Abstract

In this paper, we propose subcarrier intensity-modulation (SIM)/spatial modulation (SM)-aided free space optical communications with receiver diversity. Using computer simulation, the performances of the proposed SIM/SM scheme are investigated and compared with those of the conventional SIM scheme in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and in outdoor applications with lognormal atmospheric channels. The error performances are also mathematically analyzed in the AWGN channel for spectral efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz in order to validate the simulation results. Numerical results show that the proposed SIM/SM scheme can outperform the conventional SIM for both channels with various spectral efficiencies. We also demonstrate that, by employing multiple receivers, the deleterious effect of scintillation on the proposed SIM/SM scheme has been further ameliorated. Furthermore, our proposed SIM/SM scheme with the receiver diversity gets more resistant to turbulence-induced fading, when the spectral efficiency and the number of receivers are increased.

© 2014 IEEE

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  1. Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modeling With Matlab, vol. 397, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 400–402.
  2. W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, and E. Leitgeb, “Free-space optical communication using subcarrier modulation in gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., Rome, Italy, 2007, pp. 156–160.
  3. W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.
  4. W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.
  5. R. You and J. M. Kahn, “Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2164–2171, 2001.
  6. R. Mesleh, H. Hass, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation- a new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Netw., Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1–5.
  7. R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.
  8. E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communications over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” in Proc. Global Telecommun. Conf., 2002, pp. 2055–2060.
  9. R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “Optical spatial modulation,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2011.
  10. T. Fath, H. Haas, M. D. Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1–5.
  11. M. D. Renzo, H. Hass, and P. M. Grant, “Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 182–191, 2011.
  12. X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

2012 (1)

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

2011 (2)

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “Optical spatial modulation,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2011.

M. D. Renzo, H. Hass, and P. M. Grant, “Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 182–191, 2011.

2008 (2)

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

2001 (1)

R. You and J. M. Kahn, “Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2164–2171, 2001.

Ahmadi, V.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

Ahn, C. W.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation- a new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Netw., Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Allen, J. I. H.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

Chan, V. W. S.

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communications over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” in Proc. Global Telecommun. Conf., 2002, pp. 2055–2060.

Elgala, H.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “Optical spatial modulation,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2011.

Fath, T.

T. Fath, H. Haas, M. D. Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1–5.

Gao, S.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modeling With Matlab, vol. 397, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 400–402.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, and E. Leitgeb, “Free-space optical communication using subcarrier modulation in gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., Rome, Italy, 2007, pp. 156–160.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Grant, P. M.

M. D. Renzo, H. Hass, and P. M. Grant, “Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 182–191, 2011.

Haas, H.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “Optical spatial modulation,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2011.

T. Fath, H. Haas, M. D. Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1–5.

Hass, H.

M. D. Renzo, H. Hass, and P. M. Grant, “Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 182–191, 2011.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation- a new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Netw., Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Kahn, J. M.

R. You and J. M. Kahn, “Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2164–2171, 2001.

Kandus, G.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Leitgeb, E.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, and E. Leitgeb, “Free-space optical communication using subcarrier modulation in gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., Rome, Italy, 2007, pp. 156–160.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Mesleh, R.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “Optical spatial modulation,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2011.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

T. Fath, H. Haas, M. D. Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1–5.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation- a new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Netw., Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Muhammad, S. S.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Popoola, W.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modeling With Matlab, vol. 397, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 400–402.

Popoola, W. O.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, and E. Leitgeb, “Free-space optical communication using subcarrier modulation in gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., Rome, Italy, 2007, pp. 156–160.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Rajbhandari, S.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modeling With Matlab, vol. 397, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 400–402.

Renzo, M. D.

M. D. Renzo, H. Hass, and P. M. Grant, “Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 182–191, 2011.

T. Fath, H. Haas, M. D. Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1–5.

Shin, E. J.

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communications over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” in Proc. Global Telecommun. Conf., 2002, pp. 2055–2060.

Sinanovic, S.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

Tang, X.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

You, R.

R. You and J. M. Kahn, “Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2164–2171, 2001.

Yun, S.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation- a new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Netw., Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1–5.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. D. Renzo, H. Hass, and P. M. Grant, “Spatial modulation for multiple-antenna wireless systems: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 182–191, 2011.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

R. You and J. M. Kahn, “Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2164–2171, 2001.

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2228–2241, 2008.

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “Optical spatial modulation,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 234–244, 2011.

IET Commun. (1)

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Haas, E. Leitgeb, and V. Ahmadi, “Error performance of terrestrial free space optical links with subcarrier time diversity,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 2012.

IET Optoelectron. (1)

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, J. I. H. Allen, E. Leitgeb, and S. Gao, “Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel,” IET Optoelectron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2008.

Other (6)

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modeling With Matlab, vol. 397, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 400–402.

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, and E. Leitgeb, “Free-space optical communication using subcarrier modulation in gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., Rome, Italy, 2007, pp. 156–160.

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communications over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity,” in Proc. Global Telecommun. Conf., 2002, pp. 2055–2060.

R. Mesleh, H. Hass, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation- a new low complexity spectral efficiency enhancing technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Netw., Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1–5.

T. Fath, H. Haas, M. D. Renzo, and R. Mesleh, “Spatial modulation applied to optical wireless communications in indoor LOS environments,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1–5.

X. Tang, S. Rajbhandari, W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Performance of BPSK subcarrier intensity modulation free-space optical communications using a log-normal atmospheric turbulence model,” in Proc. Symp. Photon. Optoelectron., Chengdu, China, 2010, pp. 1–4.

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