Abstract

To implement the BB84 decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over a lossy ground-satellite quantum uplink requires a source that has high repetition rate of short laser pulses, long term stability, and no phase correlations between pulses. We present a new type of telecom optical polarization and amplitude modulator, based on a balanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration, coupled to a polarization-preserving sum-frequency generation (SFG) optical setup, generating 532 nm photons with modulated polarization and amplitude states. The weak coherent pulses produced by SFG meet the challenging requirements for long range QKD, featuring a high clock rate of 76 MHz, pico-second pulse width, phase randomization, and 98% polarization visibility for all states. Successful QKD has been demonstrated using this apparatus with full system stability up to 160 minutes and channel losses as high 57 dB . We present the design and simulation of the hardware through the Mueller matrix and Stokes vector relations, together with an experimental implementation working in the telecom wavelength band. We show the utility of the complete system by performing high loss QKD simulations, and confirm that our modulator fulfills the expected performance.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. Mac Donald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, T. Jennewein, "How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss," Phys. Rev. A 84, 062326 (2011).
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  8. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
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  10. M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, W. Amaya, J. Capmany, R. Ursin, L. Penate, D. Lopez, J. L. S. Juan, J. A. Carrasco, F. Garcia, F. J. Torcal-Milla, L. M. Sanchez-Brea, E. Bernabeu, J. M. Perdigues, T. Jennewein, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, V. Pruneri, "Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductoroptical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 19, 3825-3834 (2011).
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  14. E. Meyer-Scott, H. Hubel, A. Fedrizzi, C. Erven, G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, "Quantum entanglement distribution with 810 nm photons through telecom fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031117 (2010).
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  24. M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, "Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space," Opt. Exp. 17, 22 333-22 340 (2009) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22333.
  25. Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km," Opt. Exp. 18, 8587-8594 (2010).
  26. I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, W. Tittel, "Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames," New J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009) http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/11/i=9/a=095001.
  27. G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).
  28. W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
  29. H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
  30. X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
  31. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).
  32. H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).
  33. G. Li, P. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2010-2030 (2003).
  34. H. G. Berry, G. Gabrielse, A. E. Livingston, "Measurement of the Stokes parameters of light," Appl. Opt. 16, 3200-3205 (1977).
  35. D. Elkouss, A. Leverrier, R. Alleaume, J. J. Boutros, "Efficient reconciliation protocol for discrete-variable quantum key distribution," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory (2009) pp. 1879-1883.
  36. J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D'Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, T. Jennewein, "A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low earth orbit satellite quantum communication," New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013) http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/15/i=2/a=023006.
  37. (2012) http://www.xilinx.com/products/silicon-devices/fpga/index.htm/.
  38. (2012) https://www.hittite.com/.

2013

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D'Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, T. Jennewein, "A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low earth orbit satellite quantum communication," New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013) http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/15/i=2/a=023006.

2011

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. Mac Donald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, T. Jennewein, "How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss," Phys. Rev. A 84, 062326 (2011).

M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, W. Amaya, J. Capmany, R. Ursin, L. Penate, D. Lopez, J. L. S. Juan, J. A. Carrasco, F. Garcia, F. J. Torcal-Milla, L. M. Sanchez-Brea, E. Bernabeu, J. M. Perdigues, T. Jennewein, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, V. Pruneri, "Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductoroptical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 19, 3825-3834 (2011).

2010

E. Meyer-Scott, H. Hubel, A. Fedrizzi, C. Erven, G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, "Quantum entanglement distribution with 810 nm photons through telecom fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031117 (2010).

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).

M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, V. Pruneri, "100 mhz amplitude and polarization modulated optical source for free-space quantum key distribution at 850 nm," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2572-2578 (2010).

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km," Opt. Exp. 18, 8587-8594 (2010).

2009

I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, W. Tittel, "Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames," New J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009) http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/11/i=9/a=095001.

R. H. Hadfield, "Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications," Nat Photon 3, 696-705 (2009).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, "Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space," Opt. Exp. 17, 22 333-22 340 (2009) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22333.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, P. Villoresi, "Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009) (25pp).

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, G. Weihs, "Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice," New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009) (15pp).

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, S. Ten, "High rate long distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres," New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

2008

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 mbit/s secure key rate," Opt. Exp. 16, 18 790-18 797 (2008).

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, C. Barbieri, "Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and earth," New J. Phys. 10, 033038 (2008) (12pp).

