Abstract

We report optical-damage-resistant Ti:Er:LiNbO$_{3}$ strip waveguide with high diffusion-doped surface Er$^{3+}$ concentration. The waveguide was fabricated starting from a commercial X-cut congruent LiNbO $_{3}$ plate with a two-step technological process in sequence of simultaneous work of Er$^{3+}$ diffusion doping and Li-poor vapor transport equilibration treatment, and fabrication of 6-μm-wide Ti-diffused strip waveguide (Z-propagation). The waveguide retains still the LiNbO$_{3}$ phase and has the waveguiding characteristics similar to the conventional Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguide except with a larger loss due to the imperfection of waveguide. Secondary ion mass spectrometry study shows that the Er$^{3+}$ diffusion reservoir was exhausted and the profile is the desired Gaussian-type with a surface concentration 1.0 mol%, which is about two times larger than the value of conventional Ti:Er:LiNbO$_{3}$ amplifier. Further optical characterization shows that the waveguide shows stable 1547 nm small-signal gain under the 980 nm pumping without serious photorefractive effect observed. An unsaturated gain 1.7 dB/cm is obtained for the available coupled pump power of 160 mW. With increased pump power, optimized Er $^{3+}$ diffusion condition and degraded loss figure, a higher gain is expected.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Continuous-wave Erbium-diffused LiNbO $_3$ waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 415-417 (1991).
  2. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, D. Sciancalepore, "Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 101-113 (2000).
  3. S. Helmfrid, G. Arvidsson, J. Webjorn, M. Linnarsson, T. Pihl, " Stimulated emission in Er:Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguides close to 1.53 μm transition," Electron. Lett. 27, 913-914 (1991 ).
  4. R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2356-2360 (1994).
  5. J. Amin, J. A. Aust, N. A. Sanford, "Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO $_{3}$ ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3785- 3787 (1996).
  6. V. Voinot, R. Ferriere, J. P. Goedgebuer, "Polarisation-independent Er:Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifier pumped by a laser diode at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 34, 549-550 (1998).
  7. C. H. Huang, L. McCaughan, "980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1484-nm pumping," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 367-372 (1996).
  8. E. Cantelar, G. A. Torchia, J. A. Sanz-García, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, F. Cussó, "Red, green, and blue simultaneous generation in aperiodically poled Zn-diffused LiNbO $_{3}$ :Er $^{3+}$ /Yb $^{3+}$ nonlinear channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2991-2993 (2003).
  9. B. K. Das, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, W. Sohler, "Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:) Er:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 165-167 (2004 ).
  10. G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkotter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, "Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4277, 144-160 (2001).
  11. Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, S. Takekawa, A. Miyamoto, M. Terao, N. Suda, "Photorefraction in LiNbO $_3$ as a function of [Li]/[Nb] and MgO concentrations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2494-2496 (2000 ).
  12. P. R. Hua, D. L. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, "Photorefractive-damage -resistant locally Er–Mg-doped near-stoichiometric Ti :Mg : Er : LiNbO $_3$ strip waveguides: A way towards new devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1008-1010 (2010).
  13. I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, W. von der Osten, "Erbium incorporation in LiNbO $_{3}$ by diffusion-doping," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 33-44 (1997).
  14. F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, J. M. Almeida, A. P. Leite, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of erbium diffusion in lithium niobate crystals ," J. Mater. Res. 13, 1672-1678 (1998).
  15. G. C. Righini, M. Ferrari, "Photoluminescence of rare-earth–doped glasses," Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 28, 1-53 (2005).
  16. X. Feng, S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties, thermal stability of Er $^{3+}$ -doped germanotellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165-171 (2001 ).
  17. D. L. Zhang, B. Chen, P. R. Hua, D. Y. Yu, E. Y. B. Pun, " Demonstration of Er $^{3+}$ diffusivity and solubility increases in off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO $_3$ crystal," J. Mater. Res. 26, 1524 -1531 (2011).
  18. D. L. Zhang, B. Chen, E. Y. B. Pun, "Locally Er-doped high-solubility LiNbO $_3$ crystal prepared by Li-poor vapor transport equilibration and Er codiffusion," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3837-3841 (2010 ).
  19. M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, K. Betzler, "Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 63, 323-330 (1996).
  20. C. H. Huang, L. McCaughan, D. M. Gill, "Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO $_3$ for application to integrated optic amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 803-809 (1994 ).
  21. M. Fukuma, J. Noda, " Optical properties of titanium-diffused LiNbO $_3$ strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics," Appl. Opt. 19 , 591-597 (1980).
  22. S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO $_3$ as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
  23. R. J. Holmes, D. M. Smyth, "Titanium diffusion into LiNbO3 as a function of stoichiometry," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3531-3535 (1984).
  24. J. A. Muňoz, B. Herreros, G. Lifante, F. Cussó, "Concentration dependence of the 1.5 μm emission lifetime of Er $^{3+}$ in LiNbO $_{3}$ by radiation trapping," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 168, 525-530 (1998).
  25. D. L. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, "Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er $^{3+}$ in LiNbO $_3$ crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1339-1346 (2003).
  26. D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, E. Y. B. Pun, "Correct determination of internal gain and net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement," Opt. Commun. 279, 64-67 (2007).

