Abstract

In this paper, a new all-optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) in a TDM system is proposed and analyzed. The scheme relies on using fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) device models and theories. In the proposed OPLL, the local clock pulse stream and the received data signal pulses are fed into the FOPA as its pump and amplified signals, respectively. The power of the resulting, relatively, strong idler signal depends on the phase difference between the local clock and the received data signal pulses, and it is used to reveal the OPLL's error signal. We characterize the mathematical structure of the proposed OPLL and identify its three intrinsic sources of phase noises namely, randomness of received data pulses, detector's shot noise, and the FOPA noises such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The ASE noise is reflected in the FOPA's noise figure parametrically. However, the effects of the other two noise sources on the proposed OPLL performance are investigated, using the power spectral densities (PSDs) of the signals involved in the OPLL. Finally, the PSDs are used to obtain a mathematical expression for the OPLL's timing jitter. From the analytical results, our proposed OPLL benefits from the FOPA's inherent large bandwidth and exhibits a very low timing jitter, which is in the order of femtosecond, for an OTDM system with 80 Gbps data rate.

© 2014 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Jinno and T. Matsumoto, “All-optical timing extraction using a 1.5 μm self pulsating multielectrode DFB LD,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1426–1427, 1988.
  2. P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.
  3. M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, and M. Koga, “All-optical timing extraction using an optical tank circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 203–204, 1990.
  4. Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.
  5. S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “New-type phase-locked loop using travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier for very high-speed optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1452–1453, 1988.
  6. S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “10 GHz timing extraction from randomly modulated optical pulses using phase-locked loop with travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier using optical gain modulation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 510–511, 1992.
  7. S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “Ultra-high-speed PLL-type clock recovery circuit based on all-optical gain modulation in traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2123–2129, 1993.
  8. E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.
  9. H. Bulow, “Optoelectronic synchronisation scheme for ultrahigh-speed optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1937–1938, 1995.
  10. I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.
  11. T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.
  12. Y. M. Jhon, H. J. Ki, and S. H. Kim, “Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Opt. Commun., vol. 220, pp. 315–319, 2003.
  13. I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.
  14. I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.
  15. D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.
  16. D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.
  17. I. Kang and M. Yan, “Simple setup for simultaneous optical clock recovery and ultra-short sampling pulse generation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1199–1201, 2002.
  18. C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.
  19. J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.
  20. H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.
  21. E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.
  22. E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, and J. Goldhar, “Simultaneous four-wave mixing and cross-absorption modulation inside a single EAM for high-speed optical demultiplexing and clock recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1534–1536, 2005.
  23. E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.
  24. E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.
  25. H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.
  26. O. Kamatani, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Prescaled 6.3 GHz clock recovery from 50 Gbit/s TDM optical signal with 50 GHz PLL using four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 807–809, 1994.
  27. O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, “Ultrahigh-speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757–1767, 1996.
  28. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.
  29. L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.
  30. B. P. Kuo, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Self-phase tracked fiber-optical parametric sampling gate for 640-Gb/s OTDM de-multiplexing,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–3.
  31. A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.
  32. P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1440–1441, 1991.
  33. P. O. Hedekvist, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber four-wave mixing demultiplexing with inherent parametric amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2051–2058, 1997.
  34. X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.
  35. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2012.
  36. M. E. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008.
  37. A. J. Viterbi, Principles of Coherent Communication, vol. 14. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1966.
  38. F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2005.
  39. R. E. Best, Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation and Applications. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
  40. H. Zarkoob and J. A. Salehi, “Performance limits of optical clock recovery systems based on two-photon absorption detection scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 963–971, 2008.
  41. A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.
  42. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.
  43. Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.
  44. R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications. NewYork, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995.
  45. E. Desurvire, “On the physical origin of the 3-dB noise figure limit in laser and parametric optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 5, pp. 40–61, 1999.

2010 (2)

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.

2009 (1)

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

2008 (1)

H. Zarkoob and J. A. Salehi, “Performance limits of optical clock recovery systems based on two-photon absorption detection scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 963–971, 2008.

2007 (1)

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.

2005 (2)

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, and J. Goldhar, “Simultaneous four-wave mixing and cross-absorption modulation inside a single EAM for high-speed optical demultiplexing and clock recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1534–1536, 2005.

2004 (3)

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

2003 (5)

E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.

Y. M. Jhon, H. J. Ki, and S. H. Kim, “Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Opt. Commun., vol. 220, pp. 315–319, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

2002 (4)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

I. Kang and M. Yan, “Simple setup for simultaneous optical clock recovery and ultra-short sampling pulse generation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1199–1201, 2002.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

2001 (2)

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

2000 (2)

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

1999 (1)

E. Desurvire, “On the physical origin of the 3-dB noise figure limit in laser and parametric optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 5, pp. 40–61, 1999.

