Abstract

A proof-of-principle demonstration of a multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is reported. It uses standard uncooled distributed feedback lasers with intensity modulation-direction detection (IM-DD), in which the temperature of each laser is allowed to drift independently within a 50 °C temperature range. A feedback-based laser bias control algorithm is introduced to guarantee acceptable wavelength spacing and a postphotodetection minimum mean square error decoder is applied to cancel the interchannel crosstalk. The relative sensitivity of the MIMO receiver in both a random laser temperature drift scenario and a worst-case scenario are investigated by simulations in MATLAB. Experimental results for a 40-channel × 12.5 Gb/s DWDM system transmitting over 28 km of single-mode fiber with worst possible wavelength distribution prove the feasibility of the technique.

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2013 (1)

A. Bianco, T. Bonald, D. Cuda, and R. Indre, “Cost, power consumption and performance evaluation of metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2013.

2012 (1)

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

2011 (1)

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, 2011.

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. N. Pilipetskii, “High-capacity undersea long-haul systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 484–496, 2006.

2005 (2)

N. S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4125–4139, 2005.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 737–758, 2005.

2004 (2)

L. Chrostowski, C. Chih-Hao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locked 1.55-μm tunable VCSEL for uncooled WDM transmitter applications,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 888–890, 2004.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

2001 (1)

J. Savoj and B. Razavi, “A 10-Gb/s CMOS clock and data recovery circuit with a half-rate linear phase detector,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 761–768, 2001.

2000 (1)

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, 2000.

1990 (1)

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: Principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 948–964, 1990.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the internet,” presented at the Joint Conf. Opt. Int. Australian Conf. Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Australia, Jun. 2007.

Banerjee, A.

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4125–4139, 2005.

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, T. Bonald, D. Cuda, and R. Indre, “Cost, power consumption and performance evaluation of metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2013.

Bonald, T.

A. Bianco, T. Bonald, D. Cuda, and R. Indre, “Cost, power consumption and performance evaluation of metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2013.

Brackett, C. A.

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: Principles and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 948–964, 1990.

Breuer, D.

R. Huelsermann, K. Grobe, and D. Breuer, “Cost and performance evaluation of WDM-based access networks,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper NTh3F.4.

Busico, G.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

L. Chrostowski, C. Chih-Hao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locked 1.55-μm tunable VCSEL for uncooled WDM transmitter applications,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 888–890, 2004.

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, “Low cost WDM technology for emerging telecommunications applications,” presented at the Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. Ann. Meet., San Francisco, CA, USA, Nov. 10–13, 1997, Paper ThN2.

Chih-Hao, C.

L. Chrostowski, C. Chih-Hao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locked 1.55-μm tunable VCSEL for uncooled WDM transmitter applications,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 888–890, 2004.

Choi, K.-M.

Chrostowski, L.

L. Chrostowski, C. Chih-Hao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Injection-locked 1.55-μm tunable VCSEL for uncooled WDM transmitter applications,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 888–890, 2004.

Clarke, F.

Cuda, D.

A. Bianco, T. Bonald, D. Cuda, and R. Indre, “Cost, power consumption and performance evaluation of metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2013.

Cunningham, D.

J. Ingham, S. Lee, R. Penty, I. White, and D. Cunningham, “100 Gb/s uncooled WDM system using conventional WDM components and advanced receiver signal processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 16–20, 2012, Paper P4.09.

Cunningham, D. G.

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

Cush, R.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

Davies, A.

A. Davies, S. Fan, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Active wavelength control of tunable lasers for use in uncooled WDM systems,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., Baltimore, MD, USA, Jun. 6–6, 2003, Paper CThW6.

Eiselt, M.

M. Roppelt, F. Pohl, K. Grobe, M. Eiselt, and J.-P. Elbers, “Tuning methods for uncooled low-cost tunable lasers in WDM-PON,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 6–10, 2011, Paper NTuB1.

Elbers, J.-P.

M. Roppelt, F. Pohl, K. Grobe, M. Eiselt, and J.-P. Elbers, “Tuning methods for uncooled low-cost tunable lasers in WDM-PON,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 6–10, 2011, Paper NTuB1.

Fan, S.

A. Davies, S. Fan, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Active wavelength control of tunable lasers for use in uncooled WDM systems,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., Baltimore, MD, USA, Jun. 6–6, 2003, Paper CThW6.

Funabashi, M.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Grobe, K.

R. Huelsermann, K. Grobe, and D. Breuer, “Cost and performance evaluation of WDM-based access networks,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper NTh3F.4.

M. Roppelt, F. Pohl, K. Grobe, M. Eiselt, and J.-P. Elbers, “Tuning methods for uncooled low-cost tunable lasers in WDM-PON,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 6–10, 2011, Paper NTuB1.

Hadama, K.

T. Sakamoto, S. Nobuo, S. Koike, K. Hadama, and K. Naoya, “4 channel × 10 Gbit/s optical module for CWDM links,” in Proc. 54th Electron. Component Technol. Conf., Jun. 1–4, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1024–1028.

