Abstract

We report on the recent development of multicore fiber amplifiers suitable for amplifying space division multiplexed signals. We designed and constructed 7-core amplifiers, where the cores could be pumped individually or simultaneously through the cladding and studied the amplification and noise properties of these amplifiers. In the core-pumped amplifier, the net average gain was 25 dB, and noise figure was less than 4 dB. Using side-coupled cladding pumping, gain over 25 dB was obtained in each of the cores over a 40-nm bandwidth covering the C-band. We present results of numerical simulation that shows ways of further improvement of amplifier performance, including gain, noise figure, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) through optimization of fiber design.

© 2014 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Morioka, "New generation optical infrastructure technologies: “EXAT initiative” towards 2020 and beyond," Proc. 14th Optoelectronics Commun. Conf. .
  2. A. R. Chraplyvy, "The coming capacity crunch," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. presented at theViennaAustria (2009).
  3. R. Essiambre, A. Mecozzi, "Capacity limits in single mode fiber and scaling for spatial multiplexing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2012).
  4. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, "Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres," Nature Photon. 7, 344-362 (2013).
  5. S. Inao, T. Sato, S. Sentsui, T. Kuroha, Y. Nishimura, "Multicore optical fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun., (1979).
  6. B. Rosinski, J. W. D. Chi, P. Grosso, J. L. Bihan, "Multichannel transmission of a multicore fiber coupled with vertical cavities," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 807-810 (1999 ).
  7. B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-Km seven-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 19, 16665-16671 (2011).
  8. J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, "305 Tb/s space division multiplexed transmission using homogeneous 19-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 554 -562 (2013).
  9. H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Kawakami, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, Y. Goto, K. Tsujikawa, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Morioka, "1.01-Pb/s (12 SDM/222 WDM/456 Gb/s) crosstalk-managed transmission with 91.4-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. ( 2012).
  10. D. Qian, E. Ip, M. Huang, M. Li, A. Dogariu, S. Zhang, Y. Shao, Y. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, Y. Tian, P. Ji, A. Collier, Y. Geng, J. Linares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, T. Wang, "1.05Pb/s transmission with 109b/s/Hz spectral efficiency using hybrid single- and few-mode cores," Proc.Conf. Frontiers Opt. (2012).
  11. K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, M. Suzuki, " 1.03-Exabit/s-km super-nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. .
  12. S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, R. Lingle, "Mode-multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2012) pp. 1-3.
  13. V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, "73.7 Tb/s (96×3×256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. presented at theAmsterdamThe Netherlands (2012) Paper Th.3.C.4.
  14. R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, R. Lingle, " 32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2013).
  15. E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, E. Mateo, W. Wood, J. Hu, Y. Yano, K. Koreshkov, "146λ × 6 × 19-Gbaud wavelength- and mode-division multiplexed transmission over 10×50-Km spans of few-mode fiber with a gain-equalized few-mode EDFA ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. ( 2013).
  16. P. M. Krummrich, "Optical amplification and optical filter based signal for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 19 , 16636-16652 (2011).
  17. D. J. Richardson, "Optical amplifiers for space division multiplexed systems ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. ( 2013).
  18. N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, G. Li, "Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump," Opt. Exp. 19, 16601-16611 (2011).
  19. Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, "First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems," Opt. Exp. 19, B952-B957 (2011).
  20. Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP $_{01}$ pump configuration," Opt. Exp. 20, 20835-20843 (2012).
  21. M. Salsi, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, "A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2012) pp. 1-3 .
  22. G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, "Design and characterization of a multimode EDFA supporting 4 transverse mode groups for modal division multiplexed transmissions," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2012) pp. 1-3.
  23. Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Design of four-mode erbium doped fiber amplifier with low differential modal gain for modal division multiplexed transmissions," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Commun. (2013) pp. 1-3.
  24. K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, P. W. Wisk, "Amplification and noise properties of an erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 19 , 16715-16721 (2011).
  25. Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, Y. Mimura, H. Matsuura, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, R. Sugizaki, "Amplification characteristics of a multi-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2012).
  26. Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanabe, T. Ito, K. Fukuchi, M. Yoshida, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, M. Nakazawa, "Multicore EDFA for DWDM transmission in full C-band ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. ( 2013).
  27. J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tottori, M. Watanabe, R. V. Jensen, "19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics," Opt. Exp. 22 , 90-95 (2014).
  28. K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 20191-20200 (2012).
  29. Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, "Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2012).
  30. K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, B. Zhu, M. Y. Fan, L. Bansal, F. V. Dimarcello, E. M. Monberg, D. J. Richardsdon, "Seven-core erbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier pumped simultaneously by side-coupled multimode fiber," Opt. Lett. 39 , 993-996 (2014).
  31. M. Yamada, K. Tsujikawa, L. Ma, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, N. Hanzawa, H. Ono, "Optical fiber amplifier employing a bundle of reduced cladding erbium-doped fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1910-1913 (2012).
  32. S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, " Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations," Opt. Lett. 38, 582-584 (2013).
  33. D. J. DiGiovanni and A. J. Stentz, “Tapered fiber bundles for coupling light into and out of cladding-pumped fiber devices,” U.S. patent 5 864 644, Jan. 26, 1999..
  34. J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, D. A. V. Kliner, "A new method for side pumping of double-clad fiber sources," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529-540 (2003).
  35. V. P. Gapontsev and I. Samartsev, “Coupling arrangement between a multimode light source and an optical fiber through an intermediate optical fiber length,” U.S. patent 5 999 673, 1996..
  36. T. Theeg, H. Sayinc, J. Neumann, L. Overmeyer, D. Kracht, " Pump and signal combiner for bi-directional pumping of all-fiber lasers and amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 28125-28141 (2012).
  37. A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent 6 826 335, Nov. 30, 2004..
  38. K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, "Cladding pumping technology for next generation fiber amplifiers and lasers," Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Their Appl. (2003 ).
  39. Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP $_{01}$ pump configuration,," Opt. Exp 20 pp. 20835-20843.
  40. E. Ip, "Gain equalization for few-mode fiber amplifiers beyond two propagating mode groups," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1933-1936 (2012 ).
  41. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, 1999).
  42. Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanabe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, "Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fibre based fan-in/out," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun.) (2012).
  43. J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tottori, M. Watanabe, R. V. Jensen, "19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics," Opt. Exp. 22 , 90-95 (2014).
  44. OPTOFAN-3D. (2012, Sep.) [Online]. Available: http://optoscribe.com/products/3d-optofan-series/.

