Abstract

In this paper, dual-polarization fiber grating lasers are exploited as heterodyning sensors for hydrostatic pressure measurement. The laser is formed by photo-inscribing two highly reflective wavelength-matched Bragg gratings over a short section of Er-doped fiber. The measurement is carried out by monitoring the beat frequency between the orthogonally polarized laser output. The pressure sensitivity of a bare sensor is -0.59 MHz/MPa. Theoretical analysis suggests that the pressure response is dominantly determined by the change in intra-cavity birefringence, which is associated with the geometrical imperfection of the fiber core. The effects of differences in elastic properties between fiber core and cladding on the pressure response are examined. We found that the differences in Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are mainly responsible for the pressure sensitivity. The pressure sensitivity can be significantly enhanced by packaging the laser into a polymer incorporated with a steel rod. Due to the difference in elastic properties between materials, an additional birefringence is introduced into the laser cavity under hydrostatic pressure. The sensitivity has been enhanced by 228 times, to 170 MHz/MPa. The minimal detectable pressure change of the packaged sensor is about 0.01 MPa. We further demonstrate a miniature packaged sensor with a cross-sectional dimension of only 1.42 mm and a pressure sensitivity of 53.9 MHz/MPa towards practical applications.

© 2013 IEEE

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2012 (3)

B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, "Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1097-1112 (2012).

L. Jin, Y. N. Tan, Z. Quan, M. P. Li, B. O. Guan, "Strain-insensitive temperature sensing with a dual polarization fiber grating laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 6021-6028 (2012).

L. Jin, Z. Quan, Y. N. Tan, B. O. Guan, "Highly sensitive hydrostatic pressure sensing with an embedded dual-polarization fiber grating laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1060-1062 (2012).

2011 (3)

T. Chen, R. Chen, C. Jewart, B. Zhang, K. Cook, J. Canning, K. P. Chen, "Regenerated gratings in air-hole microstructured fibers for high-temperature pressure sensing," Opt. Lett. 36, 3542-3544 (2011).

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, J. Zhang, "Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser," IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1103-1106 (2011).

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, W. Jin, "A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1561-1563 (2011).

2010 (3)

W. Wang, N. Wu, Y. Tian, C. Niezrecki, X. Wang, "Miniature all-silica optical fiber pressure sensor with an ultrathin uniform diaphragm," Opt. Exp. 18, 9006-9014 (2010).

H. Y. Fu, C. Wu, M. L. V. Tse, L. Zhang, K.-C. D. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C. Lu, "High pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber for downhole application," Appl. Opt. 49, 2639-2643 (2010).

C. Wu, B. O. Guan, Z. Wang, X. Feng, "Characterization of pressure response of Bragg gratings in grapefruit microstructured fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1392-1397 (2010).

2009 (1)

D. Song, Z. Wei, J. Zou, S. Yang, E. Du, H. L. Cui, "Pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating and carbon fiber ribbon-wound composite cylindrical shell," IEEE Sensors J. 9, 828-831 (2009).

2008 (3)

B. O. Guan, D. Chen, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, H. Y. Tam, "Bragg gratings in pure-silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1980-1982 (2008).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement," Opt. Commun. 281, 4619-4622 (2008).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications," Opt. Express 17, 10050-10055 (2008).

2007 (2)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).

W. T. Zhang, F. Li, Y. L. Liu, L. H. Liu, "Ultrathin FBG pressure sensor with enhanced responsivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1553-1555 (2007).

2006 (2)

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, "All-fused-silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor," Opt. Lett. 31, 885-887 (2006).

Y. Rao, "Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fib. Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, "Modeling of spectral characteristics of Corning PMF-38 highly birefringent fiber," Optik 113, 25-30 (2002).

2001 (3)

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, W. J. Bock, "Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers," Appl. Opt. 40, 1911-1920 (2001).

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, B. C. B. Chu, "High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 618-620 (2001).

