Abstract

This paper presents a subwavelength grating based multilayer surface plasmon resonance biosensor (SPRB) which includes a periodic array of subwavelength grating on top of a layer of graphene sheet in the biosensor. The proposed biosensor is named grating-graphene SPRB (GG-SPRB). The aim of the proposed multilayer structure is to improve the sensitivity of the SPRB through monitoring of the biomolecular interactions of DNA hybridization. Significant sensitivity improvement is obtained for the GG-SPRB compared with the conventional SPRB. The result of the numerical investigation of the GG-SPRB is presented and compared with a theoretically developed multilayer matrix formalism, and a good agreement has been observed. In addition, an optimization of the grating dimensions including volume factor, grating depth, grating angle, grating period, and grating geometry (e.g., rectangular, sinusoidal and triangular) is presented. The outcome of the investigation presented in this paper identifies desired functioning conditions corresponding to the best design parameters for the GG-SPRB.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing," Nat. Mater. 8, 867-871 (2009).
  2. H. S. Jang, K. N. Park, C. D. Kang, J. P. Kim, S. J. Sim, K. S. Lee, "Optical fiber SPR biosensor with sandwich assay for the detection of prostate specific antigen," Opt. Commun. 282, 2827-2830 (2009).
  3. H. F. Schiretz, A. Z. Kouzani, "Modeling and simulation of a periodic grating coupled configuration for surface plasmon excitation," Proc. IEEE/ICME Int. Conf. Complex Medical Engineering (CME) (2011) pp. 53-57.
  4. J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. Yonzon, A. Haes, R. Van Duyne, "Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Nanomedicine 1, 219-228 (2006).
  5. L. Pang, G. Hwang, Y. Fainman, "Surface plasmon resonance nanohole array sensor and its application on protein specific binding," Frontiers in Opt. (2007).
  6. W. P. Hu, S. J. Chen, K. T. Huang, J. H. Hsu, W. Y. Chen, G. L. Chang, K. A. Lai, "A novel ultrahigh-resolution surface plasmon resonance biosensor with an Au nanocluster-embedded dielectric film," Biosensors Bioelectron. 19, 1465-1471 (2004).
  7. Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, Y. Zibo, "Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection," Sensor Actuat.—Chemical 91, 285-290 (2003).
  8. K.-S. Lee, J. M. Son, D.-Y. Jeong, T. S. Lee, W. M. Kim, "Resolution enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensor based on waveguide coupled mode by combining a bimetallic approach," Sensors 10, 11390-11399 (2010).
  9. S. H. Choi, Y. L. Kim, K. M. Byun, "Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors," Opt. Exp. 19, 458-466 (2011).
  10. Y. Wang, J. Dostalek, W. Knoll, "Magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced biosensor based on grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance," Anal. Chem. 83, 6202-6207 (2011).
  11. K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, D. Kim, "Profile effect on the feasibility of extinction-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with metallic nanowires," Appl. Opt. 45, 3382-3389 (2006).
  12. M. Piliarik, H. ípová, P. Kvasnicka, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, J. Í. Homola, "High-resolution biosensor based on localized surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 20, 672-680 (2012).
  13. G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).
  14. K. Kim, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, "Nanowire-based enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance for highly sensitive detection: A theoretical study," Opt. Exp. 14, 12419-12431 (2006).
  15. K. Byun, M. L. Shuler, S. J. Kim, S. Yoon, D. Kim, "Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance imaging using periodic metallic nanowires," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1472-1478 (2008).
  16. K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, S. J. Kim, "Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires," Opt. Lett. 32, 1902-1904 (2007).
  17. C. Lin, F. Chien, L. Yu, C. Chang, K. Chiu, S. Chen, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors with subwavelength grating waveguide," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64500L.
  18. E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z Physik 241, 313-324 (1971).
  19. D. J. Kim, D. Kim, "Subwavelength grating-based nanoplasmonic modulation for surface plasmon resonance imaging with enhanced resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Aerm. B 27, 1252-1259 (2010).
  20. T. Schuster, R. Herschel, N. Neumann, C. G. Schäffer, "Miniaturized long-period fiber grating assisted surface plasmon resonance sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1003-1008 (2012).
  21. S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, "Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal-dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings," Appl. Opt. 50, 2846-2854 (2011).
  22. L. Wu, H. S. Chu, W. S. Koh, E. P. Li, "Highly sensitive graphene biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance," Opt. Exp. 18, 14395-14400 (2010).
  23. W. K. Jung, N.-H. Kim, K. M. Byun, "Numerical study on an application of subwavelength dielectric gratings for high-sensitivity plasmonic detection," Appl. Opt. 51, 4722-4729 (2012).
  24. Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, Q. Balzano, C. C. Davis, "Strong optical coupling effects through a continuous metal film with a surface dielectric grating," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 59271Y-9.
  25. P. Drude, "Zur Elektronentheorie der metalle," Annalen Der Physik 1, 566-613 (1900).
  26. A. K. Sharma, Rajan, B. D. Gupta, "Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor," Opt. Commun. 274, 320-326 (2007).
  27. C. F. Mandenius, A. Chollet, M. Mecklenburg, I. Lundström, K. Mosbach, "Optical surface methods for detection of nucleic acid binding," Anal. Lett. 22, 2961-2973 (1989).
  28. S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, "Investigation on an application of silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging detection," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 27, 2229-2236 (2010).
  29. I. D. Rukhlenko, A. Pannipitiya, M. Premaratne, "Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polaritons in metal/nonlinear-dielectric/metal slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 36, 3374-3376 (2011).
  30. J. Homola, "Electromagnetic theory of surface plasmons," Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors 4, 3-44 (2006).
  31. E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei 241, 4 (1971).
  32. I. Abdulhalim, M. Auslender, S. Hava, "Grating based nanophotonic structured configurations for biosensing," Biosensing 7035, (2008).
  33. P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sensor Actuat. 15, 285-295 (1988).
  34. C. Y. Lin, F. C. Chien, L. Y. Yu, C. W. Chang, K. C. Chiu, S. J. Chen, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors with subwavelength grating waveguide—Art. no. 64500L," Plasmonics Biol. Med. IV 6450, L4500-L4500 (2007).
  35. H. Raether, "Surface-plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings," Springer Tr. Mod. Phys. 111, 1-133 (1988).
  36. W. Sellmeier, "Theorie der anomal licht-dispersion," Ann. Phys. Chem. 143, 271-282 (1871).
  37. A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, An Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).
  38. I. Malitson, Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica (OSA, 1965).
  39. A. Sharma, G. Mohr, "Theoretical understanding of an alternating dielectric multilayer-based fiber optic SPR sensor and its application to gas sensing," New. J. Phys. 10, 023039 (2008).
  40. M. Bruna, S. Borini, "Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901-031901-3 (2009).
  41. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. Grigorenko, K. Novoselov, T. Booth, T. Stauber, N. Peres, A. Geim, "Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene," Science 320, 1308 (2008).
  42. M. S. Islam, A. Z. Kouzani, "S-parameters-based detection method for a multilayer SPR biosensor," Proc. EMBC (2012) pp. 539-542.

