Abstract

The design of a photonic frequency discriminator with enhanced linearity is proposed and analyzed. The discriminator consists of a Mach–Zehnder Interferometer and two ring resonators which linearize the magnitude and phase response, respectively. The discriminator is flexible as it can be switched between linear-intensity and linear-field regimes. The linearity of the discriminator is demonstrated by simulating the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) and corresponding third-order output intercept point (OIP3). Simulation results show that the linearity of the phase response plays a critical role in suppressing IMD3 and resonance-enhanced IMD3 suppression by the double-ring structure is observed. Corresponding OIP3 even exceeds that of a perfect linear intensity discriminator.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. R. F. Kalman, J. C. Fan, L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of coherent analog fiberoptic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1263-1277 (1994 ).
  2. S. E. Harris, "Coversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 47-49 (1963).
  3. I. P. Kaminow, "Balanced optical discriminator," Appl. Opt. 3, 507-510 ( 1964).
  4. W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, P. R. Hernday, "Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-793 (1992).
  5. J. C. Chen, R. A. Brown, "Novel optical frequency discriminator with “perfect” linearity," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2000) pp. 329 -331.
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  7. T. E. Darcie, J. Y. Zhang, P. F. Driessen, J. J. Eun, "Class-B microlwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 157-164 (2007).
  8. P. F. Driessen, T. E. Darcie, J. Y. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2740-2747 (2008).
  9. X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F. S. Choa, "Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1136-1138 (2002).
  10. G. Chen, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, "Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber sagnac filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17 , 109-111 (2005).
  11. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, "A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link," Opt. Exp. 18, 27359 -27370 (2010).
  12. M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M.P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, R. DeSalvo, "Reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1856-1859 (2012).
  13. J. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, R. DeSalvo, "Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators," Opt. Exp. 20, 26292-26298 ( 2012).
  14. J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, " Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5552- 5562 (2009).
  15. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).
  16. J. Kim, W. J. Sung, O. Eknoyan, C. K. Madsen, "Linear photonic frequency discriminator on As2S3-ring-on-Ti:LiNbO3 hybrid platform," Opt. Exp. 21, 24566 -24573 (2013).
  17. H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H.R. Fetterman, W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
  18. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 13, 1900-1905 (2005).
  19. W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, " Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).
  20. Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, C. K. Madsen, "Two-stage taper enhanced ultra-high Q As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1195 -1197 (2011).
  21. X. Xia, Y. Zhou, C. K. Madsen, "Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 taper couplers using supermode theory," Opt. Photon. J. 2, 344-351 (2012).

2013 (1)

J. Kim, W. J. Sung, O. Eknoyan, C. K. Madsen, "Linear photonic frequency discriminator on As2S3-ring-on-Ti:LiNbO3 hybrid platform," Opt. Exp. 21, 24566 -24573 (2013).

2012 (2)

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M.P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, R. DeSalvo, "Reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1856-1859 (2012).

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, C. K. Madsen, "Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 taper couplers using supermode theory," Opt. Photon. J. 2, 344-351 (2012).

2011 (1)

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, C. K. Madsen, "Two-stage taper enhanced ultra-high Q As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1195 -1197 (2011).

2010 (1)

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, "A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link," Opt. Exp. 18, 27359 -27370 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, " Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5552- 5562 (2009).

2008 (1)

P. F. Driessen, T. E. Darcie, J. Y. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2740-2747 (2008).

2007 (1)

T. E. Darcie, J. Y. Zhang, P. F. Driessen, J. J. Eun, "Class-B microlwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 157-164 (2007).

2006 (1)

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H.R. Fetterman, W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).

2005 (2)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 13, 1900-1905 (2005).

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, "Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber sagnac filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17 , 109-111 (2005).

2004 (1)

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, " Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).

2002 (2)

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F. S. Choa, "Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1136-1138 (2002).

X. B. Xie, J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, F. S. Choa, "Compact linearized optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 384-386 (2002).

1992 (1)

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, P. R. Hernday, "Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-793 (1992).

1963 (1)

S. E. Harris, "Coversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 47-49 (1963).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, C. K. Madsen, "Two-stage taper enhanced ultra-high Q As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1195 -1197 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, "Balanced optical discriminator," Appl. Opt. 3, 507-510 ( 1964).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. E. Harris, "Coversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 47-49 (1963).

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, " Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523-5525 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. B. Xie, J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, F. S. Choa, "Compact linearized optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 384-386 (2002).

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M.P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, R. DeSalvo, "Reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1856-1859 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F. S. Choa, "Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1136-1138 (2002).

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, "Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber sagnac filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17 , 109-111 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, " Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5552- 5562 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. F. Driessen, T. E. Darcie, J. Y. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2740-2747 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H.R. Fetterman, W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).

T. E. Darcie, J. Y. Zhang, P. F. Driessen, J. J. Eun, "Class-B microlwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 157-164 (2007).

R. F. Kalman, J. C. Fan, L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of coherent analog fiberoptic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1263-1277 (1994 ).

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, P. R. Hernday, "Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator ," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-793 (1992).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, R. DeSalvo, "Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators," Opt. Exp. 20, 26292-26298 ( 2012).

Opt. Exp. (3)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 13, 1900-1905 (2005).

J. Kim, W. J. Sung, O. Eknoyan, C. K. Madsen, "Linear photonic frequency discriminator on As2S3-ring-on-Ti:LiNbO3 hybrid platform," Opt. Exp. 21, 24566 -24573 (2013).

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, "A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link," Opt. Exp. 18, 27359 -27370 (2010).

Opt. Photon. J. (1)

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, C. K. Madsen, "Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 taper couplers using supermode theory," Opt. Photon. J. 2, 344-351 (2012).

Other (2)

J. C. Chen, R. A. Brown, "Novel optical frequency discriminator with “perfect” linearity," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2000) pp. 329 -331.

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

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