Abstract

Low loss silicon waveguides are the key to the realization of high performance photonic integrated circuits. In this paper, fabrication, characterization and loss analysis of silicon nanowaveguides are presented. Silicon nanowaveguides are fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers with 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. To reduce the propagation loss, both photolithography and etching processes are optimized to make the waveguide sidewalls smooth. Propagation losses of 2.4 ± 0.2 and 0.59 ± 0.32 dB/cm are obtained at 1550 nm wavelength for TE and TM modes, respectively. A theoretical method is used to estimate the propagation losses for TE and TM modes. Scattering losses from both sidewalls and top/bottom surface are considered. The calculated results show that loss comes from sidewall roughness is the main source of propagation loss for TE mode while for TM mode, losses from both sidewall and top/bottom surface contribute comparably to the total propagation loss. The theoretically estimated propagation loss agrees well with the measured results.

© 2014 IEEE

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  3. Z. Sheng, D. Dai, S. He, "Comparative study of losses in ultrasharp silicon-on-insulator nanowire bends," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1406-1412 (2009).
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  5. M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, " Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist ," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
  6. Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
  7. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 ( 2005).
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  15. S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, "Loss reduction in silicon nanophotonic waveguide micro-bends through etch profile improvement," Opt. Commun. 284, 2141-2144 (2011).
  16. J. P. R. Lacey, F. P. Payne, "Radiation loss from planar wave-guides with random wall imperfections," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J. (1990) pp. 282-288.
  17. F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Effect of sidewall roughness in buried channel waveguides," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectronics ( 1994) pp. 242-248.
  18. F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Measurement of surface roughness in buried channel waveguides," Electron. Lett. 28, 1321-1322 (1992).
  19. F. Ladouceur, "Roughness in homogeneity and integrated optics," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1020 -1025 (1997).
  20. J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice-Hall , 1990) pp. 536-540.
  21. J. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679-698 (1986).
  22. T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, "Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices ," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892 -2896 (2003).
  23. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO $_{2}$ waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1888-1890 (2001).
  24. F. Payne, J. Lacey, " A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).
  25. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO $_{2}$ waveguide: Experiments and model ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 -1619 (2000).
  26. F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
  27. F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, "Propagation loss in single mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 891-896 (2006 ).
  28. T. Barwicz, H. A. Haus, "Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2719 -2732 (2005).

2011

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, "Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 567-579 (2011).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, "Loss reduction in silicon nanophotonic waveguide micro-bends through etch profile improvement," Opt. Commun. 284, 2141-2144 (2011).

2010

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Subnanometer line width uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 316-324 (2010).

2009

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076-4083 (2009).

Z. Sheng, D. Dai, S. He, "Comparative study of losses in ultrasharp silicon-on-insulator nanowire bends," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1406-1412 (2009).

2008

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, " Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist ," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).

2006

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 -2522 (2006).

2005

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon- challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

T. Barwicz, H. A. Haus, "Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2719 -2732 (2005).

2004

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328- 1330 (2004).

2003

T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, "Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices ," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892 -2896 (2003).

2001

2000

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO $_{2}$ waveguide: Experiments and model ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 -1619 (2000).

1997

F. Ladouceur, "Roughness in homogeneity and integrated optics," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1020 -1025 (1997).

1994

F. Payne, J. Lacey, " A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, K. Oda, "High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 790-796 (1994).

1992

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Measurement of surface roughness in buried channel waveguides," Electron. Lett. 28, 1321-1322 (1992).

1986

J. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679-698 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delage, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, "A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 -2522 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

Appl. Opt.

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, "Characteristic analysis of nanosilicon rectangular waveguides for planar light-wave circuits of high integration," Appl. Opt. 45, 4941-4946 ( 2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO $_{2}$ waveguide: Experiments and model ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 -1619 (2000).

Electron. Lett.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Measurement of surface roughness in buried channel waveguides," Electron. Lett. 28, 1321-1322 (1992).

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, " Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist ," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

F. Ladouceur, "Roughness in homogeneity and integrated optics," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1020 -1025 (1997).

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, "Propagation loss in single mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 891-896 (2006 ).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

Z. Sheng, D. Dai, S. He, "Comparative study of losses in ultrasharp silicon-on-insulator nanowire bends," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1406-1412 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 ( 2005).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Subnanometer line width uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 316-324 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328- 1330 (2004).

IEEE Photon. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, "Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 567-579 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

J. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679-698 (1986).

J. Lightw. Technol.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193-nm optical lithography," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4076-4083 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, K. Oda, "High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 790-796 (1994).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon- challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

T. Barwicz, H. A. Haus, "Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides ," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2719 -2732 (2005).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, "Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices ," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892 -2896 (2003).

Opt. Commun.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, "Loss reduction in silicon nanophotonic waveguide micro-bends through etch profile improvement," Opt. Commun. 284, 2141-2144 (2011).

Opt. Exp.

S. H. Tao, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Cascade wide-angle Y-junction 1 × 16 optical power splitter based on silicon wire waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Exp. 16, 21456-21461 ( 2008).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. Payne, J. Lacey, " A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977-986 (1994).

Other

J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice-Hall , 1990) pp. 536-540.

J. P. R. Lacey, F. P. Payne, "Radiation loss from planar wave-guides with random wall imperfections," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J. (1990) pp. 282-288.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Effect of sidewall roughness in buried channel waveguides," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectronics ( 1994) pp. 242-248.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, D. Vermeulen, G. Sterckx, G. Winroth, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, " Advanced 300-mm waferscale patterning for silicon photonics devices with record low loss and phase errors ," 17th Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. presented at the BusanKorea (2012).

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