2012 (3)

M. Piliarik, H. ípová, P. Kvasnicka, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, J. Í. Homola, "High-resolution biosensor based on localized surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 20, 672-680 (2012).

T. Schuster, R. Herschel, N. Neumann, C. G. Schäffer, "Miniaturized long-period fiber grating assisted surface plasmon resonance sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1003-1008 (2012).

W. K. Jung, N.-H. Kim, K. M. Byun, "Numerical study on an application of subwavelength dielectric gratings for high-sensitivity plasmonic detection," Appl. Opt. 51, 4722-4729 (2012).

2011 (4)

S. M. Jang, D. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, "Enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance detection by incorporating metal-dielectric double-layered subwavelength gratings," Appl. Opt. 50, 2846-2854 (2011).

I. D. Rukhlenko, A. Pannipitiya, M. Premaratne, "Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polaritons in metal/nonlinear-dielectric/metal slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 36, 3374-3376 (2011).

S. H. Choi, Y. L. Kim, K. M. Byun, "Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors," Opt. Exp. 19, 458-466 (2011).

Y. Wang, J. Dostalek, W. Knoll, "Magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced biosensor based on grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance," Anal. Chem. 83, 6202-6207 (2011).

2010 (4)

K.-S. Lee, J. M. Son, D.-Y. Jeong, T. S. Lee, W. M. Kim, "Resolution enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensor based on waveguide coupled mode by combining a bimetallic approach," Sensors 10, 11390-11399 (2010).

