Abstract

A novel micro-laser configuration formed by integrating an InGaAs/InP pillar with a silicon photonic crystal cavity is proposed and analyzed in detail. Special attention is paid to designing the cavity such that it can accommodate large-size pillars without performance compromise. The Purcell effect is studied and predicted to be significant because of the close interaction between the cavity modes and the gain medium. An overall quality factor as high as 1 × 10<sup>5</sup> and a spontaneous emission factor close to unity are predicted. Possible limiting factors for laser performance, such as surface non-radiative recombination and the thermal dissipation properties are analyzed, and it is found that the proposed laser design is very robust. This comprehensive analysis suggests that the proposed micro-laser is a promising candidate for large-scale integration of micro-lasers on silicon for low power consumption applications, such as intra-chip optical communications.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, "A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 4413-4419 (2008).
  2. L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. Vries, P. Regreny, D. Thourhout, R. L. Baets, G. Morthier, "An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip," Nat. Photon 4, 182-187 (2010).
  3. M. Razeghi, M. Defour, R. Blondeau, F. Omnes, P. Maurel, O. Acher, F. Brillouet, J. C. C-Fan, J. Salerno, "First cw operation of a Ga0.25In0.75As0.5P0.5-InP laser on a silicon substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2389-2391 (1988).
  4. M. Sugo, H. Mori, Y. Itoh, Y. Sakai, M. Tachikawa, "1.5 μm-Long-wavelength multiple quantum well laser on a Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 30, 3876-3878 (1991).
  5. S. Lourdudoss, "Heteroepitaxy and selective area heteroepitaxy for silicon photonics," Photon. Nanostr. Mater., Process. Characteriz. 16, 91-99 (2012).
  6. B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, W. Stolz, "Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by MOVPE," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4776-4779 (2008).
  7. S. Liebich, M. Zimprich, A. Beyer, C. Lange, D. Franzbach, S. Chatterjee, "Laser operation onf Ga(NAsP) lattice-matched to (001) silicon substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 071109-071109 (2011).
  8. S. H. Huang, G. Balakrishnan, A. Khoshakhlagh, L. R. Dawson, D. L. Huffaker, "Simultaneous interfacial misfit array formation and antiphase domain suppression on miscut silicon substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071102-071102 (2008).
  9. E. Tournié, J. Reboul, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, P. Grech, "Continuous wave operation above room temperature of GaSb-based laser diodes grown on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121113-121113 (2011).
  10. Z. Wang, C. Junesand, W. Metaferia, C. Hu, L. Wosinski, S. Lourdudoss, "III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 177, 1551-1557 (2012).
  11. J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, "Integration of epitaxially-grown InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers with hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides on silicon," Opt. Exp. 16, 5136-5140 (2008).
  12. T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, A. Seeds, "1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates," Opt. Exp. 19, 11381-11386 (2011).
  13. T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, D. A. Antoniadis, "High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700-3700 (2000).
  14. G. Wang, M. Leys, R. Loo, O. Richard, H. Bender, N. Waldron, G. Brammertz, J. Dekoster, W. Wang, M. Seefeldt, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, "Selective area growth of high quality InP on Si (001) substrates ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121913-121913 (2010).
  15. G. Wang, M. Leys, R. Loo, O. Richard, H. Bender, G. Brammertz, N. Waldron, W. Wang, J. Dekoster, M. Caymax, M. Seefeldt, M. Heyns, "Selective area growth of InP and defect elimination on Si (001) substrates," J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, 645-650 (2011).
  16. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
  17. Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, "Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051104-051104 (2010).
  18. G. Shambat, B. Ellis, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, "Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 071105-071105 (2011).
  19. E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).
  20. J. Huang, S. Kim, J. Gardner, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, P. Postigo, A. Scherer, "Room temperature, continuous-wave coupled-cavity InAsP/InP photonic crystal laser with enhanced far-field emission directionality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091110-091110 (2011).
  21. H. Altug, D. Englund, J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser," Nat. Phys. 2, 484-488 (2006).
  22. T. Yoshie, M. Loncar, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, "High frequency oscillation in photonic crystal nanolasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3543-3545 (2004).
  23. H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004).
  24. J. M. Gérard, B. Gayral, "Strong Purcell effect for InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2089-2095 (1999).
  25. T. Baba, "Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 808-830 (1997).
  26. Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. LonCar, "Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051104-051104 (2010).
  27. A. Larrue, C. Wilhelm, G. Vest, S. Combrié, A. D. Rossi, C. Soci, "Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission," Opt. Exp. 20, 7758-7770 (2012).
  28. B. Gunnar, Y. Yamamoto, "Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 2386-2396 (1991).
  29. T. F. Albrecht, "Transient four-wave mixing on (InGa) As/InP multiple quantum wells using a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Let. 63, 1945-1947 (1993).
  30. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).
  31. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, "High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106-121106 (2009).
  32. P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, D. Peyrade, "Ultra-high q/v fabry-perot microcavity on soi substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 16090-16096 (2007).
  33. K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).
  34. M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, M. Krames, "Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3497-3497 (2000).
  35. E. Yablonovitch, R. Bhat, C. E. Zah, T. J. Gmitter, M. A. Koza, "Nearly ideal InP/In0.53Ga0.47As heterojunction regrowth on chemically prepared In0.53Ga0.47As surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 371-373 (1992).
  36. G. Brammertz, M. Heyns, M. Meuris, M. Caymax, D. I. Jiang, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, M. Leys, G. Borghs, "Surface recombination velocity in GaAs and In0.15Ga0.85As thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 134102-134102 (2007).