2014 (3)

J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tottori, M. Watanabe, R. V. Jensen, "19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics," Opt. Exp. 22 , 90-95 (2014).

K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, B. Zhu, M. Y. Fan, L. Bansal, F. V. Dimarcello, E. M. Monberg, D. J. Richardsdon, "Seven-core erbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier pumped simultaneously by side-coupled multimode fiber," Opt. Lett. 39 , 993-996 (2014).

J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tottori, M. Watanabe, R. V. Jensen, "19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics," Opt. Exp. 22 , 90-95 (2014).

2013 (3)

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, " Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations," Opt. Lett. 38, 582-584 (2013).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, "305 Tb/s space division multiplexed transmission using homogeneous 19-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 554 -562 (2013).

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, "Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres," Nature Photon. 7, 344-362 (2013).

2012 (4)

Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP $_{01}$ pump configuration," Opt. Exp. 20, 20835-20843 (2012).

T. Theeg, H. Sayinc, J. Neumann, L. Overmeyer, D. Kracht, " Pump and signal combiner for bi-directional pumping of all-fiber lasers and amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 28125-28141 (2012).

M. Yamada, K. Tsujikawa, L. Ma, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, N. Hanzawa, H. Ono, "Optical fiber amplifier employing a bundle of reduced cladding erbium-doped fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1910-1913 (2012).

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 20191-20200 (2012).

2011 (5)

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, P. W. Wisk, "Amplification and noise properties of an erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 19 , 16715-16721 (2011).

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-Km seven-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 19, 16665-16671 (2011).

P. M. Krummrich, "Optical amplification and optical filter based signal for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 19 , 16636-16652 (2011).

N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, G. Li, "Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump," Opt. Exp. 19, 16601-16611 (2011).

Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, "First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems," Opt. Exp. 19, B952-B957 (2011).

2003 (1)

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, D. A. V. Kliner, "A new method for side pumping of double-clad fiber sources," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529-540 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. Theeg, H. Sayinc, J. Neumann, L. Overmeyer, D. Kracht, " Pump and signal combiner for bi-directional pumping of all-fiber lasers and amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 28125-28141 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, " Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations," Opt. Lett. 38, 582-584 (2013).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. Rosinski, J. W. D. Chi, P. Grosso, J. L. Bihan, "Multichannel transmission of a multicore fiber coupled with vertical cavities," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 807-810 (1999 ).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, D. A. V. Kliner, "A new method for side pumping of double-clad fiber sources," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529-540 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Yamada, K. Tsujikawa, L. Ma, K. Ichii, S. Matsuo, N. Hanzawa, H. Ono, "Optical fiber amplifier employing a bundle of reduced cladding erbium-doped fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1910-1913 (2012).

E. Ip, "Gain equalization for few-mode fiber amplifiers beyond two propagating mode groups," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1933-1936 (2012 ).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, "305 Tb/s space division multiplexed transmission using homogeneous 19-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 554 -562 (2013).

Nature Photon. (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, "Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres," Nature Photon. 7, 344-362 (2013).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP $_{01}$ pump configuration," Opt. Exp. 20, 20835-20843 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (8)

N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, G. Li, "Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump," Opt. Exp. 19, 16601-16611 (2011).

Y. Jung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Dhar, D. Giles, I. P. Giles, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, "First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for space division multiplexed transmission systems," Opt. Exp. 19, B952-B957 (2011).

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, P. W. Wisk, "Amplification and noise properties of an erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 19 , 16715-16721 (2011).

