Abstract

There is a growing interest in applying carrierless amplitude-phase (CAP) modulation in intensity modulated optical links. CAP as a multilevel modulation scheme can reach high spectral efficiency and be generated at low cost. An interesting feature of CAP is that its signal basis can be extended to three or more dimensions (D). This paper aims to complete the knowledge on 3-D CAP. Discussed are design of transceiver filters, spectral efficiency, and digital equalization in 3-D. Several problems accompanying 3-D CAP transmission are identified. The most significant are the peak to average power ratio, which is higher than in one or two dimensions and noise correlation at the output of a 3-D equalizer. It is found that the latter problem severely degrades bit error rates achieved but can be efficiently mitigated using noise whitening equalization. Finally, 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D CAP are compared experimentally in a step-index polymer optical fiber link.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. G. Stepniak, and J. Siuzdak, “Transmission beyond 2 Gbit/s in a 100 m SI POF with multilevel CAP modulation and digital equalization,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper NTu3J.
  2. L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.
  3. J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.
  4. J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.
  5. J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and D. Cunningham, “40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OThZ3.
  6. J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Comparisons between gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over FEC enhanced POF links using LEDs,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Coventry, U.K., 2012, Paper Tu.P.17.
  7. M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.
  8. R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.
  9. R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.
  10. J. Werner, Tutorial on Carrierless AM/PM—Part II: Performance of Bandwidth Efficient Line Codes, ANSI X3T9. 5TP/PMD Working Group, 1993.
  11. A. F. Shalash and K. K. Parhi, “Multidimensional carrierless AM/PM systems for digital subscriber loops,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1655–1667, 1999.
  12. I. Thng, X. Li, and C. Ko, “A new 3D CAP system,” in Proc. IEEE TENCON, 1999, pp. 309–312.
  13. X. Tang, I.-J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2003.
  14. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
  15. Z. Chen, E. Choi, and S. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2010.
  16. S. Daumont, B. Rihavi, and Y. Lout, “Root-raised cosine filter influence on PAPR distribution of single carrier signals,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Comm., Control, Signal Process., 2008, pp. 841–845.
  17. S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1996.
  18. A. Hyvarinen, and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: Algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 411–430, 2000
  19. G. Stepniak, “Three-dimensional CAP for short-reach bandwidth-limited optical connections,” presented at the Sign. Process. Photon. Comm. Adv. Photon. Commun. Congr., San Diego, CA, USA, 2014, Paper ST1D.3.

2013 (2)

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

2012 (3)

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

2010 (1)

Z. Chen, E. Choi, and S. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2010.

2003 (1)

X. Tang, I.-J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2003.

2000 (1)

A. Hyvarinen, and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: Algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 411–430, 2000

1999 (1)

A. F. Shalash and K. K. Parhi, “Multidimensional carrierless AM/PM systems for digital subscriber loops,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1655–1667, 1999.

Bunge, C.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

Bunge, C. A.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, E. Choi, and S. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2010.

Chi, N.

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

Choi, E.

Z. Chen, E. Choi, and S. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2010.

Cunningham, D.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and D. Cunningham, “40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OThZ3.

Cunningham, D. G.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Comparisons between gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over FEC enhanced POF links using LEDs,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Coventry, U.K., 2012, Paper Tu.P.17.

Daumont, S.

S. Daumont, B. Rihavi, and Y. Lout, “Root-raised cosine filter influence on PAPR distribution of single carrier signals,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Comm., Control, Signal Process., 2008, pp. 841–845.

Deng, L.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

Gao, Y.

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

Geng, L.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Comparisons between gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over FEC enhanced POF links using LEDs,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Coventry, U.K., 2012, Paper Tu.P.17.

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Hyvarinen, A.

A. Hyvarinen, and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: Algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 411–430, 2000

Ingham, J. D.

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and D. Cunningham, “40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OThZ3.

Jensen, J. B.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

Kang, S.

Z. Chen, E. Choi, and S. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2010.

Ko, C.

I. Thng, X. Li, and C. Ko, “A new 3D CAP system,” in Proc. IEEE TENCON, 1999, pp. 309–312.

Kruglov, R.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

Lau, A. P. T.

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

Li, X.

X. Tang, I.-J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2003.

I. Thng, X. Li, and C. Ko, “A new 3D CAP system,” in Proc. IEEE TENCON, 1999, pp. 309–312.

Lindeiner, J. B. v.