2012

S. Lourdudoss, "Heteroepitaxy and selective area heteroepitaxy for silicon photonics," Photon. Nanostr. Mater., Process. Characteriz. 16, 91-99 (2012).

Z. Wang, C. Junesand, W. Metaferia, C. Hu, L. Wosinski, S. Lourdudoss, "III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 177, 1551-1557 (2012).

A. Larrue, C. Wilhelm, G. Vest, S. Combrié, A. D. Rossi, C. Soci, "Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission," Opt. Exp. 20, 7758-7770 (2012).

2011

J. Huang, S. Kim, J. Gardner, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, P. Postigo, A. Scherer, "Room temperature, continuous-wave coupled-cavity InAsP/InP photonic crystal laser with enhanced far-field emission directionality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091110-091110 (2011).

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, "Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 071105-071105 (2011).

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, A. Seeds, "1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates," Opt. Exp. 19, 11381-11386 (2011).

E. Tournié, J. Reboul, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, P. Grech, "Continuous wave operation above room temperature of GaSb-based laser diodes grown on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121113-121113 (2011).

G. Wang, M. Leys, R. Loo, O. Richard, H. Bender, G. Brammertz, N. Waldron, W. Wang, J. Dekoster, M. Caymax, M. Seefeldt, M. Heyns, "Selective area growth of InP and defect elimination on Si (001) substrates," J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, 645-650 (2011).

S. Liebich, M. Zimprich, A. Beyer, C. Lange, D. Franzbach, S. Chatterjee, "Laser operation onf Ga(NAsP) lattice-matched to (001) silicon substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 071109-071109 (2011).

2010

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. Vries, P. Regreny, D. Thourhout, R. L. Baets, G. Morthier, "An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip," Nat. Photon 4, 182-187 (2010).

G. Wang, M. Leys, R. Loo, O. Richard, H. Bender, N. Waldron, G. Brammertz, J. Dekoster, W. Wang, M. Seefeldt, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, "Selective area growth of high quality InP on Si (001) substrates ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121913-121913 (2010).

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, "Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051104-051104 (2010).

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. LonCar, "Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051104-051104 (2010).

2009

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, "High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106-121106 (2009).

2008

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, "Integration of epitaxially-grown InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers with hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides on silicon," Opt. Exp. 16, 5136-5140 (2008).

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, "A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 4413-4419 (2008).

S. H. Huang, G. Balakrishnan, A. Khoshakhlagh, L. R. Dawson, D. L. Huffaker, "Simultaneous interfacial misfit array formation and antiphase domain suppression on miscut silicon substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071102-071102 (2008).

B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, W. Stolz, "Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by MOVPE," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4776-4779 (2008).

2007

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, D. Peyrade, "Ultra-high q/v fabry-perot microcavity on soi substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 16090-16096 (2007).

G. Brammertz, M. Heyns, M. Meuris, M. Caymax, D. I. Jiang, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, M. Leys, G. Borghs, "Surface recombination velocity in GaAs and In0.15Ga0.85As thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 134102-134102 (2007).

2006

H. Altug, D. Englund, J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser," Nat. Phys. 2, 484-488 (2006).

2004

T. Yoshie, M. Loncar, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, "High frequency oscillation in photonic crystal nanolasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3543-3545 (2004).

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004).

2002

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).

2000

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, M. Krames, "Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3497-3497 (2000).

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, D. A. Antoniadis, "High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700-3700 (2000).

1999

J. M. Gérard, B. Gayral, "Strong Purcell effect for InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2089-2095 (1999).

1997

T. Baba, "Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 808-830 (1997).

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).

1993

T. F. Albrecht, "Transient four-wave mixing on (InGa) As/InP multiple quantum wells using a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Let. 63, 1945-1947 (1993).

1992

E. Yablonovitch, R. Bhat, C. E. Zah, T. J. Gmitter, M. A. Koza, "Nearly ideal InP/In0.53Ga0.47As heterojunction regrowth on chemically prepared In0.53Ga0.47As surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 371-373 (1992).

1991

B. Gunnar, Y. Yamamoto, "Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 2386-2396 (1991).

M. Sugo, H. Mori, Y. Itoh, Y. Sakai, M. Tachikawa, "1.5 μm-Long-wavelength multiple quantum well laser on a Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 30, 3876-3878 (1991).

1988

M. Razeghi, M. Defour, R. Blondeau, F. Omnes, P. Maurel, O. Acher, F. Brillouet, J. C. C-Fan, J. Salerno, "First cw operation of a Ga0.25In0.75As0.5P0.5-InP laser on a silicon substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2389-2391 (1988).

