Abstract

Directly bonded, oxide-free, InP-based epitaxial layer bonding onto nanopatterned silicon-on-insulator structures was performed and result in waveguides with an embedded effective medium. Such a medium ensures flexible form of optical confinement and could also assist heat and electric current transfer optimally to the silicon layer since there is a remarkable absence of oxide, thanks to careful surface preparation processes. The fabricated waveguides, which embed buried 1-D (trenches) or 2-D (holes forming a photonic crystal) nanopatterns have been measured by two techniques. Either the classical end-fire technique, or the “internal light source” technique used for III–V-based photonic crystal waveguides, with a layer that contains several quantum wells. Propagation losses due to scattering in the nanopatterned area are retrieved by both methods and consistently point toward a ∼20 cm$^{-1}$ loss level. A critical assessment is made of this result. Other local probe techniques allowed by the internal probe methods are reported that could help qualifying thermal transfer at these oxide-free interfaces.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon evanescent devices," Mater. Today 10, 28-35 (2007).
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  6. S. Stankovic, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, "1310-nm hybrid III-V/Si fabry-pérot laser based on adhesive bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1781-1783 (2011).
  7. M. Lamponi, S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, J. Fedeli, G. H. Duan, "Low-threshold heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI lasers with a double adiabatic taper coupler ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 76-78 (2012).
  8. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Exp. 15 , 6744-6749 (2007).
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  10. A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, "Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells to Si," Inst. Planning Resource Manage. presented at theSanta BarbaraCA USA (2012).
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  12. C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices ," Photon. Nanostruct.-Fundamentals Appl. 11, 145-156 (2013).
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  18. X. Pommarede, A. Talneau, C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Modal engineering and experimental characterization of InP bonded on SOI photonic crystal waveguides implementing effective medium theory," private communication .
  19. S.-H. Baik, S.-K. Park, C.-J. Kim, B. Cha, "A center detection algorithm for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor ," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 262 -267 (2007).
  20. K. Bougot-Robin, W. Wen, H. Benisty, "Resonant waveguide sensing made robust by onchip peak tracking through image correlation," Biomed. Opt. Exp. 3, 2436-2451 ( 2012).
  21. S. Mahnkopf, R. März, M. Kamp, G. H. Duan, F. Lelarge, A. Forchel, "Tunable photonic crystal coupled-cavity laser ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1306-1314 (2004).

2013 (2)

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 212101-212103 (2013).

C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices ," Photon. Nanostruct.-Fundamentals Appl. 11, 145-156 (2013).

2012 (2)

M. Lamponi, S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, J. Fedeli, G. H. Duan, "Low-threshold heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI lasers with a double adiabatic taper coupler ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 76-78 (2012).

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Arakawa, "1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si rib structures with current injection across direct-bonded GaAs/Si heterointerfaces," Opt. Exp. 20, B315-B321 (2012).

2011 (2)

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, "1310-nm hybrid III-V/Si fabry-pérot laser based on adhesive bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1781-1783 (2011).

S. Srinivasan, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, J. Peters, K. Bryan, J. E. Bowers, "Design of phase-shifted hybrid silicon distributed feedback lasers," Opt. Exp. 19, 9255 -9261 (2011).

2010 (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, "III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects," 4, 779 (2010).

2008 (1)

A. Talneau, K. H. Lee, S. Guilet, I. Sagnes, "Efficient coupling to W1 photonic crystal waveguide on InP membrane through suspended access guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061105-061103 (2008).

2007 (4)

S.-H. Baik, S.-K. Park, C.-J. Kim, B. Cha, "A center detection algorithm for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor ," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 262 -267 (2007).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon evanescent devices," Mater. Today 10, 28-35 (2007).

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, C. Lagahe-Blanchardd, "III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding," Mater. Today 10, 36-43 (2007).

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Exp. 15 , 6744-6749 (2007).

2004 (2)

S. Mahnkopf, R. März, M. Kamp, G. H. Duan, F. Lelarge, A. Forchel, "Tunable photonic crystal coupled-cavity laser ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1306-1314 (2004).

