Abstract

We report on the fabrication and optical properties of planar and channel waveguides in a CdS crystal using a C ion implantation technique combined with a standard photolithographic technique. The prism-coupling and the end-face coupling methods separately measure the guiding modes and the near-field intensity distribution of the light at 633 and 1539 nm. The refractive index profiles of the planar and channel waveguides are reconstructed at 633 and 1539 nm. The finite difference beam propagation method is used to simulate the guided mode profiles. There is excellent agreement between the measured and simulated modes at 633 and 1539 nm.

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  1. G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.
  2. L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.
  3. A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K Polgar, “Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut β-BBO(BaB2O4),” Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2000.
  4. J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO4 formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18989–18996, 2010.
  5. F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3/4, pp. 165–182, 2008.
  6. X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.
  7. K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.
  8. D. C. Reyonolds and S. J. Czyzak, “Mechanism for photovoltaic and photoconductivity effects in activated CdS crystals,” Phys. Rev., vol. 96, no. 6, p. 1705, 1954.
  9. B. Tell, W. M. Gibson, and J. W. Rogers, “Ion implantation of sodium, lithium, and neon in cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 315–318, 1970.
  10. B. Tell and W. M. Gibson, “Properties of ion-implanted Bi in CdS,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 5320–5323, 1969.
  11. B. Piccione, L. K. van Vugt, and R. Agarwal, “Propagation loss spectroscopy on single nanowire active waveguides,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2251–2256, 2010.
  12. F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.
  13. L. L. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, H. J. Zhang, X. P. Wang, and H. J. Ma, “Optical properties of KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides formed by carbon and proton implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 9A, pp. 5885–5888, 2007.
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  16. Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, W. L. Gao, H. J. Zhang, J. G. Solé, and H. J. Ma, “Ion-implanted optical-stripe waveguides in neodymium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1438–1440, 2009.

2010 (2)

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO4 formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18989–18996, 2010.

B. Piccione, L. K. van Vugt, and R. Agarwal, “Propagation loss spectroscopy on single nanowire active waveguides,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2251–2256, 2010.

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3/4, pp. 165–182, 2008.

2007 (1)

L. L. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, H. J. Zhang, X. P. Wang, and H. J. Ma, “Optical properties of KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides formed by carbon and proton implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 9A, pp. 5885–5888, 2007.

2006 (1)

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

2004 (1)

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

2002 (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

2001 (1)

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

2000 (1)

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K Polgar, “Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut β-BBO(BaB2O4),” Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2000.

1992 (1)

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.

1970 (1)

B. Tell, W. M. Gibson, and J. W. Rogers, “Ion implantation of sodium, lithium, and neon in cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 315–318, 1970.

1969 (1)

B. Tell and W. M. Gibson, “Properties of ion-implanted Bi in CdS,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 5320–5323, 1969.

1954 (1)

D. C. Reyonolds and S. J. Czyzak, “Mechanism for photovoltaic and photoconductivity effects in activated CdS crystals,” Phys. Rev., vol. 96, no. 6, p. 1705, 1954.

Agarwal, R.

B. Piccione, L. K. van Vugt, and R. Agarwal, “Propagation loss spectroscopy on single nanowire active waveguides,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2251–2256, 2010.

Alwahabi, Z. T.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.

Argiolas, N.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Bazzan, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Bentini, G. G.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Bianconi, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K Polgar, “Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut β-BBO(BaB2O4),” Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2000.

Chandle, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.

Chen, F.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, W. L. Gao, H. J. Zhang, J. G. Solé, and H. J. Ma, “Ion-implanted optical-stripe waveguides in neodymium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1438–1440, 2009.

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci., vol. 33, no. 3/4, pp. 165–182, 2008.

L. L. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, H. J. Zhang, X. P. Wang, and H. J. Ma, “Optical properties of KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides formed by carbon and proton implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 9A, pp. 5885–5888, 2007.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

Chiarini, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Correra, L.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Czyzak, S. J.