1998 (2)

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

1997 (2)

P. O. Hedekvist, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber four-wave mixing demultiplexing with inherent parametric amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2051–2058, 1997.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.

1996 (1)

O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, “Ultrahigh-speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757–1767, 1996.

1995 (1)

H. Bulow, “Optoelectronic synchronisation scheme for ultrahigh-speed optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1937–1938, 1995.

1994 (1)

O. Kamatani, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Prescaled 6.3 GHz clock recovery from 50 Gbit/s TDM optical signal with 50 GHz PLL using four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 807–809, 1994.

1993 (1)

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “Ultra-high-speed PLL-type clock recovery circuit based on all-optical gain modulation in traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2123–2129, 1993.

1992 (1)

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “10 GHz timing extraction from randomly modulated optical pulses using phase-locked loop with travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier using optical gain modulation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 510–511, 1992.

1991 (2)

P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.

P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1440–1441, 1991.

1990 (1)

M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, and M. Koga, “All-optical timing extraction using an optical tank circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 203–204, 1990.

1988 (2)

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “New-type phase-locked loop using travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier for very high-speed optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1452–1453, 1988.

M. Jinno and T. Matsumoto, “All-optical timing extraction using a 1.5 μm self pulsating multielectrode DFB LD,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1426–1427, 1988.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2012.

Alic, N.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

B. P. Kuo, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Self-phase tracked fiber-optical parametric sampling gate for 640-Gb/s OTDM de-multiplexing,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–3.

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

P. O. Hedekvist, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber four-wave mixing demultiplexing with inherent parametric amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2051–2058, 1997.

P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1440–1441, 1991.

Awad, E. S.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, and J. Goldhar, “Simultaneous four-wave mixing and cross-absorption modulation inside a single EAM for high-speed optical demultiplexing and clock recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1534–1536, 2005.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

Barnsley, P. E.

P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.

Bayart, D.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

Bennion, I.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.

Berger, J.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

Best, R. E.

R. E. Best, Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation and Applications. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Blumenthal, D. J.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

Boerner, C.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.

Bowers, J. E.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

Bres, C.-S.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

Bulow, H.

H. Bulow, “Optoelectronic synchronisation scheme for ultrahigh-speed optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1937–1938, 1995.

Camerlingo, A.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Chao, L.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

Cheng, T. H.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

Cho, P.

E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.

Cho, P. S.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, and J. Goldhar, “Simultaneous four-wave mixing and cross-absorption modulation inside a single EAM for high-speed optical demultiplexing and clock recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1534–1536, 2005.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

Chou, H.-F.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

de Waardt, H.

J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.

Deng, K.-L.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, “On the physical origin of the 3-dB noise figure limit in laser and parametric optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 5, pp. 40–61, 1999.

Dong, H.

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

Doran, N.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.

Dreyer, K.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

Durécu-Legrand, A.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

Dutta, N.

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

Ellis, A.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.

Feiste, U.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

Feng, X.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Gagliardi, R. M.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications. NewYork, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995.

Gardner, F. M.

F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2005.

Gloag, A.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.

Goldhar, J.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, and J. Goldhar, “Simultaneous four-wave mixing and cross-absorption modulation inside a single EAM for high-speed optical demultiplexing and clock recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1534–1536, 2005.

E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

Hedekvist, P. O.

P. O. Hedekvist, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber four-wave mixing demultiplexing with inherent parametric amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2051–2058, 1997.

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

Hilliger, E.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

Horak, P.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Hu, Z.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

Inohara, R.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

Jhon, Y. M.

Y. M. Jhon, H. J. Ki, and S. H. Kim, “Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Opt. Commun., vol. 220, pp. 315–319, 2003.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, and M. Koga, “All-optical timing extraction using an optical tank circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 203–204, 1990.

M. Jinno and T. Matsumoto, “All-optical timing extraction using a 1.5 μm self pulsating multielectrode DFB LD,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1426–1427, 1988.

Johnson, J.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

Kamatani, O.

O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, “Ultrahigh-speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757–1767, 1996.

O. Kamatani, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Prescaled 6.3 GHz clock recovery from 50 Gbit/s TDM optical signal with 50 GHz PLL using four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 807–809, 1994.

Kang, I.

I. Kang and M. Yan, “Simple setup for simultaneous optical clock recovery and ultra-short sampling pulse generation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1199–1201, 2002.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.

P. O. Hedekvist, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber four-wave mixing demultiplexing with inherent parametric amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2051–2058, 1997.

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications. NewYork, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995.

Kawanishi, S.

O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, “Ultrahigh-speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757–1767, 1996.

