Abstract

We report a carrier-depletion silicon Mach–Zehnder optical modulator with large optical bandwidth by adopting two symmetric arms. The fiber-to-fiber loss of the device is about 7.2–8 dB in the wavelength range from 1525 to 1565 nm. We have used the truncation method to accurately measure the loss of the optical splitter and combiner, and the on-chip loss is about 3.8 dB. The dynamic extinction ratios at the speed of 40 Gb/s are 4.9–6.4 dB in the wavelength range from 1529 to 1565 nm. By analyzing the dependence of the optical bandwidth on the optical path difference between the two arms, we find that there is an unexpected optical path difference of around 3.3 μm between the two arms, which is considered to originate from the nonuniform morphologies of the waveguide and the nonuniform doping profiles along the two arms and is responsible for the slight wavelength dependence of the static and dynamic response of the silicon Mach–Zehnder optical modulator.

© 2013 IEEE

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  5. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
  6. M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, Y. L. Liu, "Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide ," Opt. Exp. 17, 5502-5516 (2009).
  7. R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).
  8. D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
  9. Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, " Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2008).
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  12. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).
  13. W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).
  14. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).
  15. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit = s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).
  16. S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G. R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, T. M. Lyszczarz, " CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 11027-11031 ( 2008).
  17. N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).
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  20. X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, "Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method," Opt. Exp. 19, 18029-18035 (2011).
  21. K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T. Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0–12.5 Gbps," Opt. Exp. 19, B26-B31 (2011 ).
  22. G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).
  23. G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827 -5832 (2011).
  24. P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20 , 6163-6169 (2012).
  25. T. B. Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Jin Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Gee Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).
  26. J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, " Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach–Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 7081-7087 (2012).
  27. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, "High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization," Opt. Exp. 21, 4116-4125 (2012).
  28. J. F. Ding, R. Q. Ji, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder optical modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2334-2440 (2013 ).
  29. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. F. Long, Z. P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Wu, "Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation," Opt. Exp. 21, 23410-23415 (2013).
  30. D. M. Morini, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, "Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers," Opt. Exp. 21, 22471-22475 (2013).

2013 (2)

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. F. Long, Z. P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Wu, "Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation," Opt. Exp. 21, 23410-23415 (2013).

D. M. Morini, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, "Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers," Opt. Exp. 21, 22471-22475 (2013).

2012 (4)

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20 , 6163-6169 (2012).

T. B. Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Jin Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Gee Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).

J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, " Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach–Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 7081-7087 (2012).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, "High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization," Opt. Exp. 21, 4116-4125 (2012).

2011 (7)

R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19 , 11507-11516 (2011).

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, "Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method," Opt. Exp. 19, 18029-18035 (2011).

G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827 -5832 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Assefa, F. N. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, A. De Keersgieter, "Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763-1768 (2010).

2009 (3)

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, Y. L. Liu, "Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide ," Opt. Exp. 17, 5502-5516 (2009).

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 -1361 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, " Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2008).

2007 (2)

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit = s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

2005 (2)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (1)

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, "Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method," Opt. Exp. 19, 18029-18035 (2011).

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit = s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, A. De Keersgieter, "Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1763-1768 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. F. Ding, R. Q. Ji, L. Zhang, L. Yang, "Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder optical modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 2334-2440 (2013 ).

Nat. Photon. (1)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, " Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Nat. Photon. 3, 59-63 (2008).

Nature (3)

S. Assefa, F. N. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (2)

D. M. Morini, C. Baudot, J. M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, "Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers," Opt. Exp. 21, 22471-22475 (2013).

J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, Y. H. Tian, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, " Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach–Zehnder silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 7081-7087 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (2)

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G. R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, T. M. Lyszczarz, " CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 11027-11031 ( 2008).

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y. T. Tan, T. Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0–12.5 Gbps," Opt. Exp. 19, B26-B31 (2011 ).

Opt. Exp. (14)

G. Kim, J. Woo Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. Kim, D. Jeong, M. Hwang, J. Kim, K. Park, H. Chi, H. Kim, D. Kim, M. H. Cho, "Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 19, 26936-26947 (2011).

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827 -5832 (2011).

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, "High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 20 , 6163-6169 (2012).

T. B. Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Jin Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Gee Teo, G. Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator," Opt. Exp. 20, 12014-12020 (2012).

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "25 Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning," Opt. Exp. 19, 20435-20443 (2011).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, "Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 26017-26026 (2011).

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 14, 9203-9210 (2006).

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, Y. L. Liu, "Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide ," Opt. Exp. 17, 5502-5516 (2009).

R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. H. Tian, J. F. Ding, H. T. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, P. Zhou, W. W Zhu, "Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 19, 20258-20268 (2011).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, "High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization," Opt. Exp. 21, 4116-4125 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19 , 11507-11516 (2011).

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. F. Long, Z. P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Wu, "Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation," Opt. Exp. 21, 23410-23415 (2013).

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 -1361 (2009).

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