Abstract

In this paper, we extend our previous study on BitTorrent, the most popular peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol, to investigate different aspects related to its energy efficiency in IP over WDM (IP/WDM) networks, validating the power savings previously obtained by modeling and simulation through experimental results. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: First, we compare the energy consumption of our previously proposed energy efficient BitTorrent protocol to that of the original BitTorrent protocol and the client–server (C-S) schemes over bypass IP/WDM networks considering a range of network topologies with different number of nodes and average hop counts. Our results show that for a certain swarm size, the energy efficient BitTorrent protocol achieves higher power savings in networks with lower number of nodes as the opportunity to localize traffic increases. Second, we extend our previously developed energy efficient BitTorrent heuristic enhancing its performance by allowing peers to progressively traverse more hops in the network if the number of peers in the local node is not sufficient. Third, we extend our previously developed mixed integer linear programming model to optimize the location as well as the upload rates of operator controlled seeders (OCS) to mitigate the performance degradation caused by leechers leaving after finishing the downloading operation. Fourth, we compare the power consumption of video on demand (VoD) services delivered using content distribution networks (CDN), P2P, and a promising hybrid CDN-P2P architecture over bypass IP/WDM core networks. A MILP model is developed to carry out the comparison. We investigate two scenarios for the hybrid CDN-P2P architecture: the H-MinNPC model where the model minimizes the IP/WDM network power consumption and the H-MinTPC model where the model minimizes the total power consumption including the network and the CDN datacenters power consumption. Finally, we carry out an experimental evaluation of the original and energy efficient BitTorrent heuristics.

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2014 (1)

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, F. E. Alsaadi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “P2P content distribution in renewable energy powered optical core networks,” submitted for publication. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 2014.

2012 (1)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1694–1705, 2012

2011 (6)

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

H. Hlavacs, R. Weidlich, and T. Treutner, “Energy efficient peer-to-peer file sharing,” J. Supercomput., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1167–1188, 2011.

A. Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comp., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, 2011.

2010 (1)

G. Anastasi, I. Giannetti, and A. Passarella, “A BitTorrent proxy for green internet file sharing: design and experimental evaluation,” Comp. Commun., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 794–802, 2010.

2009 (2)

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP overWDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

J. He, A. Chaintreau, and C. Diot, “A performance evaluation of scalable live video streaming with nano data centers,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 153–167, 2009.

2005 (1)

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

2004 (1)

D. Xu, S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H. K. Chai, “A CDN-P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Comput. Netw., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–382, 2004.

Adlan, W.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, A. Mujtaba, W. Adlan, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Storage area networks extension scenarios in a wide area WDM mesh architecture under heterogeneous traffic,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2009, pp. 1–8.

Alsaadi, F. E.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, F. E. Alsaadi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “P2P content distribution in renewable energy powered optical core networks,” submitted for publication. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 2014.

Anastasi, G.

G. Anastasi, I. Giannetti, and A. Passarella, “A BitTorrent proxy for green internet file sharing: design and experimental evaluation,” Comp. Commun., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 794–802, 2010.

Arlitt, M.

P. Gill, M. Arlitt, Z. Li, and A. Mahanti, “The flattening internet topology: Natural evolution, unsightly barnacles or contrived collapse?,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Passive Active Netw. Measurement, 2008, pp. 1–10.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, 2011.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OThQ5.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, 2011.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OThQ5.

Beloglazov, A.

A. Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comp., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.

Bindal, R.

R. Bindal, P. Cao, and W. Chan, “Improving traffic locality in BitTorrent via biased neighbor selection,” in Proc. IEEE 26th Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst., 2006, vol. 06, pp. 66–66.

Binzenh, A.

K. Eger, T. Hoßfeld, A. Binzenh, and G. Kunzmann, “Efficient simulation of large-scale P2P networks: Packet-level versus flow-level simulations,” in Proc. 2nd Workshop Use P2P, GRID, Agents Develop. Content Netw., 2007, pp. 9–16.

Bowden, R.

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

Buyya, R.

A. Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comp., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.

Cao, P.

R. Bindal, P. Cao, and W. Chan, “Improving traffic locality in BitTorrent via biased neighbor selection,” in Proc. IEEE 26th Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst., 2006, vol. 06, pp. 66–66.

Chai, H. K.

D. Xu, S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H. K. Chai, “A CDN-P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Comput. Netw., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–382, 2004.

Chaintreau, A.

J. He, A. Chaintreau, and C. Diot, “A performance evaluation of scalable live video streaming with nano data centers,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 153–167, 2009.

Chan, C. A.

C. A. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Jayasundara, “Energy efficient delivery methods for video-rich services over next generation broadband access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2011, pp. 1–5.

Chan, W.

R. Bindal, P. Cao, and W. Chan, “Improving traffic locality in BitTorrent via biased neighbor selection,” in Proc. IEEE 26th Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst., 2006, vol. 06, pp. 66–66.

Chowdhury, P.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2011, pp. 1–4.

Cohen, B.

B. Cohen, “Incentives build robustness in BitTorrent,” in Proc. Workshop Econom. Peer-to-Peer Syst., 2003, vol. 6, pp. 68–72.

B. Cohen, (2013, 9). The bittorrent protocol specification [Online]. Available: http://www.bittorrent.org/beps/bep_0003.html

Crowcroft, J.

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

Diot, C.

J. He, A. Chaintreau, and C. Diot, “A performance evaluation of scalable live video streaming with nano data centers,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 153–167, 2009.

Dong, X.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1694–1705, 2012

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, A. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient core networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modeling, 2012, pp. 1–9.

Eger, K.

K. Eger, T. Hoßfeld, A. Binzenh, and G. Kunzmann, “Efficient simulation of large-scale P2P networks: Packet-level versus flow-level simulations,” in Proc. 2nd Workshop Use P2P, GRID, Agents Develop. Content Netw., 2007, pp. 9–16.

El-Gorashi, T.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1694–1705, 2012

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Impact of peers behaviour on the energy efficiency of BitTorrent over optical networks,” in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–8.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient peer selection mechanism for BitTorrent content distribution,” in Proc. Global Commun. Conf., 2012, pp. 1562–1567.

El-Gorashi, T. E. H.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, F. E. Alsaadi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “P2P content distribution in renewable energy powered optical core networks,” submitted for publication. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 2014.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, A. Mujtaba, W. Adlan, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Storage area networks extension scenarios in a wide area WDM mesh architecture under heterogeneous traffic,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2009, pp. 1–8.

X. Dong, A. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient core networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modeling, 2012, pp. 1–9.

Elmirghani, J. M. H

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1694–1705, 2012

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, A. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient core networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modeling, 2012, pp. 1–9.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, A. Mujtaba, W. Adlan, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Storage area networks extension scenarios in a wide area WDM mesh architecture under heterogeneous traffic,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2009, pp. 1–8.

Elmirghani, J. MH

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, F. E. Alsaadi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “P2P content distribution in renewable energy powered optical core networks,” submitted for publication. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 2014.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Impact of peers behaviour on the energy efficiency of BitTorrent over optical networks,” in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–8.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient peer selection mechanism for BitTorrent content distribution,” in Proc. Global Commun. Conf., 2012, pp. 1562–1567.

Falkner, N.

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

Feldmann, A.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

Fjeldsted, L.

J. Fonseca, B. Reza, and L. Fjeldsted(2013, Dec. 9).BitTorrent Protocol—BTP/1.0 [Online]. Available: http://jonas.nitro.dk/bittorrent/bittorrent-rfc.html.

Fonseca, J.

J. Fonseca, B. Reza, and L. Fjeldsted(2013, Dec. 9).BitTorrent Protocol—BTP/1.0 [Online]. Available: http://jonas.nitro.dk/bittorrent/bittorrent-rfc.html.

Fu, W.

Z. Lu, J. Wu, and W. Fu, “Towards a novel web services standard-supported CDN-P2P loosely-coupled hybrid and management model,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Services Comput., 2010, pp. 297–304.

