Abstract

We study theoretically the spectral and polarization threshold characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an overlay of cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC-VCSELs). Due to the existence of CLC band gap for circularly polarized (CP) light the polarization state of the resonant modes in the compound system evolves from linear (LP) inside the VCSEL to elliptical and circular (CP) inside the CLC. As a result, the output mirror reflectivity is increased and CLC-VCSEL threshold gain is decreased. We elucidate the transition from LP to CP state of the generated light by studying the role of the CLC thickness and the top distributed Bragg reflector reflectivity. This transition takes place for 5–6 $\mu$m thick CLC and is not gradual but happens in an oscillatory fashion. When the CLC thickness is fixed and the VCSEL top mirror reflectivity is decreased a profound gradual red shift of the resonant mode wavelength and increase of threshold gain are observed.

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  1. C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. Von Lehmen, L. Florez, N. Stoffel, "Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402- 1409 (1991).
  2. K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1 , 661-666 (1995).
  3. M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, "Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728-1739 (1995).
  4. J. M. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. S. Miguel, N. B. Abraham, "Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765-783 (1997).
  5. A. Valle, K. A. Shore, L. Pesquera, "Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2062-2068 (1996).
  6. G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, J. Albert, B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Danckaert, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, "Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: From experimental observation to applications," Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 257-268 (2001).
  7. K. Panajotov, F. Prati, VCSELs (Springer Series in Optical Sciences), R. Michalzik Ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2012 ) pp. 181-231.
  8. S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, " High frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3545-3547 (1993).
  9. K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, M. Arizaleta, H. Thienpont, "Optical feedback in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19 , 1700312 ( 2013).
  10. M. Arteaga, M. Valencia, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, M. López-Amo, K. Panajotov, " Experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a time-delayed bistable system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007).
  11. Z. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. Ason, R. Leibenguth, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).
  12. I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, K. Panajotov, "Bifurcation to polarization switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 76, 031803(R) (2007).
  13. B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable VCSELs ," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).
  14. M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Megret, M. Blondel, K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers ," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016207 (2003).
  15. L. Olejniszak, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, M. Sciamanna, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, D. Bimberg, "Polarization switching and polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 19 , 2476-2484 (2011).
  16. M. Virte, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, M. Sciamanna, "Deterministic polarization chaos from a laser diode ," Nat. Photon. 7, 60-66 (2013).
  17. H. Ando, T. Sogawa, H. Gotoh, "Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 , 566-568 (1998).
  18. M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, "Electron-spin relaxation in p-type quantum wells via electron- hole exchange interaction: The effects of the valence-band spin mixing and of an applied longitudinal electric field ," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13771-13777 (1997).
  19. K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with liquid crystal overlay," Opt. Exp. 19, 16749-16759 (2011).
  20. Y. Xie, W. Woestenborghs, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, K. Panajotov, "VCSEL with photo-aligned liquid crystal overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1509-1512 (2012).
  21. I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2007).
  22. S. M. Weiss, H. Ouyang, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical and thermal modulation of silicon photonic bandgap microcavities containing liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13 , 1090-1097 (2005).
  23. V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, W. Lee, "Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell," Opt. Exp. 18, 1283-1288 (2010).
  24. Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2767 -2769 (2003).
  25. T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).
  26. F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, S.-T. Wu, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 , 2181-2183 (2004).
  27. Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
  28. I.-C. Khoo, A. Diaz, J. Liou, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, Y. Ma, "Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterias ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 410-417 ( 2010).
  29. V. Verbrugge, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, L. Dupont, " C-band wavelength-tunable vertical-cavity laser using a nano polymer dispersed liquid crystal material ," Opt. Commun. 215, 353-359 (2003).
  30. O. Castany, L. Dupont, C. Paranthoen, C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Liquid crystal micro-cells for tunable VCSELs,” presented at the Journes Nationales sur les Technologies Mergentes, Palaiseau, France, Nov. 2010.
  31. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).
  32. L. Penninck, J. Beeckman, P. De Visschere, K. Neyts, "Light emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals at oblique angles: Simulation and experiment," Phys. Rev. E 85, 041702 (2012).
  33. K. Panajotov, Y. Xie, M. Dems, C. Belmonte, H. Thienpont, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting circularly polarized light," Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105003 (2013).
  34. D. W. Berreman, "Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4 $\times$ 4-matrix formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 62, 502-510 (1972).
  35. M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, "Plane wave admittance method—A novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Exp. 13, 3196-3207 (2005).
  36. M. Dems, T. Czyszanowski, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, Photonics Crystals: Physics and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2008) pp. 253-277.
  37. P. Debernardi, J. M. Ostermann, M. Feneberg, C. Jalics, R. Michalzik, "Reliable polarization control of VCSELs through monolithically integrated surface gratings: A comparative theoretical and experimental study," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 107-116 (2005).
  38. C. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).
  39. M. Maute, B. Kgel, G. Bhm, P. Meissner, M.-C. Amann, "MEMS-Tunable 1.55-mm VCSEL with extended tuning range incorporating a buried tunnel junction ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688-690 (2006).