O. Kamatani, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Prescaled 6.3 GHz clock recovery from 50 Gbit/s TDM optical signal with 50 GHz PLL using four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 807–809, 1994.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “Ultra-high-speed PLL-type clock recovery circuit based on all-optical gain modulation in traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2123–2129, 1993.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “10 GHz timing extraction from randomly modulated optical pulses using phase-locked loop with travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier using optical gain modulation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 510–511, 1992.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “New-type phase-locked loop using travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier for very high-speed optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1452–1453, 1988.

Kean, P.

Khoe, G.

J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.

Ki, H. J.

Y. M. Jhon, H. J. Ki, and S. H. Kim, “Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Opt. Commun., vol. 220, pp. 315–319, 2003.

Kim, S. H.

Y. M. Jhon, H. J. Ki, and S. H. Kim, “Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Opt. Commun., vol. 220, pp. 315–319, 2003.

Koga, M.

M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, and M. Koga, “All-optical timing extraction using an optical tank circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 203–204, 1990.

Kuo, B. P.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

B. P. Kuo, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Self-phase tracked fiber-optical parametric sampling gate for 640-Gb/s OTDM de-multiplexing,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–3.

Kylemark, P.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.

Lantz, E.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

Maillotte, H.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

Marembert, V.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008.

Matsumoto, T.

M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, and M. Koga, “All-optical timing extraction using an optical tank circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 203–204, 1990.

M. Jinno and T. Matsumoto, “All-optical timing extraction using a 1.5 μm self pulsating multielectrode DFB LD,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1426–1427, 1988.

Mikkelsen, B.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

Moodie, D.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

Moulton, N.

E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

Mussot, A.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

Nielsen, T.

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

Nishimura, K.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

Oxenlowe, L.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

Parmigiani, F.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Petropoulos, P.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Phillips, I.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, P. Kean, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing, data regeneration, and clock recovery with a single semiconductor optical amplifier-based nonlinear-optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 1326–1328, 1997.

Ping, S.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

Poletti, F.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

Provino, L.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

Radic, S.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

B. P. Kuo, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Self-phase tracked fiber-optical parametric sampling gate for 640-Gb/s OTDM de-multiplexing,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–3.

Raybon, G.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

Richardson, C.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

Richardson, C. J. K.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

Salehi, J. A.

H. Zarkoob and J. A. Salehi, “Performance limits of optical clock recovery systems based on two-photon absorption detection scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 963–971, 2008.

Saruwatari, M.

O. Kamatani, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Prescaled 6.3 GHz clock recovery from 50 Gbit/s TDM optical signal with 50 GHz PLL using four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 807–809, 1994.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “Ultra-high-speed PLL-type clock recovery circuit based on all-optical gain modulation in traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2123–2129, 1993.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “10 GHz timing extraction from randomly modulated optical pulses using phase-locked loop with travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier using optical gain modulation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 510–511, 1992.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “New-type phase-locked loop using travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier for very high-speed optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1452–1453, 1988.

Schmidt, C.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

Schubert, C.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

Shalaby, H. H. M.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

Simonneau, C.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

Spirit, D. M.

P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.

Sun, H.

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

Sylvestre, T.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

Tangdiongga, E.

J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.

Tong, D.

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

Tong, D. T.

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.

Torounidis, T.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.

Turkiewicz, J.

J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.

Usami, M.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi, Principles of Coherent Communication, vol. 14. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

Wang, Q.

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

Wiberg, A. O. J.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

B. P. Kuo, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Self-phase tracked fiber-optical parametric sampling gate for 640-Gb/s OTDM de-multiplexing,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–3.

Wickens, G. E.

P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.

Wickes, H. J.

P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.

Xiang, Z.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

Yan, M.

I. Kang and M. Yan, “Simple setup for simultaneous optical clock recovery and ultra-short sampling pulse generation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1199–1201, 2002.

Ye, P.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

Zarkoob, H.

H. Zarkoob and J. A. Salehi, “Performance limits of optical clock recovery systems based on two-photon absorption detection scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 963–971, 2008.

Zhao, J. X.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

Zhu, G.

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

Electron. Lett. (10)

D. Tong, K.-L. Deng, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery using electroabsorption modulator-based phase-locked loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1951–1952, 2000.

I. Kang and M. Yan, “Simple setup for simultaneous optical clock recovery and ultra-short sampling pulse generation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1199–1201, 2002.

C. Boerner, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, E. Hilliger, V. Marembert, J. Berger, “160 Gbit/s clock recovery with electro-optical PLL using bidirectionally operated electroabsorption modulator as phase comparator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1071–1073, 2003.

T. Yamamoto, L. Oxenlowe, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, E. Hilliger, U. Feiste, “Clock recovery from 160 Gbit/s data signals using phase-locked loop with interferometric optical switch based on semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 509–510, 2001.