Gang, Y.

P. Shi, H. Wang, Y. Gang, and X. Yuan, “ACON: Adaptive construction of the overlay network in CDN-P2P VoD system,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Commun. Softw. Netw, 2011, pp. 182–187.

Giannetti, I.

G. Anastasi, I. Giannetti, and A. Passarella, “A BitTorrent proxy for green internet file sharing: design and experimental evaluation,” Comp. Commun., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 794–802, 2010.

Gill, P.

P. Gill, M. Arlitt, Z. Li, and A. Mahanti, “The flattening internet topology: Natural evolution, unsightly barnacles or contrived collapse?,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Passive Active Netw. Measurement, 2008, pp. 1–10.

Gladisch, A.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2011, pp. 1–4.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN-P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Netw. Telecommun. Syst., 2012, pp. 6–11.

He, J.

J. He, A. Chaintreau, and C. Diot, “A performance evaluation of scalable live video streaming with nano data centers,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 153–167, 2009.

Hilt, V.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Energy-Efficient Comput. Netw. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, 2011.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OThQ5.

Hlavacs, H.

H. Hlavacs, R. Weidlich, and T. Treutner, “Energy efficient peer-to-peer file sharing,” J. Supercomput., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1167–1188, 2011.

Hoßfeld, T.

K. Eger, T. Hoßfeld, A. Binzenh, and G. Kunzmann, “Efficient simulation of large-scale P2P networks: Packet-level versus flow-level simulations,” in Proc. 2nd Workshop Use P2P, GRID, Agents Develop. Content Netw., 2007, pp. 9–16.

Huang, W.

W. Huang, C. Wu, and F. C. M. Lau, “The performance and locality tradeoff in bittorrent-like P2P file-sharing systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Jayasundara, C.

C. A. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Jayasundara, “Energy efficient delivery methods for video-rich services over next generation broadband access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2011, pp. 1–5.

Kang, S.

S. Kang and H. Yin, “A Hybrid CDN-P2P system for video-on- demand,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Future Netw., 2010, pp. 309–313.

Kind, M.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

Knight, S.

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

Kulkarni, S.

D. Xu, S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H. K. Chai, “A CDN-P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Comput. Netw., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–382, 2004.

Kumar, R.

R. Kumar, Y. Liu, and K. Ross, “Stochastic fluid theory for P2P streaming systems,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007, pp. 919–927.

Kunzmann, G.

K. Eger, T. Hoßfeld, A. Binzenh, and G. Kunzmann, “Efficient simulation of large-scale P2P networks: Packet-level versus flow-level simulations,” in Proc. 2nd Workshop Use P2P, GRID, Agents Develop. Content Netw., 2007, pp. 9–16.

Lange, C.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN-P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Netw. Telecommun. Syst., 2012, pp. 6–11.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2011, pp. 1–4.

Lau, F. C. M.

W. Huang, C. Wu, and F. C. M. Lau, “The performance and locality tradeoff in bittorrent-like P2P file-sharing systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Lawey, A.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient peer selection mechanism for BitTorrent content distribution,” in Proc. Global Commun. Conf., 2012, pp. 1562–1567.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Impact of peers behaviour on the energy efficiency of BitTorrent over optical networks,” in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–8.

X. Dong, A. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient core networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modeling, 2012, pp. 1–9.

Lawey, A. Q.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, F. E. Alsaadi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “P2P content distribution in renewable energy powered optical core networks,” submitted for publication. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 2014.

Lee, U.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Energy-Efficient Comput. Netw. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

Lee, Y. C.

A. Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comp., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.

Legout, A.

A. Legout, G. Urvoy-Keller, and P. Michiardi, “Rarest first and choke algorithms are enough,” in Proc. 6th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas., 2006, pp. 203–216.

Li, Z.

P. Gill, M. Arlitt, Z. Li, and A. Mahanti, “The flattening internet topology: Natural evolution, unsightly barnacles or contrived collapse?,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Passive Active Netw. Measurement, 2008, pp. 1–10.

