Abstract

Many studies have introduced electrode patterns to improve current crowding and enhance the light output power of LEDs. This study conducted experimental and numerical analysis to investigate the influence of electrode design on the luminous efficiency of LEDs. An extended p-electrode was used to relieve current crowding commonly encountered at the edge of conventional electrodes. Unfortunately, an extension of the p-electrode obscures light emitted from the active layer. Therefore, we fabricated arrays of holes, 3 or 5 μm in diameter, on the electrodes and compared their effectiveness in enhancing light output efficiency. Optical measurements demonstrated that increasing the diameter of the holes led to an increase in light output power. The maximum output power of the proposed LED was 48.1 mW for an array of 5 μm holes, which is higher than that of 43.8 mW for the conventional LED. At a current injection of 500 mA, the output power of the proposed LED (5 μm holes) was 47.7 mW, which is nearly double that of conventional LED (23.7 mW). Numerical analysis was also used to simulate the distribution of current density in the active layer of the LEDs. The relationship between current spreading length and internal quantum efficiency were used to calculate the distribution of luminous intensity. Further modeling was performed to simulate light output power via Monte Carlo ray tracing. The results of numerical simulation are in strong agreement with those obtained from experiments.

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  1. I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.
  2. X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 21, pp. 3337–3339, 2001.
  3. M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.
  4. C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.
  5. R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.
  6. C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.
  7. H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.
  8. J. I. Shim, J. Yun, and H. Kim, “Current spreading and its related issues in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 7216, pp. 72160V–1–72160V-9, 2009.
  9. X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 1936–1938, 2001.
  10. S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.
  11. J. S. Yun, S. M. Hwang, and J. I. Shim, “Current spreading analysis in vertical electrode GaN-based blue LEDs,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 6841, pp. 68410L-1–68410L-8, 2007.
  12. G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.
  13. F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.
  14. M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.
  15. X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.
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2012 (1)

S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.

2009 (1)

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

2008 (3)

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

2004 (2)

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

2002 (2)

C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

2001 (2)

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 1936–1938, 2001.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 21, pp. 3337–3339, 2001.

2000 (1)

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Arthur, S. D.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Bensity, H.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Bogdanov, M. V.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

Bougrov, V. E.

S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.

Brown, M. G.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

Bulashevich, K. A.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Charlin, J. F.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Chen, G. H.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

Chen, H. I.

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

Chen, J. C.

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

Chen, S. M.

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

Chen, W. B.

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

Chou, P. K.

P. K. Chou, “Influence of current spreading on internal quantum efficiency in GaN-led,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Photonics Nat’l Central Univ., Chung-Li, Taiwan, 2008.

Chou, Y. L.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

D’Evelyn, M. P.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Eliashevich, I.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

Evstratov, I. Y.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

Guo, X.

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 1936–1938, 2001.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 21, pp. 3337–3339, 2001.

Houdre, R.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Huh, C.

C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Hwang, S. M.

J. S. Yun, S. M. Hwang, and J. I. Shim, “Current spreading analysis in vertical electrode GaN-based blue LEDs,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 6841, pp. 68410L-1–68410L-8, 2007.

Hwu, F. S.

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

Karlicek, R. F.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

Karpov, S. Y.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

Kim, D. J.

C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Kim, H.

J. I. Shim, J. Yun, and H. Kim, “Current spreading and its related issues in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 7216, pp. 72160V–1–72160V-9, 2009.

Kim, H. S.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Kim, S. W.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Krauss, T. F.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Kretchmer, J.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Lai, W. C.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

LeBoeuf, S. F.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Lee, I. H.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Lee, J. M.

C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Li, Y.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

Li, Y.-L.

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 1936–1938, 2001.

Lin, C. L.

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

Lin, R. M.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

Lin, Y. H.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

Lu, Y. C.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

Odnoblyudov, M. A.

S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.

Oesterle, U.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Osinsky, A.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

Rattier, M.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Romanov, A. E.