2013 (2)

M. Virte, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, M. Sciamanna, "Deterministic polarization chaos from a laser diode ," Nat. Photon. 7, 60-66 (2013).

K. Panajotov, Y. Xie, M. Dems, C. Belmonte, H. Thienpont, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting circularly polarized light," Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105003 (2013).

2012 (2)

L. Penninck, J. Beeckman, P. De Visschere, K. Neyts, "Light emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals at oblique angles: Simulation and experiment," Phys. Rev. E 85, 041702 (2012).

Y. Xie, W. Woestenborghs, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, K. Panajotov, "VCSEL with photo-aligned liquid crystal overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1509-1512 (2012).

2011 (2)

L. Olejniszak, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, M. Sciamanna, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, D. Bimberg, "Polarization switching and polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 19 , 2476-2484 (2011).

K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with liquid crystal overlay," Opt. Exp. 19, 16749-16759 (2011).

2010 (1)

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, W. Lee, "Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell," Opt. Exp. 18, 1283-1288 (2010).

2007 (2)

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, K. Panajotov, "Bifurcation to polarization switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 76, 031803(R) (2007).

M. Arteaga, M. Valencia, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, M. López-Amo, K. Panajotov, " Experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a time-delayed bistable system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Maute, B. Kgel, G. Bhm, P. Meissner, M.-C. Amann, "MEMS-Tunable 1.55-mm VCSEL with extended tuning range incorporating a buried tunnel junction ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688-690 (2006).

2005 (3)

M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, "Plane wave admittance method—A novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Exp. 13, 3196-3207 (2005).

P. Debernardi, J. M. Ostermann, M. Feneberg, C. Jalics, R. Michalzik, "Reliable polarization control of VCSELs through monolithically integrated surface gratings: A comparative theoretical and experimental study," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 107-116 (2005).

S. M. Weiss, H. Ouyang, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical and thermal modulation of silicon photonic bandgap microcavities containing liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13 , 1090-1097 (2005).

2004 (2)

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable VCSELs ," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, S.-T. Wu, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 , 2181-2183 (2004).

2003 (4)

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2767 -2769 (2003).

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

V. Verbrugge, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, L. Dupont, " C-band wavelength-tunable vertical-cavity laser using a nano polymer dispersed liquid crystal material ," Opt. Commun. 215, 353-359 (2003).

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Megret, M. Blondel, K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers ," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016207 (2003).

2001 (2)

G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, J. Albert, B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Danckaert, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, "Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: From experimental observation to applications," Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 257-268 (2001).

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).

2000 (1)

C. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).

1998 (2)

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, H. Gotoh, "Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 , 566-568 (1998).

1997 (2)

M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, "Electron-spin relaxation in p-type quantum wells via electron- hole exchange interaction: The effects of the valence-band spin mixing and of an applied longitudinal electric field ," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13771-13777 (1997).

J. M. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. S. Miguel, N. B. Abraham, "Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765-783 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, L. Pesquera, "Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2062-2068 (1996).

1995 (2)

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1 , 661-666 (1995).

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, "Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728-1739 (1995).

1993 (2)

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, " High frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3545-3547 (1993).

Z. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. Ason, R. Leibenguth, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).

1991 (1)

C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. Von Lehmen, L. Florez, N. Stoffel, "Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402- 1409 (1991).

