Abstract

Component birefringence can cause signal impairments in phase modulated optical links. At the transmitter, imperfect launch conditions couple phase modulation to unintended polarization modulation. At the receiver, polarization modulation creates spurious photocurrents due to birefringence in, and time delays between, interferometric paths. In this paper, we analyze such systems, and develop a formula for the photocurrent as a function of 11 system parameters. We utilize both the Jones description and our recent generalization of the Stokes description that includes optical phase, examine several special cases for phase modulated RF optical links, and evaluate some typical system performance issues.

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  2. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112 Gb/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).
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2011 (1)

K. Xu, J. Dai, R. Duan, Y. Dai, Y. Li, J. Wu, J. Lin, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on phase-modulated links with interferometric detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1328-1330 (2011).

2010 (2)

N. J. Frigo, F. Bucholtz, "Measurement of polarisation-dependent phase shift in DPSK demodulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 1211-1212 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112 Gb/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

2009 (1)

N. J. Frigo, F. Bucholtz, "Geometrical representation of optical propagation phase," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3283-3293 (2009).

2007 (1)

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1978-1985 (2007).

2005 (1)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

1997 (1)

R. Bhandari, "Polarization of light and topological phases," Physics Reports 281, 1-64 (1997).

1990 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, "Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 838-845 (1990).

1987 (1)

M. V. Berry, "The adiabatic phase and Pancharatnam's phase for polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1401-1407 (1987).

1986 (1)

N. J. Frigo, "A generalized geometrical representation of coupled mode theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2131-2139 (1986).

1977 (1)

1957 (1)

R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, Jr.R. W. Hellwarth, "Geometrical representation of the Schrodinger equation for solving maser problems," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49-52 (1957).

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. J. Frigo, F. Bucholtz, "Measurement of polarisation-dependent phase shift in DPSK demodulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 1211-1212 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Xu, J. Dai, R. Duan, Y. Dai, Y. Li, J. Wu, J. Lin, "Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on phase-modulated links with interferometric detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1328-1330 (2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. J. Frigo, "A generalized geometrical representation of coupled mode theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2131-2139 (1986).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1978-1985 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, Jr.R. W. Hellwarth, "Geometrical representation of the Schrodinger equation for solving maser problems," J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49-52 (1957).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

N. J. Frigo, F. Bucholtz, "Geometrical representation of optical propagation phase," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3283-3293 (2009).

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, "Analysis of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors and its reduction using polarization scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 838-845 (1990).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112 Gb/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. V. Berry, "The adiabatic phase and Pancharatnam's phase for polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1401-1407 (1987).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physics Reports (1)

R. Bhandari, "Polarization of light and topological phases," Physics Reports 281, 1-64 (1997).

Other (8)

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Oulette, A. Wetter, R. Kashyap, A. E. Willner, "Low-loss S-, C-, and L-band differential phase shift keying demodulator," Proc. CLEO 07 (2007).

M. Abramowitz, I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Funcctions (Dover, 1964).

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloe, Quantum Mechanics (Wiley, 1977).

D. H. Sattinger, O. L. Weaver, Lie Groups and Algebras With Applications to Physics, Geometry, and Mechanics (Springer-Verlag, 2010).

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (2002) pp. 4541-4550.

J. N. Damask, Polarization Optics in Telecommunications (Springer, 2004).

D. Goldstein, Polarized Light (CRC Press, 2003).

H. Goldstein, C. P. Poole, J. L. Safko, Classical Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

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