E. Schwoob, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, E. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, "Enhanced gain measurement at mode singularities in InP-based photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 1569-1574 (2004).

2002 (2)

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, "Improved 60° bend transmission of submicron-width waveguides defined by two-dimensional photonic crystals," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 20 , 1198-1203 (2002).

H. Benisty, S. Olivier, C. Weisbuch, M. Agio, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, A. Karlsson, B. Jaskorzynska, A. Talneau, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, "Models and measurements for the transmission of submicron-width waveguide bends defined in two-dimensional photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 770 -785 (2002).

1999 (1)

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, V. Bardinal, "Diffraction efficiency and guided light control by two-dimensional photonic-band-gap lattices," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1045-1052 (1999).

private communication (1)

X. Pommarede, A. Talneau, C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Modal engineering and experimental characterization of InP bonded on SOI photonic crystal waveguides implementing effective medium theory," private communication .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Talneau, K. H. Lee, S. Guilet, I. Sagnes, "Efficient coupling to W1 photonic crystal waveguide on InP membrane through suspended access guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061105-061103 (2008).

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 212101-212103 (2013).

Biomed. Opt. Exp. (1)

K. Bougot-Robin, W. Wen, H. Benisty, "Resonant waveguide sensing made robust by onchip peak tracking through image correlation," Biomed. Opt. Exp. 3, 2436-2451 ( 2012).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, "Improved 60° bend transmission of submicron-width waveguides defined by two-dimensional photonic crystals," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 20 , 1198-1203 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, V. Bardinal, "Diffraction efficiency and guided light control by two-dimensional photonic-band-gap lattices," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1045-1052 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Benisty, S. Olivier, C. Weisbuch, M. Agio, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, A. Karlsson, B. Jaskorzynska, A. Talneau, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle, "Models and measurements for the transmission of submicron-width waveguide bends defined in two-dimensional photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 770 -785 (2002).

S. Mahnkopf, R. März, M. Kamp, G. H. Duan, F. Lelarge, A. Forchel, "Tunable photonic crystal coupled-cavity laser ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1306-1314 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Stankovic, R. Jones, M. N. Sysak, J. M. Heck, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, "1310-nm hybrid III-V/Si fabry-pérot laser based on adhesive bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1781-1783 (2011).

M. Lamponi, S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, J. Fedeli, G. H. Duan, "Low-threshold heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI lasers with a double adiabatic taper coupler ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 76-78 (2012).

Journal of Lightwave Technology (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, "III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects," 4, 779 (2010).

Mater. Today (2)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Liang, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon evanescent devices," Mater. Today 10, 28-35 (2007).

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, C. Lagahe-Blanchardd, "III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding," Mater. Today 10, 36-43 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (4)

S. Srinivasan, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, J. Peters, K. Bryan, J. E. Bowers, "Design of phase-shifted hybrid silicon distributed feedback lasers," Opt. Exp. 19, 9255 -9261 (2011).

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Exp. 15 , 6744-6749 (2007).

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Arakawa, "1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si rib structures with current injection across direct-bonded GaAs/Si heterointerfaces," Opt. Exp. 20, B315-B321 (2012).

E. Schwoob, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G.-H. Duan, L. Legouézigou, E. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, "Enhanced gain measurement at mode singularities in InP-based photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 1569-1574 (2004).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

S.-H. Baik, S.-K. Park, C.-J. Kim, B. Cha, "A center detection algorithm for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor ," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 262 -267 (2007).

Photon. Nanostruct.-Fundamentals Appl. (1)

C. Pang, H. Benisty, "Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices ," Photon. Nanostruct.-Fundamentals Appl. 11, 145-156 (2013).

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, Y. Arakawa, "III–V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding," Sci. Rep. 2, (2012 ).

Other (1)

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, "Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells to Si," Inst. Planning Resource Manage. presented at theSanta BarbaraCA USA (2012).

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