2011 (1)

D. L. Zhang, B. Chen, P. R. Hua, D. Y. Yu, E. Y. B. Pun, " Demonstration of Er $^{3+}$ diffusivity and solubility increases in off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO $_3$ crystal," J. Mater. Res. 26, 1524 -1531 (2011).

2010 (1)

P. R. Hua, D. L. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, "Photorefractive-damage -resistant locally Er–Mg-doped near-stoichiometric Ti :Mg : Er : LiNbO $_3$ strip waveguides: A way towards new devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1008-1010 (2010).

2007 (1)

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, E. Y. B. Pun, "Correct determination of internal gain and net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement," Opt. Commun. 279, 64-67 (2007).

2005 (1)

G. C. Righini, M. Ferrari, "Photoluminescence of rare-earth–doped glasses," Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 28, 1-53 (2005).

2003 (2)

E. Cantelar, G. A. Torchia, J. A. Sanz-García, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, F. Cussó, "Red, green, and blue simultaneous generation in aperiodically poled Zn-diffused LiNbO $_{3}$ :Er $^{3+}$ /Yb $^{3+}$ nonlinear channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2991-2993 (2003).

D. L. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, "Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er $^{3+}$ in LiNbO $_3$ crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1339-1346 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkotter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, "Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4277, 144-160 (2001).

2000 (1)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, D. Sciancalepore, "Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 101-113 (2000).

1998 (3)

V. Voinot, R. Ferriere, J. P. Goedgebuer, "Polarisation-independent Er:Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifier pumped by a laser diode at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 34, 549-550 (1998).

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, J. M. Almeida, A. P. Leite, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of erbium diffusion in lithium niobate crystals ," J. Mater. Res. 13, 1672-1678 (1998).

J. A. Muňoz, B. Herreros, G. Lifante, F. Cussó, "Concentration dependence of the 1.5 μm emission lifetime of Er $^{3+}$ in LiNbO $_{3}$ by radiation trapping," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 168, 525-530 (1998).

1997 (1)

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, W. von der Osten, "Erbium incorporation in LiNbO $_{3}$ by diffusion-doping," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 33-44 (1997).

1996 (3)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, K. Betzler, "Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 63, 323-330 (1996).

C. H. Huang, L. McCaughan, "980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1484-nm pumping," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 367-372 (1996).

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, N. A. Sanford, "Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO $_{3}$ ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3785- 3787 (1996).

1994 (1)

R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2356-2360 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Continuous-wave Erbium-diffused LiNbO $_3$ waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 415-417 (1991).

1987 (1)

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO $_3$ as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 700-708 (1987).

1984 (1)

R. J. Holmes, D. M. Smyth, "Titanium diffusion into LiNbO3 as a function of stoichiometry," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3531-3535 (1984).