D. C. Reyonolds and S. J. Czyzak, “Mechanism for photovoltaic and photoconductivity effects in activated CdS crystals,” Phys. Rev., vol. 96, no. 6, p. 1705, 1954.

Fu, G.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

Gao, W. L.

Gibson, W. M.

B. Tell, W. M. Gibson, and J. W. Rogers, “Ion implantation of sodium, lithium, and neon in cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 315–318, 1970.

B. Tell and W. M. Gibson, “Properties of ion-implanted Bi in CdS,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 5320–5323, 1969.

Guan, J.

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO4 formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18989–18996, 2010.

Guo, S. S.

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO4 formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18989–18996, 2010.

Guzzi, R.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Jaque, D.

Jiang, Y.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

Kesavamoorthy, R.

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

Kip, D.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

Li, S. L.

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

Liu, T.

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO4 formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 18989–18996, 2010.

Loulergue, J. C.

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K Polgar, “Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut β-BBO(BaB2O4),” Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2000.

Lu, F.

L. L. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, H. J. Zhang, X. P. Wang, and H. J. Ma, “Optical properties of KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides formed by carbon and proton implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 9A, pp. 5885–5888, 2007.

Lu, Q. M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

Ma, H. J.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, W. L. Gao, H. J. Zhang, J. G. Solé, and H. J. Ma, “Ion-implanted optical-stripe waveguides in neodymium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1438–1440, 2009.

L. L. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, H. J. Zhang, X. P. Wang, and H. J. Ma, “Optical properties of KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides formed by carbon and proton implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 9A, pp. 5885–5888, 2007.

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

Mangalaraj, D.

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

Mazzoldi, P.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

McCaffery, A. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.

Moretti, P.

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K Polgar, “Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut β-BBO(BaB2O4),” Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2000.

Narayandass, S. K.

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

Nie, R.

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

Piccione, B.

B. Piccione, L. K. van Vugt, and R. Agarwal, “Propagation loss spectroscopy on single nanowire active waveguides,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2251–2256, 2010.

Pityana, S. L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.

Polgar, K

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K Polgar, “Helium ion-implanted planar waveguide in Y-cut and Z-cut β-BBO(BaB2O4),” Opt. Mater., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2000.

Reddy, G. L. N.

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

Reyonolds, D. C.

D. C. Reyonolds and S. J. Czyzak, “Mechanism for photovoltaic and photoconductivity effects in activated CdS crystals,” Phys. Rev., vol. 96, no. 6, p. 1705, 1954.

Rogers, J. W.

B. Tell, W. M. Gibson, and J. W. Rogers, “Ion implantation of sodium, lithium, and neon in cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 315–318, 1970.

Rüter, C. E.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

Sada, C.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3 +implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 6477–6483, 2002.

Senthil, K.

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

Shen, D. Y.

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

Solé, J. G.

Sundaravel, B.

K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G. L. N. Reddy, and B. Sundaravel, “Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies,” Physica B, vol. 304, no. 1–4, pp. 175–180, 2001.

Tan, Y.

Tell, B.

B. Tell, W. M. Gibson, and J. W. Rogers, “Ion implantation of sodium, lithium, and neon in cadmium sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 315–318, 1970.

B. Tell and W. M. Gibson, “Properties of ion-implanted Bi in CdS,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 5320–5323, 1969.

Townsend, P. D.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandle, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2695–2699, 1992.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.

van Vugt, L. K.

B. Piccione, L. K. van Vugt, and R. Agarwal, “Propagation loss spectroscopy on single nanowire active waveguides,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2251–2256, 2010.

Wang, K. M.

L. L. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, H. J. Zhang, X. P. Wang, and H. J. Ma, “Optical properties of KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides formed by carbon and proton implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 9A, pp. 5885–5888, 2007.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, S. L. Li, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused quartz by oxygen ion implanation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 4675–4685, 2004.

Wang, L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 07, p. 1123, 2006.

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