9356 (2009).

D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, S. Ramachandran, "Cross-correlated (C2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes," Opt. Exp. 19, 13008-13019 (2011).

C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition," Opt. Exp. 20, 19714-19725 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Schulze, O. A. Schmidt, D. Flamm, M. Duparré, S. Schröter, "Modal analysis of beams emerging from a multi-core fiber using computer-generated holograms ," Proc. SPIE 7914, (2011, doi: 10.1117/12.874732 ).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. A. Golub, A. M. Prokhorov, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Soifer, "Synthesis of spatial filters for investigation of the transverse mode composition of coherent radiation," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12 , 1208-1209 (1982 ).

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