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

Loquai, S.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

Lout, Y.

S. Daumont, B. Rihavi, and Y. Lout, “Root-raised cosine filter influence on PAPR distribution of single carrier signals,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Comm., Control, Signal Process., 2008, pp. 841–845.

Lu, C.

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

Monroy, I. T.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

Oja, E.

A. Hyvarinen, and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: Algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 411–430, 2000

Othman, M. B.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

Parhi, K. K.

A. F. Shalash and K. K. Parhi, “Multidimensional carrierless AM/PM systems for digital subscriber loops,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1655–1667, 1999.

Penty, R. V.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and D. Cunningham, “40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OThZ3.

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Comparisons between gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over FEC enhanced POF links using LEDs,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Coventry, U.K., 2012, Paper Tu.P.17.

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Rihavi, B.

S. Daumont, B. Rihavi, and Y. Lout, “Root-raised cosine filter influence on PAPR distribution of single carrier signals,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Comm., Control, Signal Process., 2008, pp. 841–845.

Scheuppert, M.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

Shalash, A. F.

A. F. Shalash and K. K. Parhi, “Multidimensional carrierless AM/PM systems for digital subscriber loops,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1655–1667, 1999.

Siuzdak, J.

G. Stepniak, and J. Siuzdak, “Transmission beyond 2 Gbit/s in a 100 m SI POF with multilevel CAP modulation and digital equalization,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper NTu3J.

Stepniak, G.

G. Stepniak, and J. Siuzdak, “Transmission beyond 2 Gbit/s in a 100 m SI POF with multilevel CAP modulation and digital equalization,” presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper NTu3J.

G. Stepniak, “Three-dimensional CAP for short-reach bandwidth-limited optical connections,” presented at the Sign. Process. Photon. Comm. Adv. Photon. Commun. Congr., San Diego, CA, USA, 2014, Paper ST1D.3.

Tang, X.

X. Tang, I.-J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2003.

Tao, L.

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

Thng, I.

I. Thng, X. Li, and C. Ko, “A new 3D CAP system,” in Proc. IEEE TENCON, 1999, pp. 309–312.

Thng, I.-J.

X. Tang, I.-J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2003.

Vinogradov, J.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

Wang, Y.

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

Wei, J. L.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Comparisons between gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over FEC enhanced POF links using LEDs,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Coventry, U.K., 2012, Paper Tu.P.17.

Werner, J.

J. Werner, Tutorial on Carrierless AM/PM—Part II: Performance of Bandwidth Efficient Line Codes, ANSI X3T9. 5TP/PMD Working Group, 1993.

White, I. H.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and D. Cunningham, “40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OThZ3.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Comparisons between gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over FEC enhanced POF links using LEDs,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Netw., Coventry, U.K., 2012, Paper Tu.P.17.

Wieckowski, M.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

Wonfor, A.

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

Zhang, X.

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

Zhu, J.

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

Ziemann, O.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Z. Chen, E. Choi, and S. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2010.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. B. Othman, X. Zhang, L. Deng, M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Experimental investigations of 3D/4D-CAP modulation with DM-VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2009–2012, 2012.

R. Kruglov, S. Loquai, C. Bunge, M. Scheuppert, J. Vinogradov, and O. Ziemann, “Comparison of PAM and CAP modulation schemes for data transmission over SI-POF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 2293–2296, 2013.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, and C. A. Bunge, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 50-m SI-POF based on WDM technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1632–1634, 2012.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

A. F. Shalash and K. K. Parhi, “Multidimensional carrierless AM/PM systems for digital subscriber loops,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1655–1667, 1999.

X. Tang, I.-J. Thng, and X. Li, “A new digital approach to design 3D CAP waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2003.

Neural Netw. (1)

A. Hyvarinen, and E. Oja, “Independent component analysis: Algorithms and applications,” Neural Netw., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 411–430, 2000

Opt. Exp. (2)

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 6459–6465, 2013.

J. L. Wei, L. Geng, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Gigabit NRZ, CAP and optical OFDM systems over POF links using LEDs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 22284–22289, 2012.

Other (10)

J. B. v. Lindeiner, J. D. Ingham, A. Wonfor, J. Zhu, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “100 Gb/s uncooled DWDM using orthogonal coding for low-cost datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA2014, Paper M2E.3.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and D. Cunningham, “40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical datacommunication links,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper OThZ3.

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