Abstract

In this paper, a method to automatically control the bias voltages of LiNbO<sub>3</sub> Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The automatic bias control (ABC) method is based on low cost coherent detection employing 3 × 3 optical coupler, which enhances the dither detection sensitivity. By minimizing the monitored dither frequency components which represents the residual carrier component in the optical signal, the modulator biases are optimized. A 0–π/2 square-wave phase modulation is introduced to mitigate the detection fluctuation induced by the imbalance of 3 × 3 coupler and improve the monitoring accuracy. Experiments show that the proposed method is universal for different modulation formats. High bias control precision is achieved for inner in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) branches and outer phase bias of optical quadrature modulator. The penalty caused by the proposed ABC is negligible for both single carrier (SC) modulation and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation. The tolerance to temperature disturbance is also demonstrated.

© 2014 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Li, “Recent advances in coherent optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 279–307, 2009.
  2. I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3767–3775, 2006.
  3. W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.
  4. E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox,, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2000, pp. 121–124.
  5. T. Sugihara, T. Yoshida, and K. Ishida, “Effect of modulator bias control in the presence of a finite extinction ratio in DQPSK pre-equalization systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2235–2248, 2011.
  6. J. R. Hamilton and K. D. Masterson, “Accurate bias point control for an electrically isolated Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulator via an analog optical-fiber link,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5531, pp. 323–331, Aug. 2, 2004.
  7. Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.
  8. Y. Yin, “Dual-parallel-MZ modulator bias control,” U.S. Patent 20 070 212 075 A1, 2007.
  9. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering,” in Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp. 458–459.
  10. H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.
  11. Z. S. Al-Aubaidy, “Bias control of the IQ optical modulator using side pilot-tone in optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 2419–2422, 2013.
  12. K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, and S. Sasaki, “A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007, pp. 1–3.
  13. H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.
  14. H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.
  15. P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1030–1032, 2010, Paper JWA033.
  16. T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.
  17. L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.
  18. Z. Zhiqiang, M.S. Demokan, and M. MacAlpine, “Improved demodulation scheme for fiber optic interferometers using an asymmetric 3 × 3 coupler,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2059–2068, 1997.
  19. Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, and C. K. Y. Leung, “3*3 coupler-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in the Delamination detection in FRP composite,” J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct., vol. 19, pp. 496–507, 2008.
  20. K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.
  21. M. G. Lee, W. Terbrack, and R. H. Buckley, “New robust bias control method for optical modulators,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 55, pp. 55–65, Oct. 1, 1990.
  22. H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, pp. 4162–4164, 1993.
  23. H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, p. 4162, 1993.

2013

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.

Z. S. Al-Aubaidy, “Bias control of the IQ optical modulator using side pilot-tone in optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 2419–2422, 2013.

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

2011

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.

T. Sugihara, T. Yoshida, and K. Ishida, “Effect of modulator bias control in the presence of a finite extinction ratio in DQPSK pre-equalization systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2235–2248, 2011.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

2010

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1030–1032, 2010, Paper JWA033.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

2009

2008

Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, and C. K. Y. Leung, “3*3 coupler-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in the Delamination detection in FRP composite,” J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct., vol. 19, pp. 496–507, 2008.

2006

I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3767–3775, 2006.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

1997

Z. Zhiqiang, M.S. Demokan, and M. MacAlpine, “Improved demodulation scheme for fiber optic interferometers using an asymmetric 3 × 3 coupler,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2059–2068, 1997.

1995

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

1993

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, pp. 4162–4164, 1993.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, p. 4162, 1993.

Ackerman, E. I.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox,, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2000, pp. 121–124.

Al-Aubaidy, Z. S.

Z. S. Al-Aubaidy, “Bias control of the IQ optical modulator using side pilot-tone in optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 2419–2422, 2013.

and,

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

Buckley, R. H.

M. G. Lee, W. Terbrack, and R. H. Buckley, “New robust bias control method for optical modulators,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 55, pp. 55–65, Oct. 1, 1990.

Chang, J. H.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.

Chang, S. H.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.

Chi, H.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

Cho, P. S.

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1030–1032, 2010, Paper JWA033.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.

Choi, H. Y.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.

Chung, H. S.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.

Chung, Y. C.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.

Cox,, C. H.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox,, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2000, pp. 121–124.

Demokan, M.S.

Z. Zhiqiang, M.S. Demokan, and M. MacAlpine, “Improved demodulation scheme for fiber optic interferometers using an asymmetric 3 × 3 coupler,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2059–2068, 1997.

Djordjevic, I. B.

I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3767–3775, 2006.

Dou, L.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

Gui, T.

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Hamilton, J. R.

J. R. Hamilton and K. D. Masterson, “Accurate bias point control for an electrically isolated Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulator via an analog optical-fiber link,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5531, pp. 323–331, Aug. 2, 2004.

Hasegawa, C.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, and S. Sasaki, “A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007, pp. 1–3.

Hoshida, T.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

Ishida, K.

T. Sugihara, T. Yoshida, and K. Ishida, “Effect of modulator bias control in the presence of a finite extinction ratio in DQPSK pre-equalization systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2235–2248, 2011.

Ji, X.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, and C. K. Y. Leung, “3*3 coupler-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in the Delamination detection in FRP composite,” J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct., vol. 19, pp. 496–507, 2008.

Jin,

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Kawakami, H.

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering,” in Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp. 458–459.

Kikuchi, N.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, and S. Sasaki, “A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007, pp. 1–3.

Kim, K.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.