S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.

Schubert, E. F.

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 1936–1938, 2001.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 21, pp. 3337–3339, 2001.

Sheu, G. J.

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

Sheu, J. K.

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

Shim, J. I.

J. S. Yun, S. M. Hwang, and J. I. Shim, “Current spreading analysis in vertical electrode GaN-based blue LEDs,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 6841, pp. 68410L-1–68410L-8, 2007.

J. I. Shim, J. Yun, and H. Kim, “Current spreading and its related issues in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 7216, pp. 72160V–1–72160V-9, 2009.

Smith, C. J. M.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Stanley, R. P.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Su, Y. K.

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

Suslov, S. S.

S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.

Tran, C. A.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

Tu, S. H

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

Wang, H. C.

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

Weisbuch, C.

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

Wu, M. C.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

Yan, C. H.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Yang, Z. H.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

Yun, J.

J. I. Shim, J. Yun, and H. Kim, “Current spreading and its related issues in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 7216, pp. 72160V–1–72160V-9, 2009.

Yun, J. S.

J. S. Yun, S. M. Hwang, and J. I. Shim, “Current spreading analysis in vertical electrode GaN-based blue LEDs,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 6841, pp. 68410L-1–68410L-8, 2007.

Zhmakin, A. I.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using elective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, pp. 261105–1–261105-3, 2008.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding and optical saturation effects in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on insulating substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, no. 21, pp. 3337–3339, 2001.

X. Guo, Y.-L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 1936–1938, 2001.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 21, pp. 4313–4314, 2004.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Rattier, H. Bensity, R. P. Stanley, J. F. Charlin, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, C. J. M. Smith, C. Weisbuch, and T. F. Krauss, “Toward ultra-efficient aluminum oxide microcavity light-emitting diodes: Guided mode extraction by photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2002.

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Huh, H. S. Kim, S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, I. H. Lee, and S. J. Park, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with highly transparent Pt thin film contact on p-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 4464–4466, 2000.

C. Huh, J. M. Lee, D. J. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improvement in light-output efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes by current blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2248–2250, 2002.

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

G. J. Sheu, F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, J. K. Sheu, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of the electrode pattern on current spreading and driving voltage in a GaN/sapphire LED chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, pp. H836–H840, 2008.

F. S. Hwu, J. C. Chen, S. H Tu, G. J. Sheu, H. I. Chen, and J. K. Sheu, “A numerical study of thermal and electrical effects in a vertical led chip,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 157, no. 1, pp. H31–H37, 2009.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. C. Wang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, W. B. Chen, and S. M. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a lateral current blocking structure,”Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 4B, pp. 2006–2007, 2004.

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

S. S. Suslov, V. E. Bougrov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, and A. E. Romanov, “Modelling and optimization of electric current spreading in III-nitride LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi C, vol. 9, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1105–1108, 2012.

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, I. Y. Evstratov, A. I. Zhmakin, and S. Y. Karpov, “Coupled modeling of current spreading thermal effects and light extraction in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., vol. 23, pp. 125023–125032, 2008.

Other (4)

P. K. Chou, “Influence of current spreading on internal quantum efficiency in GaN-led,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Photonics Nat’l Central Univ., Chung-Li, Taiwan, 2008.

I. Eliashevich, Y. Li, A. Osinsky, C. A. Tran, M. G. Brown, and R. F. Karlicek, “InGaN blue light-emitting diodes with optimized n-GaN layer,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 3621, pp. 28–36, 1999.

J. S. Yun, S. M. Hwang, and J. I. Shim, “Current spreading analysis in vertical electrode GaN-based blue LEDs,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 6841, pp. 68410L-1–68410L-8, 2007.

J. I. Shim, J. Yun, and H. Kim, “Current spreading and its related issues in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” in Proc. SPIE, San Jose, CA, USA, vol. 7216, pp. 72160V–1–72160V-9, 2009.

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