Abstract

In this paper, an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system employing overlapping pulse-position modulation (OPPM) is proposed to support multimedia services with different bit-rate and quality-of-service (QoS) requirements in OCDMA networks. Both wrapped OPPM (WOPPM) and unwrapped OPPM (UOPPM) are considered. The proposed system achieves multirate and multi-QoS transmission by using multilength variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (MLVW-OOCs) as signature sequences and using different values of OPPM modulation parameters. Furthermore, numerical analysis is performed for two different receiver structures, namely, correlation receivers with and without hard-limiters. In our analysis, the multiple-access interference (MAI) is considered as the main performance limiting factor. In addition, the performance of the proposed system is evaluated and compared to that of traditional OOK-OCDMA system. Our results reveal that under both pulsewidth and throughput constraints, the performances of the proposed WOPPM- and UOPPM-OCDMA systems are significantly superior to that of OOK-OCDMA system.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1654–62, 2006.
  2. C.-C. Yang, “High speed and secure optical CDMA-based passive optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2182–2191, 2009.
  3. J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, 2013.
  4. H. Beyranvand and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate and multi-quality-of-service passive optical network based on hybrid WDM/OCDM system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. S39–S44, 2011.
  5. A. Stok and E. Sargent, “Lighting the local area: optical code-division multiple access and quality of service provisioning,” IEEE Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 42–46, 2000.
  6. A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, 2002.
  7. J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824–833, 1989.
  8. J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 834–842, 1989.
  9. H. M. H. Shalaby, “Performance analysis of optical synchronous CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, no. 2–4, pp. 624–634, Feb.–1995.
  10. H. M. H. Shalaby, “A performance analysis of optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 426–433, 1999.
  11. M. H. M. Shalaby, “Direct detection optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems with double optical hardlimiters,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1158–1165, 1999.
  12. T. Ohtsuki, “Performance of multicode direct-detection optical CDMA systems,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf., 1998, vol. 6, pp. 3227–3232.
  13. S. V Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, 1996.
  14. W. C. Kwong and G.-C. Yang, “Multiple-length extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA systems supporting multirate multimedia services,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 3653–3662, 2005.
  15. G.-C. Yang, “Variable-weight optical orthogonal codes for CDMA network with multiple performance requirements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 1996.
  16. B. M. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multiclass, multistage, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA signaling techniques based on advanced binary optical logic gate elements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1424–1432, 2009.
  17. H. Beyranvnad, B. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate, differentiated-QoS, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA system via optical logic gate elements,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 4348–4359, 2009.
  18. C.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Performance analysis of double-weight optical CDMA under the same-bit-power assumption,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1247–1252, 2011.
  19. L.-S. Chen, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Study of power control on double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value in variable-QoS optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3293–3303, 2011.
  20. G.-C. Yang, C.-H. Chen, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight optical CDMA with power control,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 322–327, 2012.
  21. H. Beyranvand, S. A. Nezamalhosseini, J. A. Salehi, and F. Marvasti, “Performance analysis of equal-energy two-level OCDMA system using generalized optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1584, 2013.
  22. H.-H. Yuan, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value for two-chip-power optical CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2488–2497, 2013.
  23. T. Miyazawa and I. Sasase, “Multi-rate and multi-BEP transmission scheme using adaptive overlapping pulse-position modulator and power controller in optical CDMA systems,” J. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 462–470, 2005.
  24. A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Performance analysis of two-level asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 122–129, 2014.
  25. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 595–604, 1989.
  26. C.-S. Brs, T. Banwell, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and W. C. Kwong, “Optical pulse position modulation processing: Architecture and demonstration in an optical code division multiple access system,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 915–926, 2006.
  27. H. M. H. Shalaby, “Optical OPPM-CDMA receivers with chip-level detectors,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2001.
  28. A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Capacity analysis of asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM: multiple access interference limited case,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2613–2620, 2013.
  29. M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1162–1170, 1992.
  30. R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, “Optical digital communications,” in Optical Commun., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, ch. 6, sec. 6, pp. 205–206.

2014 (1)

A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Performance analysis of two-level asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 122–129, 2014.

2013 (4)

H. Beyranvand, S. A. Nezamalhosseini, J. A. Salehi, and F. Marvasti, “Performance analysis of equal-energy two-level OCDMA system using generalized optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1584, 2013.

H.-H. Yuan, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value for two-chip-power optical CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2488–2497, 2013.

A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Capacity analysis of asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM: multiple access interference limited case,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2613–2620, 2013.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, 2013.

2012 (1)

G.-C. Yang, C.-H. Chen, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight optical CDMA with power control,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 322–327, 2012.