1980 (1)

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, " Optical properties of titanium-diffused LiNbO $_3$ strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics," Appl. Opt. 19 , 591-597 (1980).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, N. A. Sanford, "Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO $_{3}$ ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3785- 3787 (1996).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, K. Betzler, "Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 63, 323-330 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, " Optical properties of titanium-diffused LiNbO $_3$ strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics," Appl. Opt. 19 , 591-597 (1980).

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, Ch. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K.-H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, W. von der Osten, "Erbium incorporation in LiNbO $_{3}$ by diffusion-doping," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 33-44 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, S. Takekawa, A. Miyamoto, M. Terao, N. Suda, "Photorefraction in LiNbO $_3$ as a function of [Li]/[Nb] and MgO concentrations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2494-2496 (2000 ).

E. Cantelar, G. A. Torchia, J. A. Sanz-García, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, F. Cussó, "Red, green, and blue simultaneous generation in aperiodically poled Zn-diffused LiNbO $_{3}$ :Er $^{3+}$ /Yb $^{3+}$ nonlinear channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2991-2993 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Continuous-wave Erbium-diffused LiNbO $_3$ waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 415-417 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Helmfrid, G. Arvidsson, J. Webjorn, M. Linnarsson, T. Pihl, " Stimulated emission in Er:Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguides close to 1.53 μm transition," Electron. Lett. 27, 913-914 (1991 ).

V. Voinot, R. Ferriere, J. P. Goedgebuer, "Polarisation-independent Er:Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifier pumped by a laser diode at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 34, 549-550 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifiers ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2356-2360 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, D. Sciancalepore, "Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO $_3$ waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 101-113 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Huang, L. McCaughan, "980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO $_3$ waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1484-nm pumping," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 367-372 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. R. Hua, D. L. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, "Photorefractive-damage -resistant locally Er–Mg-doped near-stoichiometric Ti :Mg : Er : LiNbO $_3$ strip waveguides: A way towards new devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1008-1010 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. J. Holmes, D. M. Smyth, "Titanium diffusion into LiNbO3 as a function of stoichiometry," J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3531-3535 (1984).

D. L. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, "Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er $^{3+}$ in LiNbO $_3$ crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1339-1346 (2003).

J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. (2)

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, "Spectroscopic properties, thermal stability of Er $^{3+}$ -doped germanotellurite glasses for broadband fiber amplifiers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 84, 165-171 (2001 ).

D. L. Zhang, B. Chen, E. Y. B. Pun, "Locally Er-doped high-solubility LiNbO $_3$ crystal prepared by Li-poor vapor transport equilibration and Er codiffusion," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3837-3841 (2010 ).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO $_3$ as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 700-708 (1987).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. H. Huang, L. McCaughan, D. M. Gill, "Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO $_3$ for application to integrated optic amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 803-809 (1994 ).

J. Mater. Res. (2)

D. L. Zhang, B. Chen, P. R. Hua, D. Y. Yu, E. Y. B. Pun, " Demonstration of Er $^{3+}$ diffusivity and solubility increases in off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO $_3$ crystal," J. Mater. Res. 26, 1524 -1531 (2011).

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, J. M. Almeida, A. P. Leite, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of erbium diffusion in lithium niobate crystals ," J. Mater. Res. 13, 1672-1678 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. L. Zhang, P. R. Hua, E. Y. B. Pun, "Correct determination of internal gain and net gain in Er-doped optical waveguide amplifier from pump-on/off measurement," Opt. Commun. 279, 64-67 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (1)

J. A. Muňoz, B. Herreros, G. Lifante, F. Cussó, "Concentration dependence of the 1.5 μm emission lifetime of Er $^{3+}$ in LiNbO $_{3}$ by radiation trapping," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 168, 525-530 (1998).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkotter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, "Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO $_3$ waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4277, 144-160 (2001).

Rivista del Nuovo Cimento (1)

G. C. Righini, M. Ferrari, "Photoluminescence of rare-earth–doped glasses," Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 28, 1-53 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.