T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. F. Long, Z. P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Wu, "Low-voltage, high speed, compact
silicon modulator for BPSK modulation," Opt. Exp. 21, 23410-23415 (2013).

D. M. Morini, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, "Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon
modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers," Opt.
Exp. 21, 22471-22475 (2013).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive
push-pull silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20
, 6163-6169 (2012).

T. B. Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Jin Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Gee Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon
traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).

J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, "
Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach–Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt.
Exp. 20, 7081-7087 (2012).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, "High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization," Opt. Exp. 21, 4116-4125 (2012).

R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with
integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High
contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19
, 11507-11516 (2011).

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, "Fabrication
of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,"
Opt. Exp. 19, 18029-18035
(2011).

G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up
to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon
optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827
-5832 (2011).

S. Assefa, F. N. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche
photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion
modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, A. De Keersgieter, "Optimization of ion
implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators," IEEE J. Quantum
Electron. 46, 1763-1768
(2010).

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, Y. L. Liu, "Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide
," Opt. Exp. 17,
5502-5516 (2009).

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon
chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic
interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337
-1361 (2009).

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, "
Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2008).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit = s silicon optical modulator for high
speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid
AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature
433, 725-728 (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,"
Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor
," Nature 427, 615-
618 (2004).

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
23, 123-129 (1987).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,"
Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, "Fabrication
of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,"
Opt. Exp. 19, 18029-18035
(2011).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit = s silicon optical modulator for high
speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, A. De Keersgieter, "Optimization of ion
implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators," IEEE J. Quantum
Electron. 46, 1763-1768
(2010).

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
23, 123-129 (1987).

J. F. Ding, R. Q. Ji, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder
optical modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2334-2440 (2013
).

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, "
Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2008).

S. Assefa, F. N. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche
photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature
433, 725-728 (2005).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor
," Nature 427, 615-
618 (2004).

D. M. Morini, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, "Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon
modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers," Opt.
Exp. 21, 22471-22475 (2013).

J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, "
Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach–Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt.
Exp. 20, 7081-7087 (2012).

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G. R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, T. M. Lyszczarz, "
CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Exp.
16, 11027-11031 (
2008).

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T. Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Silicon Mach–Zehnder
modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0–12.5 Gbps," Opt. Exp.
19, B26-B31 (2011
).

G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up
to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon
optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827
-5832 (2011).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive
push-pull silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20
, 6163-6169 (2012).

T. B. Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Jin Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Gee Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon
traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion
modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with
integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid
AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, Y. L. Liu, "Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide
," Opt. Exp. 17,
5502-5516 (2009).

R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, "High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization," Opt. Exp. 21, 4116-4125 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High
contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19
, 11507-11516 (2011).

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. F. Long, Z. P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Wu, "Low-voltage, high speed, compact
silicon modulator for BPSK modulation," Opt. Exp. 21, 23410-23415 (2013).

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon
chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic
interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337
-1361 (2009).