1946

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Appl. Phys. Let.

T. F. Albrecht, "Transient four-wave mixing on (InGa) As/InP multiple quantum wells using a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Let. 63, 1945-1947 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. LonCar, "Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051104-051104 (2010).

T. Yoshie, M. Loncar, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, "High frequency oscillation in photonic crystal nanolasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3543-3545 (2004).

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004).

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, "High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106-121106 (2009).

E. Yablonovitch, R. Bhat, C. E. Zah, T. J. Gmitter, M. A. Koza, "Nearly ideal InP/In0.53Ga0.47As heterojunction regrowth on chemically prepared In0.53Ga0.47As surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 371-373 (1992).

G. Brammertz, M. Heyns, M. Meuris, M. Caymax, D. I. Jiang, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, M. Leys, G. Borghs, "Surface recombination velocity in GaAs and In0.15Ga0.85As thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 134102-134102 (2007).

M. Razeghi, M. Defour, R. Blondeau, F. Omnes, P. Maurel, O. Acher, F. Brillouet, J. C. C-Fan, J. Salerno, "First cw operation of a Ga0.25In0.75As0.5P0.5-InP laser on a silicon substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2389-2391 (1988).

S. Liebich, M. Zimprich, A. Beyer, C. Lange, D. Franzbach, S. Chatterjee, "Laser operation onf Ga(NAsP) lattice-matched to (001) silicon substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 071109-071109 (2011).

S. H. Huang, G. Balakrishnan, A. Khoshakhlagh, L. R. Dawson, D. L. Huffaker, "Simultaneous interfacial misfit array formation and antiphase domain suppression on miscut silicon substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071102-071102 (2008).

E. Tournié, J. Reboul, L. Cerutti, J. Rodriguez, P. Grech, "Continuous wave operation above room temperature of GaSb-based laser diodes grown on Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121113-121113 (2011).

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, D. A. Antoniadis, "High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3700-3700 (2000).

G. Wang, M. Leys, R. Loo, O. Richard, H. Bender, N. Waldron, G. Brammertz, J. Dekoster, W. Wang, M. Seefeldt, M. Caymax, M. Heyns, "Selective area growth of high quality InP on Si (001) substrates ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121913-121913 (2010).

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, "Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051104-051104 (2010).

G. Shambat, B. Ellis, J. Petykiewicz, M. A. Mayer, T. Sarmiento, "Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 071105-071105 (2011).

J. Huang, S. Kim, J. Gardner, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, P. Postigo, A. Scherer, "Room temperature, continuous-wave coupled-cavity InAsP/InP photonic crystal laser with enhanced far-field emission directionality," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091110-091110 (2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. Gunnar, Y. Yamamoto, "Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 2386-2396 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Baba, "Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 808-830 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, M. Krames, "Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3497-3497 (2000).

J. Cryst. Growth

B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, W. Stolz, "Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by MOVPE," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4776-4779 (2008).

J. Electrochem. Soc.

G. Wang, M. Leys, R. Loo, O. Richard, H. Bender, G. Brammertz, N. Waldron, W. Wang, J. Dekoster, M. Caymax, M. Seefeldt, M. Heyns, "Selective area growth of InP and defect elimination on Si (001) substrates," J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, 645-650 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol.

J. M. Gérard, B. Gayral, "Strong Purcell effect for InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2089-2095 (1999).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys

M. Sugo, H. Mori, Y. Itoh, Y. Sakai, M. Tachikawa, "1.5 μm-Long-wavelength multiple quantum well laser on a Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 30, 3876-3878 (1991).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

Z. Wang, C. Junesand, W. Metaferia, C. Hu, L. Wosinski, S. Lourdudoss, "III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 177, 1551-1557 (2012).

Nat. Photon

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. Geluk, T. Vries, P. Regreny, D. Thourhout, R. L. Baets, G. Morthier, "An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip," Nat. Photon 4, 182-187 (2010).

Nat. Phys.

H. Altug, D. Englund, J. Vuckovic, "Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser," Nat. Phys. 2, 484-488 (2006).

Nature

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).

Opt. Exp.

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, "A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 4413-4419 (2008).

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, "Integration of epitaxially-grown InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers with hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides on silicon," Opt. Exp. 16, 5136-5140 (2008).

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, A. Seeds, "1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates," Opt. Exp. 19, 11381-11386 (2011).

A. Larrue, C. Wilhelm, G. Vest, S. Combrié, A. D. Rossi, C. Soci, "Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission," Opt. Exp. 20, 7758-7770 (2012).

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, D. Peyrade, "Ultra-high q/v fabry-perot microcavity on soi substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 16090-16096 (2007).

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).

Photon. Nanostr. Mater., Process. Characteriz.

S. Lourdudoss, "Heteroepitaxy and selective area heteroepitaxy for silicon photonics," Photon. Nanostr. Mater., Process. Characteriz. 16, 91-99 (2012).

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Other

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

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