O. Kamatani, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Prescaled 6.3 GHz clock recovery from 50 Gbit/s TDM optical signal with 50 GHz PLL using four-wave mixing in a travelling-wave laser diode optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 807–809, 1994.

P. A. Andrekson, “Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1440–1441, 1991.

M. Jinno and T. Matsumoto, “All-optical timing extraction using a 1.5 μm self pulsating multielectrode DFB LD,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1426–1427, 1988.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “New-type phase-locked loop using travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier for very high-speed optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1452–1453, 1988.

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “10 GHz timing extraction from randomly modulated optical pulses using phase-locked loop with travelling-wave laser-diode optical amplifier using optical gain modulation,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, pp. 510–511, 1992.

H. Bulow, “Optoelectronic synchronisation scheme for ultrahigh-speed optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1937–1938, 1995.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Zarkoob and J. A. Salehi, “Performance limits of optical clock recovery systems based on two-photon absorption detection scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 963–971, 2008.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506–520, 2002.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (13)

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291–293, 1998.

D. T. Tong, B. Mikkelsen, T. Nielsen, K. Dreyer, and J. Johnson, “Optoelectronic phase-locked loop with balanced photodetection for clock recovery in high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1064–1066, 2000.

J. Turkiewicz, E. Tangdiongga, G. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Clock recovery and demultiplexing performance of 160-Gb/s OTDM field experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1555–1557, 2004.

H.-F. Chou, Z. Hu, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, and M. Usami, “Simultaneous 160-Gb/s demultiplexing and clock recovery by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies in a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 608–610, 2004.

E. S. Awad, P. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “All-optical timing extraction with simultaneous optical demultiplexing from 40 Gb/s using a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 126–128, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, and J. Goldhar, “Simultaneous four-wave mixing and cross-absorption modulation inside a single EAM for high-speed optical demultiplexing and clock recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1534–1536, 2005.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Subharmonic optical clock recovery from 160 Gb/s using time-dependent loss saturation inside a single electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1764–1766, 2003.

E. S. Awad, P. S. Cho, C. Richardson, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical 3R regeneration using a single EAM for all-optical timing extraction with simultaneous reshaping and wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1378–1380, 2002.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1178–1180, 2005.

P. E. Barnsley, H. J. Wickes, G. E. Wickens, and D. M. Spirit, “All-optical clock recovery from 5 Gb/s RZ data using a self-pulsating 1.56 μm laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 942–945, 1991.

M. Jinno, T. Matsumoto, and M. Koga, “All-optical timing extraction using an optical tank circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 203–204, 1990.

E. S. Awad, C. J. K. Richardson, P. S. Cho, N. Moulton, and J. Goldhar, “Optical clock recovery using SOA for relative timing extraction between counterpropagating short picosecond pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 396–398, 2002.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 796–798, 2009.

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

S. Kawanishi and M. Saruwatari, “Ultra-high-speed PLL-type clock recovery circuit based on all-optical gain modulation in traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2123–2129, 1993.

Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, and P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, T. Torounidis, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise statistics in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 612–620, 2007.

P. O. Hedekvist, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber four-wave mixing demultiplexing with inherent parametric amplification,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2051–2058, 1997.

O. Kamatani and S. Kawanishi, “Ultrahigh-speed clock recovery with phase lock loop based on four-wave mixing in a traveling-wave laser diode amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1757–1767, 1996.

JOSA B (1)

L. Provino, A. Mussot, E. Lantz, T. Sylvestre, and H. Maillotte, “Broadband and flat parametric amplifiers with a multisection dispersion-tailored nonlinear fiber arrangement,” JOSA B, vol. 20, pp. 1532–1537, 2003.

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. M. Jhon, H. J. Ki, and S. H. Kim, “Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer,” Opt. Commun., vol. 220, pp. 315–319, 2003.

I. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. Moodie, N. Doran, I. Bennion, and A. Ellis, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery using a single electroabsorption modulator in a novel bi-directional configuration,” Opt. Commun., vol. 150, pp. 101–105, 1998.

Opt. Exp. (2)

H. Dong, H. Sun, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, and N. Dutta, “Clock recovery using cascaded LiNbO3 modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, pp. 4751–4757, 2004.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 2884–2893, 2010.

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all-optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 16, pp. 378–391, 2010.

E. Desurvire, “On the physical origin of the 3-dB noise figure limit in laser and parametric optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 5, pp. 40–61, 1999.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 5th ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2012.

M. E. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008.

A. J. Viterbi, Principles of Coherent Communication, vol. 14. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2005.

R. E. Best, Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation and Applications. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications. NewYork, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995.

B. P. Kuo, A. O. J. Wiberg, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Self-phase tracked fiber-optical parametric sampling gate for 640-Gb/s OTDM de-multiplexing,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., 2010, pp. 1–3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.