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the internet,” presented at the Joint Conf. Opt. Int. Australian Conf. Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Australia, Jun. 2007.

Hoyos, S.

E. Z. Tabasy, A. Shafik, L. Keytaek, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo, “A 6b 10GS/s TI-SAR ADC with embedded 2-tap FFE/1-tap DFE in 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., Jun. 12–14, 2013, pp. C274–C275.

Huelsermann, R.

R. Huelsermann, K. Grobe, and D. Breuer, “Cost and performance evaluation of WDM-based access networks,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper NTh3F.4.

Indre, R.

A. Bianco, T. Bonald, D. Cuda, and R. Indre, “Cost, power consumption and performance evaluation of metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2013.

Ingham, J.

J. Ingham, S. Lee, R. Penty, I. White, and D. Cunningham, “100 Gb/s uncooled WDM system using conventional WDM components and advanced receiver signal processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 16–20, 2012, Paper P4.09.

Ingham, J. D.

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

I. H. White, J. D. Ingham, S. H. Lee, and R. V. Penty, “Uncooled dense WDM,” in Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf., Guangzhou, China, 2012, Paper AF3C.1.

Jeong, K.-T.

Kasukawa, A.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Keytaek, L.

E. Z. Tabasy, A. Shafik, L. Keytaek, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo, “A 6b 10GS/s TI-SAR ADC with embedded 2-tap FFE/1-tap DFE in 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., Jun. 12–14, 2013, pp. C274–C275.

Kibune, M.

Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

Kim, B.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, K.

Kimoto, T.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Kise, T.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Koike, S.

T. Sakamoto, S. Nobuo, S. Koike, K. Hadama, and K. Naoya, “4 channel × 10 Gbit/s optical module for CWDM links,” in Proc. 54th Electron. Component Technol. Conf., Jun. 1–4, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1024–1028.

Kramer, G.

Kuroda, T.

Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, S.

J. Ingham, S. Lee, R. Penty, I. White, and D. Cunningham, “100 Gb/s uncooled WDM system using conventional WDM components and advanced receiver signal processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 16–20, 2012, Paper P4.09.

Lee, S. H.

I. H. White, J. D. Ingham, S. H. Lee, and R. V. Penty, “Uncooled dense WDM,” in Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf., Guangzhou, China, 2012, Paper AF3C.1.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

Lee, S.-M.

Moon, J.-H.

Mukaihara, T.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Mukherjee, B.

Mun, S.-G.

Naoya, K.

T. Sakamoto, S. Nobuo, S. Koike, K. Hadama, and K. Naoya, “4 channel × 10 Gbit/s optical module for CWDM links,” in Proc. 54th Electron. Component Technol. Conf., Jun. 1–4, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1024–1028.

Nasu, H.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Nobuo, S.

T. Sakamoto, S. Nobuo, S. Koike, K. Hadama, and K. Naoya, “4 channel × 10 Gbit/s optical module for CWDM links,” in Proc. 54th Electron. Component Technol. Conf., Jun. 1–4, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1024–1028.

Nomura, T.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Ogawa, J.

Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

Oike, M.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Palermo, S.

E. Z. Tabasy, A. Shafik, L. Keytaek, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo, “A 6b 10GS/s TI-SAR ADC with embedded 2-tap FFE/1-tap DFE in 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., Jun. 12–14, 2013, pp. C274–C275.

Park, Y.

Penty, R.

J. Ingham, S. Lee, R. Penty, I. White, and D. Cunningham, “100 Gb/s uncooled WDM system using conventional WDM components and advanced receiver signal processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 16–20, 2012, Paper P4.09.

Penty, R. V.

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

A. Davies, S. Fan, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Active wavelength control of tunable lasers for use in uncooled WDM systems,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., Baltimore, MD, USA, Jun. 6–6, 2003, Paper CThW6.

I. H. White, J. D. Ingham, S. H. Lee, and R. V. Penty, “Uncooled dense WDM,” in Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf., Guangzhou, China, 2012, Paper AF3C.1.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

Penty, R.V.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

A. N. Pilipetskii, “High-capacity undersea long-haul systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 484–496, 2006.

Pohl, F.

M. Roppelt, F. Pohl, K. Grobe, M. Eiselt, and J.-P. Elbers, “Tuning methods for uncooled low-cost tunable lasers in WDM-PON,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 6–10, 2011, Paper NTuB1.

Razavi, B.

J. Savoj and B. Razavi, “A 10-Gb/s CMOS clock and data recovery circuit with a half-rate linear phase detector,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 761–768, 2001.

Roppelt, M.

M. Roppelt, F. Pohl, K. Grobe, M. Eiselt, and J.-P. Elbers, “Tuning methods for uncooled low-cost tunable lasers in WDM-PON,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 6–10, 2011, Paper NTuB1.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, S. Nobuo, S. Koike, K. Hadama, and K. Naoya, “4 channel × 10 Gbit/s optical module for CWDM links,” in Proc. 54th Electron. Component Technol. Conf., Jun. 1–4, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1024–1028.

Savoj, J.