1972 (1)

D. W. Berreman, "Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4 $\times$ 4-matrix formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 62, 502-510 (1972).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, " High frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3545-3547 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Z. Pan, S. Jiang, M. Dagenais, R. Morgan, K. Kojima, M. Ason, R. Leibenguth, "Optical injection induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999-3001 (1993).

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, H. Gotoh, "Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 , 566-568 (1998).

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, S.-T. Wu, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 , 2181-2183 (2004).

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, "Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2767 -2769 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. Von Lehmen, L. Florez, N. Stoffel, "Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402- 1409 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. S. Miguel, N. B. Abraham, "Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765-783 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Debernardi, J. M. Ostermann, M. Feneberg, C. Jalics, R. Michalzik, "Reliable polarization control of VCSELs through monolithically integrated surface gratings: A comparative theoretical and experimental study," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 107-116 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

C. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1 , 661-666 (1995).

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, M. Arizaleta, H. Thienpont, "Optical feedback in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 19 , 1700312 ( 2013).

I.-C. Khoo, A. Diaz, J. Liou, M. V. Stinger, J. Huang, Y. Ma, "Liquid crystal tunable optical metamaterias ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 410-417 ( 2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Xie, W. Woestenborghs, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, K. Panajotov, "VCSEL with photo-aligned liquid crystal overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1509-1512 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Maute, B. Kgel, G. Bhm, P. Meissner, M.-C. Amann, "MEMS-Tunable 1.55-mm VCSEL with extended tuning range incorporating a buried tunnel junction ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688-690 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. S. Ryvkin, K. Panajotov, E. A. Avrutin, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, "Optical-injection-induced polarization switching in polarization-bistable VCSELs ," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6002-6007 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, L. Pesquera, "Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2062-2068 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

D. W. Berreman, "Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4 $\times$ 4-matrix formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 62, 502-510 (1972).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Panajotov, Y. Xie, M. Dems, C. Belmonte, H. Thienpont, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting circularly polarized light," Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105003 (2013).

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Virte, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, M. Sciamanna, "Deterministic polarization chaos from a laser diode ," Nat. Photon. 7, 60-66 (2013).

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Verbrugge, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, L. Dupont, " C-band wavelength-tunable vertical-cavity laser using a nano polymer dispersed liquid crystal material ," Opt. Commun. 215, 353-359 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (6)

S. M. Weiss, H. Ouyang, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical and thermal modulation of silicon photonic bandgap microcavities containing liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13 , 1090-1097 (2005).

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, W. Lee, "Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell," Opt. Exp. 18, 1283-1288 (2010).

K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with liquid crystal overlay," Opt. Exp. 19, 16749-16759 (2011).

M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, "Plane wave admittance method—A novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Exp. 13, 3196-3207 (2005).

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

L. Olejniszak, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, M. Sciamanna, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, D. Bimberg, "Polarization switching and polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 19 , 2476-2484 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, J. Albert, B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Danckaert, I. Veretennicoff, H. Thienpont, "Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: From experimental observation to applications," Opto-Electron. Rev. 9, 257-268 (2001).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Arteaga, M. Valencia, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, M. López-Amo, K. Panajotov, " Experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a time-delayed bistable system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. Gatare, M. Sciamanna, M. Nizette, K. Panajotov, "Bifurcation to polarization switching and locking in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 76, 031803(R) (2007).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, "Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728-1739 (1995).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, "Electron-spin relaxation in p-type quantum wells via electron- hole exchange interaction: The effects of the valence-band spin mixing and of an applied longitudinal electric field ," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13771-13777 (1997).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Megret, M. Blondel, K. Panajotov, "Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers ," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016207 (2003).

L. Penninck, J. Beeckman, P. De Visschere, K. Neyts, "Light emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals at oblique angles: Simulation and experiment," Phys. Rev. E 85, 041702 (2012).

Other (4)

M. Dems, T. Czyszanowski, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, Photonics Crystals: Physics and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2008) pp. 253-277.

I.-C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 2007).

O. Castany, L. Dupont, C. Paranthoen, C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Liquid crystal micro-cells for tunable VCSELs,” presented at the Journes Nationales sur les Technologies Mergentes, Palaiseau, France, Nov. 2010.

K. Panajotov, F. Prati, VCSELs (Springer Series in Optical Sciences), R. Michalzik Ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2012 ) pp. 181-231.

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