Kiuchi, K.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, pp. 4162–4164, 1993.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, p. 4162, 1993.

Kobayashi, T.

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.

Lee, J. H.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.

Lee, M. G.

M. G. Lee, W. Terbrack, and R. H. Buckley, “New robust bias control method for optical modulators,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 55, pp. 55–65, Oct. 1, 1990.

Leung, C. K. Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, and C. K. Y. Leung, “3*3 coupler-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in the Delamination detection in FRP composite,” J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct., vol. 19, pp. 496–507, 2008.

Li,

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Li, C.

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Li, G.

Li,,

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Liu, L.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

MacAlpine, M.

Z. Zhiqiang, M.S. Demokan, and M. MacAlpine, “Improved demodulation scheme for fiber optic interferometers using an asymmetric 3 × 3 coupler,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2059–2068, 1997.

Masterson, K. D.

J. R. Hamilton and K. D. Masterson, “Accurate bias point control for an electrically isolated Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulator via an analog optical-fiber link,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5531, pp. 323–331, Aug. 2, 2004.

Mattle, K.

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

Meng,,

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Michler, M.

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

Miyamoto, Y.

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering,” in Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp. 458–459.

Nagata, H.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, pp. 4162–4164, 1993.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, p. 4162, 1993.

Nazarathy,

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1030–1032, 2010, Paper JWA033.

Rasmussen, J. C.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

Sasaki, S.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, and S. Sasaki, “A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007, pp. 1–3.

Sekine, K.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, and S. Sasaki, “A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007, pp. 1–3.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

Sugihara, T.

T. Sugihara, T. Yoshida, and K. Ishida, “Effect of modulator bias control in the presence of a finite extinction ratio in DQPSK pre-equalization systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2235–2248, 2011.

Takushima, Y.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.

Tao, Z.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

Terbrack, W.

M. G. Lee, W. Terbrack, and R. H. Buckley, “New robust bias control method for optical modulators,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 55, pp. 55–65, Oct. 1, 1990.

Vasic, B.

I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3767–3775, 2006.

Weinfurter, H.

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

Xiao, X.

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Xu, Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, and C. K. Y. Leung, “3*3 coupler-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in the Delamination detection in FRP composite,” J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct., vol. 19, pp. 496–507, 2008.

Yang, Qi

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Yi,

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, “Dual-parallel-MZ modulator bias control,” U.S. Patent 20 070 212 075 A1, 2007.

Yoshida, E.

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering,” in Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp. 458–459.

Yoshida, T.

T. Sugihara, T. Yoshida, and K. Ishida, “Effect of modulator bias control in the presence of a finite extinction ratio in DQPSK pre-equalization systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2235–2248, 2011.

Zeilinger, A.

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

Zhang, X.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

Zheng, S.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

Zhiqiang, Z.

Z. Zhiqiang, M.S. Demokan, and M. MacAlpine, “Improved demodulation scheme for fiber optic interferometers using an asymmetric 3 × 3 coupler,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2059–2068, 1997.

Zukowski, M.

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Phys. B

K. Mattle, M. Michler, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Zukowski, “Non-classical statistics at multiport beam splitters,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 60, p. S111, 1995.

Electron. Lett.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. S. Al-Aubaidy, “Bias control of the IQ optical modulator using side pilot-tone in optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 2419–2422, 2013.

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, pp. 4162–4164, 1993.

H. Nagata and K. Kiuchi, “Temperature dependence of dc drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators with sputter deposited SiO2 buffer layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 73, p. 4162, 1993.

J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct.

Y. Jiang, Y. Xu, and C. K. Y. Leung, “3*3 coupler-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in the Delamination detection in FRP composite,” J. Int. Mater. Syst. Struct., vol. 19, pp. 496–507, 2008.

J. Lightw. Technol.

Z. Zhiqiang, M.S. Demokan, and M. MacAlpine, “Improved demodulation scheme for fiber optic interferometers using an asymmetric 3 × 3 coupler,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2059–2068, 1997.

T. Sugihara, T. Yoshida, and K. Ishida, “Effect of modulator bias control in the presence of a finite extinction ratio in DQPSK pre-equalization systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2235–2248, 2011.

Opt. Exp.

I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3767–3775, 2006.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, J. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK signal,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 24962–24968, 2013.

T. Gui, C. Li, Qi Yang, X. Xiao, L. Meng,C . Li, X. Yi, C. Jin, andZ. Li, “Auto bias control technique for optical OFDM transmitter with bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5833–5841, 2013.

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B308–B312, 2011.

Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.

L. Dou, Z. Tao, L. Liu, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Electronic pre-distortion operating at 1 sample/symbol with accurate bas control for CD compensation,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1030–1032, 2010, Paper JWA033.

Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf.

Z. Huang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Ji, and H. Chi,“Any bias point control of Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator and its applications in optimization of radio-over-fiber links,” Proc. IEEE Microw. Photon. Conf., pp. 218–221, 2011.

Other

Y. Yin, “Dual-parallel-MZ modulator bias control,” U.S. Patent 20 070 212 075 A1, 2007.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering,” in Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp. 458–459.

J. R. Hamilton and K. D. Masterson, “Accurate bias point control for an electrically isolated Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulator via an analog optical-fiber link,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5531, pp. 323–331, Aug. 2, 2004.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox,, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in Proc. Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2000, pp. 121–124.

H. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” presented at theOpt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, and S. Sasaki, “A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007, pp. 1–3.

M. G. Lee, W. Terbrack, and R. H. Buckley, “New robust bias control method for optical modulators,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 55, pp. 55–65, Oct. 1, 1990.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.