X. Liu, C. Liao, J. Mi, J. Wang, S. Liu, "Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution," Phys. Lett. A 373, 54-57 (2008).

2007

E.-L. Miao, Z.-F. Han, T. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, "The feasibility of geostationary satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution," Phys. Lett. A 361, 29-32 (2007).

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources," Phys. Rev. A 76, 012307 (2007).

2005

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

2004

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Information and Computation 4, 325-360 (2004).

F. Dios, J. A. Rubio, A. Rodríguez, A. Comerón, "Scintillation and beam-wander analysis in an optical ground station-satellite uplink," Appl. Opt. 43, 3866-3873 (2004).

2003

W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).

G. Li, P. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2010-2030 (2003).

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, A. Zeilinger, "Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1541-1551 (2003).

2002

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, N. Gisin, "Ppln waveguide for quantum communication," Eur. Phys. J. D. Atomic, Molecular, Optical Plasma Phys. 18, 155-160 (2002).

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, P. Knight, "Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).

2000

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).

1977

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Meyer-Scott, H. Hubel, A. Fedrizzi, C. Erven, G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, "Quantum entanglement distribution with 810 nm photons through telecom fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031117 (2010).

Eur. Phys. J. D. Atomic, Molecular, Optical Plasma Phys.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, N. Gisin, "Ppln waveguide for quantum communication," Eur. Phys. J. D. Atomic, Molecular, Optical Plasma Phys. 18, 155-160 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, A. Zeilinger, "Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1541-1551 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, V. Pruneri, "100 mhz amplitude and polarization modulated optical source for free-space quantum key distribution at 850 nm," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2572-2578 (2010).

G. Li, P. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2010-2030 (2003).

Nat Photon

R. H. Hadfield, "Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications," Nat Photon 3, 696-705 (2009).

New J. Phys.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, P. Knight, "Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, C. Barbieri, "Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and earth," New J. Phys. 10, 033038 (2008) (12pp).

New J. Phys.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, P. Villoresi, "Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009) (25pp).

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, G. Weihs, "Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice," New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009) (15pp).

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, S. Ten, "High rate long distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres," New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).

I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, W. Tittel, "Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames," New J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009) http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/11/i=9/a=095001.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D'Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, T. Jennewein, "A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low earth orbit satellite quantum communication," New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013) http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/15/i=2/a=023006.

Opt. Exp.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 mbit/s secure key rate," Opt. Exp. 16, 18 790-18 797 (2008).

Opt. Exp.

M. Jofre, A. Gardelein, G. Anzolin, W. Amaya, J. Capmany, R. Ursin, L. Penate, D. Lopez, J. L. S. Juan, J. A. Carrasco, F. Garcia, F. J. Torcal-Milla, L. M. Sanchez-Brea, E. Bernabeu, J. M. Perdigues, T. Jennewein, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, V. Pruneri, "Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductoroptical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 19, 3825-3834 (2011).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, "Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space," Opt. Exp. 17, 22 333-22 340 (2009) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22333.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km," Opt. Exp. 18, 8587-8594 (2010).

Phys. Rev. A

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).

Phys. Lett. A

E.-L. Miao, Z.-F. Han, T. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, "The feasibility of geostationary satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution," Phys. Lett. A 361, 29-32 (2007).

X. Liu, C. Liao, J. Mi, J. Wang, S. Liu, "Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution," Phys. Lett. A 373, 54-57 (2008).

Phys. Rev. A

E. Meyer-Scott, Z. Yan, A. Mac Donald, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hübel, T. Jennewein, "How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss," Phys. Rev. A 84, 062326 (2011).

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources," Phys. Rev. A 76, 012307 (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).

Quantum Information and Computation

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Information and Computation 4, 325-360 (2004).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).

Other

E. Meyer-Scott, Experimental Quantum Communication in Demanding Regimes Master's thesis Univ. WaterlooWaterlooONCanada (2011).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. Int. Conf. Comput., Syst. Signal Process. (1984) pp. 175-179.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

D. Elkouss, A. Leverrier, R. Alleaume, J. J. Boutros, "Efficient reconciliation protocol for discrete-variable quantum key distribution," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory (2009) pp. 1879-1883.

(2012) http://www.xilinx.com/products/silicon-devices/fpga/index.htm/.

(2012) https://www.hittite.com/.

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