Lim, S.

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

Liu, Y.

R. Kumar, Y. Liu, and K. Ross, “Stochastic fluid theory for P2P streaming systems,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007, pp. 919–927.

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, J. Wu, and W. Fu, “Towards a novel web services standard-supported CDN-P2P loosely-coupled hybrid and management model,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Services Comput., 2010, pp. 297–304.

Lua, E. K.

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

Mahanti, A.

P. Gill, M. Arlitt, Z. Li, and A. Mahanti, “The flattening internet topology: Natural evolution, unsightly barnacles or contrived collapse?,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Passive Active Netw. Measurement, 2008, pp. 1–10.

Mandal, U.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2011, pp. 1–4.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN-P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Netw. Telecommun. Syst., 2012, pp. 6–11.

Michiardi, P.

A. Legout, G. Urvoy-Keller, and P. Michiardi, “Rarest first and choke algorithms are enough,” in Proc. 6th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas., 2006, pp. 203–216.

Mujtaba, A.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, A. Mujtaba, W. Adlan, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Storage area networks extension scenarios in a wide area WDM mesh architecture under heterogeneous traffic,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2009, pp. 1–8.

Mukherjee, B.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN-P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Netw. Telecommun. Syst., 2012, pp. 6–11.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2011, pp. 1–4.

Nedevschi, S.

S. Nedevschi, S. Ratnasamy, and J. Padhye, “Hot data centers versus cool peers,” presented at the Workshop Power Aware Comput. Syst., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008.

Nguyen, H. X.

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

Nirmalathas, A.

C. A. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Jayasundara, “Energy efficient delivery methods for video-rich services over next generation broadband access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2011, pp. 1–5.

Padhye, J.

S. Nedevschi, S. Ratnasamy, and J. Padhye, “Hot data centers versus cool peers,” presented at the Workshop Power Aware Comput. Syst., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008.

Passarella, A.

G. Anastasi, I. Giannetti, and A. Passarella, “A BitTorrent proxy for green internet file sharing: design and experimental evaluation,” Comp. Commun., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 794–802, 2010.

Pias, M.

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

Qiu, D.

D. Qiu and R. Srikant, “Modeling and performance analysis of BitTorrent-like peer-to-peer networks,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Comp. Commun. Rev., 2004, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 367–378.

Ratnasamy, S.

S. Nedevschi, S. Ratnasamy, and J. Padhye, “Hot data centers versus cool peers,” presented at the Workshop Power Aware Comput. Syst., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008.

Reza, B.

J. Fonseca, B. Reza, and L. Fjeldsted(2013, Dec. 9).BitTorrent Protocol—BTP/1.0 [Online]. Available: http://jonas.nitro.dk/bittorrent/bittorrent-rfc.html.

Rimac, I.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Energy-Efficient Comput. Netw. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

Rosenberg, C.

D. Xu, S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H. K. Chai, “A CDN-P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Comput. Netw., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–382, 2004.

Ross, K.

R. Kumar, Y. Liu, and K. Ross, “Stochastic fluid theory for P2P streaming systems,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007, pp. 919–927.

Roughan, M.

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

Sharma, R.

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

Shen, G.

Shi, P.

P. Shi, H. Wang, Y. Gang, and X. Yuan, “ACON: Adaptive construction of the overlay network in CDN-P2P VoD system,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Commun. Softw. Netw, 2011, pp. 182–187.

Smaragdakis, G.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

Srikant, R.

D. Qiu and R. Srikant, “Modeling and performance analysis of BitTorrent-like peer-to-peer networks,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Comp. Commun. Rev., 2004, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 367–378.

Treutner, T.

H. Hlavacs, R. Weidlich, and T. Treutner, “Energy efficient peer-to-peer file sharing,” J. Supercomput., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1167–1188, 2011.

Tucker, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, 2011.

Tucker, R. S.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP overWDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OThQ5.

Urvoy-Keller, G.