2011 (3)

C.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Performance analysis of double-weight optical CDMA under the same-bit-power assumption,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1247–1252, 2011.

L.-S. Chen, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Study of power control on double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value in variable-QoS optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3293–3303, 2011.

H. Beyranvand and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate and multi-quality-of-service passive optical network based on hybrid WDM/OCDM system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. S39–S44, 2011.

2009 (3)

C.-C. Yang, “High speed and secure optical CDMA-based passive optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2182–2191, 2009.

B. M. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multiclass, multistage, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA signaling techniques based on advanced binary optical logic gate elements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1424–1432, 2009.

H. Beyranvnad, B. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate, differentiated-QoS, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA system via optical logic gate elements,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 4348–4359, 2009.

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

T. Miyazawa and I. Sasase, “Multi-rate and multi-BEP transmission scheme using adaptive overlapping pulse-position modulator and power controller in optical CDMA systems,” J. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 462–470, 2005.

W. C. Kwong and G.-C. Yang, “Multiple-length extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA systems supporting multirate multimedia services,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 3653–3662, 2005.

2002 (1)

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, 2002.

2001 (1)

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Optical OPPM-CDMA receivers with chip-level detectors,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2001.

2000 (1)

A. Stok and E. Sargent, “Lighting the local area: optical code-division multiple access and quality of service provisioning,” IEEE Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 42–46, 2000.

1999 (2)

H. M. H. Shalaby, “A performance analysis of optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 426–433, 1999.

M. H. M. Shalaby, “Direct detection optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems with double optical hardlimiters,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1158–1165, 1999.

1996 (2)

S. V Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, 1996.

G.-C. Yang, “Variable-weight optical orthogonal codes for CDMA network with multiple performance requirements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 1996.

1995 (1)

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Performance analysis of optical synchronous CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, no. 2–4, pp. 624–634, Feb.–1995.

1992 (1)

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1162–1170, 1992.

1989 (3)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 595–604, 1989.

J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824–833, 1989.

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 834–842, 1989.

Azizoglu, M.

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1162–1170, 1992.

Banwell, T.

Beyranvand, H.

H. Beyranvand, S. A. Nezamalhosseini, J. A. Salehi, and F. Marvasti, “Performance analysis of equal-energy two-level OCDMA system using generalized optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1584, 2013.

H. Beyranvand and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate and multi-quality-of-service passive optical network based on hybrid WDM/OCDM system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. S39–S44, 2011.

Beyranvnad, H.

H. Beyranvnad, B. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate, differentiated-QoS, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA system via optical logic gate elements,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 4348–4359, 2009.

Brackett, C. A.

J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824–833, 1989.

Brs, C.-S.

Chang, C.-Y.

H.-H. Yuan, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value for two-chip-power optical CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2488–2497, 2013.

L.-S. Chen, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Study of power control on double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value in variable-QoS optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3293–3303, 2011.

C.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Performance analysis of double-weight optical CDMA under the same-bit-power assumption,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1247–1252, 2011.

Chen, C.-H.

G.-C. Yang, C.-H. Chen, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight optical CDMA with power control,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 322–327, 2012.

C.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Performance analysis of double-weight optical CDMA under the same-bit-power assumption,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1247–1252, 2011.

Chen, L.-S.

L.-S. Chen, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Study of power control on double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value in variable-QoS optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3293–3303, 2011.

Chu, H.-Y.

C.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Performance analysis of double-weight optical CDMA under the same-bit-power assumption,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1247–1252, 2011.

Chung, F. R. K.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 595–604, 1989.

Corrada, C. J.

S. V Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, 1996.

Gagliardi, R. M.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, “Optical digital communications,” in Optical Commun., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, ch. 6, sec. 6, pp. 205–206.

Ghaffari, B.

H. Beyranvnad, B. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate, differentiated-QoS, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA system via optical logic gate elements,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 4348–4359, 2009.

Ghaffari, B. M.

B. M. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multiclass, multistage, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA signaling techniques based on advanced binary optical logic gate elements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1424–1432, 2009.

Glesk, I.

Kakhki, M. M.

A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Performance analysis of two-level asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 122–129, 2014.

A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Capacity analysis of asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM: multiple access interference limited case,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2613–2620, 2013.

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, “Optical digital communications,” in Optical Commun., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1995, ch. 6, sec. 6, pp. 205–206.

Kitayama, K.

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1654–62, 2006.

Kwong, W. C.

H.-H. Yuan, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value for two-chip-power optical CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2488–2497, 2013.