Y. Zhao, F. Ansari, "Intrinsic single-mode fiber-optic pressure sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1212-1214 (2001).

1993 (1)

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, "Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor," Electron. Lett. 29, 398-399 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. Passy, A. L. Gama, N. Gisin, J. P. von der Weid, "Pressure dependence of polarization mode dispersion in HiBi fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1527-1531 (1992).

1984 (1)

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, "Propagation characteristics of highly elliptical core optical waveguides: A perturbation theory," Opt. Quant. Electron. 16, 349-354 (1984).

1983 (1)

S. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 312-331 (1983).

1980 (1)

R. A. Sammut, "Birefringence in slightly elliptical optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 16, 728-729 (1980).

1979 (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. A. Sammut, "Birefringence in slightly elliptical optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 16, 728-729 (1980).

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, "Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor," Electron. Lett. 29, 398-399 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, B. C. B. Chu, "High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 618-620 (2001).

W. T. Zhang, F. Li, Y. L. Liu, L. H. Liu, "Ultrathin FBG pressure sensor with enhanced responsivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1553-1555 (2007).

B. O. Guan, D. Chen, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, H. Y. Tam, "Bragg gratings in pure-silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1980-1982 (2008).

Y. Zhao, F. Ansari, "Intrinsic single-mode fiber-optic pressure sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1212-1214 (2001).

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, W. Jin, "A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1561-1563 (2011).

L. Jin, Z. Quan, Y. N. Tan, B. O. Guan, "Highly sensitive hydrostatic pressure sensing with an embedded dual-polarization fiber grating laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1060-1062 (2012).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, J. Zhang, "Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser," IEEE Sens. J. 11, 1103-1106 (2011).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

D. Song, Z. Wei, J. Zou, S. Yang, E. Du, H. L. Cui, "Pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating and carbon fiber ribbon-wound composite cylindrical shell," IEEE Sensors J. 9, 828-831 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. Wu, B. O. Guan, Z. Wang, X. Feng, "Characterization of pressure response of Bragg gratings in grapefruit microstructured fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1392-1397 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, "Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1097-1112 (2012).

S. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 312-331 (1983).

R. Passy, A. L. Gama, N. Gisin, J. P. von der Weid, "Pressure dependence of polarization mode dispersion in HiBi fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1527-1531 (1992).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications," Opt. Express 17, 10050-10055 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement," Opt. Commun. 281, 4619-4622 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (2)

L. Jin, Y. N. Tan, Z. Quan, M. P. Li, B. O. Guan, "Strain-insensitive temperature sensing with a dual polarization fiber grating laser," Opt. Exp. 20, 6021-6028 (2012).

W. Wang, N. Wu, Y. Tian, C. Niezrecki, X. Wang, "Miniature all-silica optical fiber pressure sensor with an ultrathin uniform diaphragm," Opt. Exp. 18, 9006-9014 (2010).

Opt. Fib. Technol. (1)

Y. Rao, "Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fib. Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, "Propagation characteristics of highly elliptical core optical waveguides: A perturbation theory," Opt. Quant. Electron. 16, 349-354 (1984).

Optik (1)

T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, "Modeling of spectral characteristics of Corning PMF-38 highly birefringent fiber," Optik 113, 25-30 (2002).

Other (3)

Y. Zhang, C. Wu, Y. N. Tan, B. O. Guan, "Dual-polarization distributed Bragg reflector fiber lasers for hydrostatic pressure measurement," Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens. SPIE (2011).

A. S. Prasad Guru, S. Asokan, R. Tatavarti, "Detection of Tsunami wave generation and propagation using fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. 8th IEEE Conf. Sens. (2009) pp. 1218-1219.

L. F. Ferreira, P. F. C. Antunes, F. Domingues, P. A. Silva, R. N. Nogueira, J. L. Pinto, P. S. Andre, J. Fortes, "Monitorization of sea sand transport in coastal areas using optical fiber sensors," Proc. 8th IEEE Conf. Sens. (2009) pp. 146-150.

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