A. Legout, G. Urvoy-Keller, and P. Michiardi, “Rarest first and choke algorithms are enough,” in Proc. 6th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas., 2006, pp. 203–216.

Wang, H.

P. Shi, H. Wang, Y. Gang, and X. Yuan, “ACON: Adaptive construction of the overlay network in CDN-P2P VoD system,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Commun. Softw. Netw, 2011, pp. 182–187.

Weidlich, R.

H. Hlavacs, R. Weidlich, and T. Treutner, “Energy efficient peer-to-peer file sharing,” J. Supercomput., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1167–1188, 2011.

Westphal, F. J.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

Wong, E.

C. A. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Jayasundara, “Energy efficient delivery methods for video-rich services over next generation broadband access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2011, pp. 1–5.

Wu, C.

W. Huang, C. Wu, and F. C. M. Lau, “The performance and locality tradeoff in bittorrent-like P2P file-sharing systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–5.

Wu, J.

Z. Lu, J. Wu, and W. Fu, “Towards a novel web services standard-supported CDN-P2P loosely-coupled hybrid and management model,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Services Comput., 2010, pp. 297–304.

Xu, D.

D. Xu, S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H. K. Chai, “A CDN-P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Comput. Netw., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–382, 2004.

Yin, H.

S. Kang and H. Yin, “A Hybrid CDN-P2P system for video-on- demand,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Future Netw., 2010, pp. 309–313.

Yuan, X.

P. Shi, H. Wang, Y. Gang, and X. Yuan, “ACON: Adaptive construction of the overlay network in CDN-P2P VoD system,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Commun. Softw. Netw, 2011, pp. 182–187.

Zomaya, A.

A. Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comp., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.

Adv. Comp. (1)

A. Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comp., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.

Comp. Commun. (1)

G. Anastasi, I. Giannetti, and A. Passarella, “A BitTorrent proxy for green internet file sharing: design and experimental evaluation,” Comp. Commun., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 794–802, 2010.

Comput. Netw. (2)

D. Xu, S. Kulkarni, C. Rosenberg, and H. K. Chai, “A CDN-P2P hybrid architecture for cost-effective streaming media distribution,” Comput. Netw., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 353–382, 2004.

J. He, A. Chaintreau, and C. Diot, “A performance evaluation of scalable live video streaming with nano data centers,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 153–167, 2009.

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials (1)

E. K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 72–93, 2005.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. Knight, H. X. Nguyen, N. Falkner, R. Bowden, and M. Roughan, “The internet topology zoo,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1765–1775, 2011.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1694–1705, 2012

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, F. E. Alsaadi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “P2P content distribution in renewable energy powered optical core networks,” submitted for publication. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 2014.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP overWDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

J. Supercomput. (1)

H. Hlavacs, R. Weidlich, and T. Treutner, “Energy efficient peer-to-peer file sharing,” J. Supercomput., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1167–1188, 2011.

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, 2011.

Other (40)

P. Gill, M. Arlitt, Z. Li, and A. Mahanti, “The flattening internet topology: Natural evolution, unsightly barnacles or contrived collapse?,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Passive Active Netw. Measurement, 2008, pp. 1–10.

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B. Cohen, “Incentives build robustness in BitTorrent,” in Proc. Workshop Econom. Peer-to-Peer Syst., 2003, vol. 6, pp. 68–72.

R. Bindal, P. Cao, and W. Chan, “Improving traffic locality in BitTorrent via biased neighbor selection,” in Proc. IEEE 26th Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput. Syst., 2006, vol. 06, pp. 66–66.

D. Qiu and R. Srikant, “Modeling and performance analysis of BitTorrent-like peer-to-peer networks,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Comp. Commun. Rev., 2004, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 367–378.

S. Nedevschi, S. Ratnasamy, and J. Padhye, “Hot data centers versus cool peers,” presented at the Workshop Power Aware Comput. Syst., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient content distribution over telecom network infrastructure,” in Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2011, pp. 1–4.

A. Feldmann, M. Kind, A. Gladisch, G. Smaragdakis, C. Lange, and F. J. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun., Media Internet Techno-Econom., Ghent, Belgium, 2010, pp. 1–6.