G.-C. Yang, C.-H. Chen, and W. C. Kwong, “Accurate analysis of double-weight optical CDMA with power control,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 322–327, 2012.

L.-S. Chen, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Study of power control on double-weight codes with an arbitrary maximum cross-correlation value in variable-QoS optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3293–3303, 2011.

C.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chu, G.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Chang, and W. C. Kwong, “Performance analysis of double-weight optical CDMA under the same-bit-power assumption,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1247–1252, 2011.

C.-S. Brs, T. Banwell, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and W. C. Kwong, “Optical pulse position modulation processing: Architecture and demonstration in an optical code division multiple access system,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 915–926, 2006.

W. C. Kwong and G.-C. Yang, “Multiple-length extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA systems supporting multirate multimedia services,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 3653–3662, 2005.

Li, Y.

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1162–1170, 1992.

Logothetis, M. D.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, 2013.

Maric, S. V

S. V Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, 1996.

Marvasti, F.

H. Beyranvand, S. A. Nezamalhosseini, J. A. Salehi, and F. Marvasti, “Performance analysis of equal-energy two-level OCDMA system using generalized optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1584, 2013.

Miyazawa, T.

T. Miyazawa and I. Sasase, “Multi-rate and multi-BEP transmission scheme using adaptive overlapping pulse-position modulator and power controller in optical CDMA systems,” J. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 462–470, 2005.

Moreno, O.

S. V Maric, O. Moreno, and C. J. Corrada, “Multimedia transmission in fiber-optic LANs using optical CDMA,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2149–2153, 1996.

Moscholios, I. D.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, 2013.

Nezamalhosseini, S. A.

H. Beyranvand, S. A. Nezamalhosseini, J. A. Salehi, and F. Marvasti, “Performance analysis of equal-energy two-level OCDMA system using generalized optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1584, 2013.

Ohtsuki, T.

T. Ohtsuki, “Performance of multicode direct-detection optical CDMA systems,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf., 1998, vol. 6, pp. 3227–3232.

Prucnal, P. R.

Sabbagh, A. G.

A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Performance analysis of two-level asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 122–129, 2014.

A. G. Sabbagh and M. M. Kakhki, “Capacity analysis of asynchronous optical CDMA systems utilizing wrapped OPPM: multiple access interference limited case,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2613–2620, 2013.

Salehi, J.

M. Azizoglu, J. Salehi, and Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1162–1170, 1992.

Salehi, J. A.

H. Beyranvand, S. A. Nezamalhosseini, J. A. Salehi, and F. Marvasti, “Performance analysis of equal-energy two-level OCDMA system using generalized optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1584, 2013.

H. Beyranvand and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate and multi-quality-of-service passive optical network based on hybrid WDM/OCDM system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. S39–S44, 2011.

H. Beyranvnad, B. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multirate, differentiated-QoS, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA system via optical logic gate elements,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 4348–4359, 2009.

B. M. Ghaffari, and J. A. Salehi, “Multiclass, multistage, and multilevel fiber-optic CDMA signaling techniques based on advanced binary optical logic gate elements,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1424–1432, 2009.

J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824–833, 1989.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, and V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 595–604, 1989.

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber network—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 834–842, 1989.

Sargent, E.

A. Stok and E. Sargent, “Lighting the local area: optical code-division multiple access and quality of service provisioning,” IEEE Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 42–46, 2000.

Sargent, E. H.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, 2002.

Sasase, I.

T. Miyazawa and I. Sasase, “Multi-rate and multi-BEP transmission scheme using adaptive overlapping pulse-position modulator and power controller in optical CDMA systems,” J. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 462–470, 2005.

Shalaby, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Optical OPPM-CDMA receivers with chip-level detectors,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2001.

H. M. H. Shalaby, “A performance analysis of optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 426–433, 1999.

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Performance analysis of optical synchronous CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, no. 2–4, pp. 624–634, Feb.–1995.

Shalaby, M. H. M.

M. H. M. Shalaby, “Direct detection optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems with double optical hardlimiters,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1158–1165, 1999.

Stok, A.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, “The role of optical CDMA in access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83–87, 2002.

A. Stok and E. Sargent, “Lighting the local area: optical code-division multiple access and quality of service provisioning,” IEEE Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 42–46, 2000.

Stylianakis, V. G.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, 2013.

Vardakas, J. S.

J. S. Vardakas, I. D. Moscholios, M. D. Logothetis, and V. G. Stylianakis, “Performance analysis of OCDMA PONs supporting multi-rate bursty traffic,” Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3374–3384, 2013.

Wada, N.

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1654–62, 2006.

Wang, X.

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1654–62, 2006.

Wei, V. K.

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