J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tottori, M. Watanabe, R. V. Jensen, "19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics," Opt. Exp. 22 , 90-95 (2014).

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 20191-20200 (2012).

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-Km seven-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 19, 16665-16671 (2011).

P. M. Krummrich, "Optical amplification and optical filter based signal for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 19 , 16636-16652 (2011).

J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, J. M. D. Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tottori, M. Watanabe, R. V. Jensen, "19-core MCF transmission system using EDFA with shared core pumping coupled via free-space optics," Opt. Exp. 22 , 90-95 (2014).

Opt. Lett. (1)

K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, B. Zhu, M. Y. Fan, L. Bansal, F. V. Dimarcello, E. M. Monberg, D. J. Richardsdon, "Seven-core erbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier pumped simultaneously by side-coupled multimode fiber," Opt. Lett. 39 , 993-996 (2014).

Other (26)

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, "Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2012).

V. P. Gapontsev and I. Samartsev, “Coupling arrangement between a multimode light source and an optical fiber through an intermediate optical fiber length,” U.S. patent 5 999 673, 1996..

D. J. DiGiovanni and A. J. Stentz, “Tapered fiber bundles for coupling light into and out of cladding-pumped fiber devices,” U.S. patent 5 864 644, Jan. 26, 1999..

Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, Y. Mimura, H. Matsuura, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, R. Sugizaki, "Amplification characteristics of a multi-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2012).

Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanabe, T. Ito, K. Fukuchi, M. Yoshida, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, M. Nakazawa, "Multicore EDFA for DWDM transmission in full C-band ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. ( 2013).

M. Salsi, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, "A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2012) pp. 1-3 .

G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, A. Le Rouge, M. Bigot-Astruc, P. Sillard, Y. Quiquempois, "Design and characterization of a multimode EDFA supporting 4 transverse mode groups for modal division multiplexed transmissions," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2012) pp. 1-3.

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, F. Poletti, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Design of four-mode erbium doped fiber amplifier with low differential modal gain for modal division multiplexed transmissions," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Commun. (2013) pp. 1-3.

D. J. Richardson, "Optical amplifiers for space division multiplexed systems ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. ( 2013).

S. Inao, T. Sato, S. Sentsui, T. Kuroha, Y. Nishimura, "Multicore optical fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun., (1979).

T. Morioka, "New generation optical infrastructure technologies: “EXAT initiative” towards 2020 and beyond," Proc. 14th Optoelectronics Commun. Conf. .

A. R. Chraplyvy, "The coming capacity crunch," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. presented at theViennaAustria (2009).

R. Essiambre, A. Mecozzi, "Capacity limits in single mode fiber and scaling for spatial multiplexing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2012).

H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, H. Kubota, H. Kawakami, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Abe, H. Ono, K. Shikama, Y. Goto, K. Tsujikawa, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Morioka, "1.01-Pb/s (12 SDM/222 WDM/456 Gb/s) crosstalk-managed transmission with 91.4-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. ( 2012).

D. Qian, E. Ip, M. Huang, M. Li, A. Dogariu, S. Zhang, Y. Shao, Y. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. Cheng, Y. Tian, P. Ji, A. Collier, Y. Geng, J. Linares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, T. Wang, "1.05Pb/s transmission with 109b/s/Hz spectral efficiency using hybrid single- and few-mode cores," Proc.Conf. Frontiers Opt. (2012).

K. Igarashi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, M. Tadakuma, T. Saito, K. Watanabe, K. Imamura, R. Sugizaki, M. Suzuki, " 1.03-Exabit/s-km super-nyquist-WDM transmission over 7,326-km seven-core fiber," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. .

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, R. Lingle, "Mode-multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2012) pp. 1-3.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, "73.7 Tb/s (96×3×256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. presented at theAmsterdamThe Netherlands (2012) Paper Th.3.C.4.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, N. K. Fontaine, M. Montoliu, E. Burrows, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. Xie, R.-J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, R. Lingle, " 32-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency WDM transmission over 177-km few-mode fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2013).

E. Ip, M.-J. Li, Y.-K. Huang, A. Tanaka, E. Mateo, W. Wood, J. Hu, Y. Yano, K. Koreshkov, "146λ × 6 × 19-Gbaud wavelength- and mode-division multiplexed transmission over 10×50-Km spans of few-mode fiber with a gain-equalized few-mode EDFA ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. ( 2013).

OPTOFAN-3D. (2012, Sep.) [Online]. Available: http://optoscribe.com/products/3d-optofan-series/.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, 1999).

Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanabe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, "Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fibre based fan-in/out," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun.) (2012).

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent 6 826 335, Nov. 30, 2004..

K. Yla-Jarkko, S. Alam, P. W. Turner, J. Moore, J. Nilsson, R. Selvas, D. B. Soh, C. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, "Cladding pumping technology for next generation fiber amplifiers and lasers," Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Their Appl. (2003 ).

Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, "Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP $_{01}$ pump configuration,," Opt. Exp 20 pp. 20835-20843.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.