U. Lee, I. Rimac, and V. Hilt, “Greening the internet with content-centric networking,” in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Energy-Efficient Comput. Netw. e-Energy, 2010, pp. 179–182.

W. Huang, C. Wu, and F. C. M. Lau, “The performance and locality tradeoff in bittorrent-like P2P file-sharing systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–5.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient peer selection mechanism for BitTorrent content distribution,” in Proc. Global Commun. Conf., 2012, pp. 1562–1567.

X. Dong, A. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy-efficient core networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modeling, 2012, pp. 1–9.

A. Lawey, T. El-Gorashi, and J. MH Elmirghani, “Impact of peers behaviour on the energy efficiency of BitTorrent over optical networks,” in Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Trans. Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–8.

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K. Eger, T. Hoßfeld, A. Binzenh, and G. Kunzmann, “Efficient simulation of large-scale P2P networks: Packet-level versus flow-level simulations,” in Proc. 2nd Workshop Use P2P, GRID, Agents Develop. Content Netw., 2007, pp. 9–16.

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T. E. H. El-Gorashi, A. Mujtaba, W. Adlan, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Storage area networks extension scenarios in a wide area WDM mesh architecture under heterogeneous traffic,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2009, pp. 1–8.

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S. Kang and H. Yin, “A Hybrid CDN-P2P system for video-on- demand,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Future Netw., 2010, pp. 309–313.

Z. Lu, J. Wu, and W. Fu, “Towards a novel web services standard-supported CDN-P2P loosely-coupled hybrid and management model,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Services Comput., 2010, pp. 297–304.

P. Shi, H. Wang, Y. Gang, and X. Yuan, “ACON: Adaptive construction of the overlay network in CDN-P2P VoD system,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf. Commun. Softw. Netw, 2011, pp. 182–187.

C. A. Chan, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, and C. Jayasundara, “Energy efficient delivery methods for video-rich services over next generation broadband access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2011, pp. 1–5.

U. Mandal, C. Lange, A. Gladisch, and B. Mukherjee, “Should ISPs adopt hybrid CDN-P2P in IP-over-WDM networks: An energy-efficiency perspective?,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Adv. Netw. Telecommun. Syst., 2012, pp. 6–11.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OThQ5.

Cisco Systems. (2013, Dec. 9). Data sheet of Cisco 300 series switches [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps10898/data_sheet_c78–610061.html

HP. (2013, Dec. 9).Data sheet of HP ProLiant DL120 G7 Server series [Online]. Available: http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/press_kits/2011/poweryourdream/HP_ProLiant_DL120_G7_Datasheet.pdf

B. Cohen, (2013, 9). The bittorrent protocol specification [Online]. Available: http://www.bittorrent.org/beps/bep_0003.html

J. Fonseca, B. Reza, and L. Fjeldsted(2013, Dec. 9).BitTorrent Protocol—BTP/1.0 [Online]. Available: http://jonas.nitro.dk/bittorrent/bittorrent-rfc.html.

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A. Legout, G. Urvoy-Keller, and P. Michiardi, “Rarest first and choke algorithms are enough,” in Proc. 6th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas., 2006, pp. 203–216.

R. Kumar, Y. Liu, and K. Ross, “Stochastic fluid theory for P2P streaming systems,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007, pp. 919–927.

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Cisco Systems. Cisco CRS-1 8-slot single-shelf system [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/routers/crs-1-8-slot-single-shelf-system/product_data_sheet0900aecd801d53a1.pdf

Glimmerglass. Data sheet of glimmerglass intelligent optical system 500 [Online]. Available: http://www.glimmerglass.com/products/intelligent-optical-system-500/

Cisco Systems. Cisco ONS15501 erbium doped fiber amplifier data sheet [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/optical/ps2011/products_data_sheet09186a008008870d.html

Cisco Systems. Data sheet of Cisco ONS 15454 100-GHz 32-CH Multi/Demultiplexer [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/.pdf

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