J. Savoj and B. Razavi, “A 10-Gb/s CMOS clock and data recovery circuit with a half-rate linear phase detector,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 761–768, 2001.

Shafik, A.

E. Z. Tabasy, A. Shafik, L. Keytaek, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo, “A 6b 10GS/s TI-SAR ADC with embedded 2-tap FFE/1-tap DFE in 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., Jun. 12–14, 2013, pp. C274–C275.

Shinagawa, T.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Song, H.

Tabasy, E. Z.

E. Z. Tabasy, A. Shafik, L. Keytaek, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo, “A 6b 10GS/s TI-SAR ADC with embedded 2-tap FFE/1-tap DFE in 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., Jun. 12–14, 2013, pp. C274–C275.

Takagi, T.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Takaki, K.

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

Tamura, H.

Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

Tomita, Y.

Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, 2011.

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the internet,” presented at the Joint Conf. Opt. Int. Australian Conf. Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Australia, Jun. 2007.

Wale, M.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

Walker, W. W.

Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

Wei, J. L.

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

White, I.

J. Ingham, S. Lee, R. Penty, I. White, and D. Cunningham, “100 Gb/s uncooled WDM system using conventional WDM components and advanced receiver signal processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 16–20, 2012, Paper P4.09.

White, I. H.

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

A. Davies, S. Fan, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Active wavelength control of tunable lasers for use in uncooled WDM systems,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., Baltimore, MD, USA, Jun. 6–6, 2003, Paper CThW6.

I. H. White, J. D. Ingham, S. H. Lee, and R. V. Penty, “Uncooled dense WDM,” in Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf., Guangzhou, China, 2012, Paper AF3C.1.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

Wonfor, A.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

Yang, S.

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IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Funabashi, H. Nasu, T. Mukaihara, T. Kimoto, T. Shinagawa, T. Kise, K. Takaki, T. Takagi, M. Oike, T. Nomura, and A. Kasukawa, “Recent advances in DFB lasers for ultradense WDM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 2004.

A. N. Pilipetskii, “High-capacity undersea long-haul systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 484–496, 2006.

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 245–260, 2011.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. (1)

J. Savoj and B. Razavi, “A 10-Gb/s CMOS clock and data recovery circuit with a half-rate linear phase detector,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 761–768, 2001.

IEEE/ OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

N. S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4125–4139, 2005.

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 20, pp. 3273–3280, 152012.

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A. Bianco, T. Bonald, D. Cuda, and R. Indre, “Cost, power consumption and performance evaluation of metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2013.

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I. H. White, J. D. Ingham, S. H. Lee, and R. V. Penty, “Uncooled dense WDM,” in Proc. Commun. Photon. Conf., Guangzhou, China, 2012, Paper AF3C.1.

J. Ingham, S. Lee, R. Penty, I. White, and D. Cunningham, “100 Gb/s uncooled WDM system using conventional WDM components and advanced receiver signal processing,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 16–20, 2012, Paper P4.09.

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Y. Tomita, M. Kibune, J. Ogawa, W. W. Walker, H. Tamura, and T. Kuroda “A 10 Gb/s receiver with equalizer and on-chip ISI monitor in 0.11 μm CMOS,” in Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 17–19, 2004, pp. 202–205.

E. Z. Tabasy, A. Shafik, L. Keytaek, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo, “A 6b 10GS/s TI-SAR ADC with embedded 2-tap FFE/1-tap DFE in 65nm CMOS,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., Jun. 12–14, 2013, pp. C274–C275.

(2014). Xilinx, Inc. Power Efficiency for Xilinx 7 series. [Online]. Available: http://www.xilinx.com/products/technology/power/index.htm

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J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the internet,” presented at the Joint Conf. Opt. Int. Australian Conf. Opt. Fibre Technol., Melbourne, Australia, Jun. 2007.

Y. J. Chen, “Low cost WDM technology for emerging telecommunications applications,” presented at the Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. Ann. Meet., San Francisco, CA, USA, Nov. 10–13, 1997, Paper ThN2.

A. Davies, S. Fan, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Active wavelength control of tunable lasers for use in uncooled WDM systems,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt., Baltimore, MD, USA, Jun. 6–6, 2003, Paper CThW6.

T. Sakamoto, S. Nobuo, S. Koike, K. Hadama, and K. Naoya, “4 channel × 10 Gbit/s optical module for CWDM links,” in Proc. 54th Electron. Component Technol. Conf., Jun. 1–4, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 1024–1028.

M. Roppelt, F. Pohl, K. Grobe, M. Eiselt, and J.-P. Elbers, “Tuning methods for uncooled low-cost tunable lasers in WDM-PON,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 6–10, 2011, Paper NTuB1.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Uncooled DWDM transmission system using tunable laser sources with anti-mode-hop control protocol,” presented at the Photon. Conf., Arlington, VA, USAOct. 9–13, 2011, Paper TuE2.

S. H. Lee, A. Wonfor, R.V. Penty, I. H. White, G. Busico, R. Cush, and M. Wale, “Self-configuring athermal tunable DS-DBR laser for passive optical networks,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf., San Jose, CA, USA, May 2010, Paper CWN5.

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