S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, "Investigation on an application of silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging detection," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 27, 2229-2236 (2010).

L. Wu, H. S. Chu, W. S. Koh, E. P. Li, "Highly sensitive graphene biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance," Opt. Exp. 18, 14395-14400 (2010).

D. J. Kim, D. Kim, "Subwavelength grating-based nanoplasmonic modulation for surface plasmon resonance imaging with enhanced resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Aerm. B 27, 1252-1259 (2010).

2009 (3)

M. Bruna, S. Borini, "Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901-031901-3 (2009).

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing," Nat. Mater. 8, 867-871 (2009).

H. S. Jang, K. N. Park, C. D. Kang, J. P. Kim, S. J. Sim, K. S. Lee, "Optical fiber SPR biosensor with sandwich assay for the detection of prostate specific antigen," Opt. Commun. 282, 2827-2830 (2009).

2008 (4)

K. Byun, M. L. Shuler, S. J. Kim, S. Yoon, D. Kim, "Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance imaging using periodic metallic nanowires," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1472-1478 (2008).

I. Abdulhalim, M. Auslender, S. Hava, "Grating based nanophotonic structured configurations for biosensing," Biosensing 7035, (2008).

R. Nair, P. Blake, A. Grigorenko, K. Novoselov, T. Booth, T. Stauber, N. Peres, A. Geim, "Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene," Science 320, 1308 (2008).

A. Sharma, G. Mohr, "Theoretical understanding of an alternating dielectric multilayer-based fiber optic SPR sensor and its application to gas sensing," New. J. Phys. 10, 023039 (2008).

2007 (3)

C. Y. Lin, F. C. Chien, L. Y. Yu, C. W. Chang, K. C. Chiu, S. J. Chen, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors with subwavelength grating waveguide—Art. no. 64500L," Plasmonics Biol. Med. IV 6450, L4500-L4500 (2007).

A. K. Sharma, Rajan, B. D. Gupta, "Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor," Opt. Commun. 274, 320-326 (2007).

K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, S. J. Kim, "Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires," Opt. Lett. 32, 1902-1904 (2007).

2006 (4)

K. M. Byun, S. J. Kim, D. Kim, "Profile effect on the feasibility of extinction-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with metallic nanowires," Appl. Opt. 45, 3382-3389 (2006).

J. Homola, "Electromagnetic theory of surface plasmons," Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors 4, 3-44 (2006).

K. Kim, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, "Nanowire-based enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance for highly sensitive detection: A theoretical study," Opt. Exp. 14, 12419-12431 (2006).

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. Yonzon, A. Haes, R. Van Duyne, "Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Nanomedicine 1, 219-228 (2006).

2004 (1)

W. P. Hu, S. J. Chen, K. T. Huang, J. H. Hsu, W. Y. Chen, G. L. Chang, K. A. Lai, "A novel ultrahigh-resolution surface plasmon resonance biosensor with an Au nanocluster-embedded dielectric film," Biosensors Bioelectron. 19, 1465-1471 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, Y. Zibo, "Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection," Sensor Actuat.—Chemical 91, 285-290 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).

1989 (1)

C. F. Mandenius, A. Chollet, M. Mecklenburg, I. Lundström, K. Mosbach, "Optical surface methods for detection of nucleic acid binding," Anal. Lett. 22, 2961-2973 (1989).

1988 (2)

H. Raether, "Surface-plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings," Springer Tr. Mod. Phys. 111, 1-133 (1988).

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sensor Actuat. 15, 285-295 (1988).

1971 (2)

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei 241, 4 (1971).

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z Physik 241, 313-324 (1971).

1900 (1)

P. Drude, "Zur Elektronentheorie der metalle," Annalen Der Physik 1, 566-613 (1900).

1871 (1)

W. Sellmeier, "Theorie der anomal licht-dispersion," Ann. Phys. Chem. 143, 271-282 (1871).

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y. Wang, J. Dostalek, W. Knoll, "Magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced biosensor based on grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance," Anal. Chem. 83, 6202-6207 (2011).

Anal. Lett. (1)

C. F. Mandenius, A. Chollet, M. Mecklenburg, I. Lundström, K. Mosbach, "Optical surface methods for detection of nucleic acid binding," Anal. Lett. 22, 2961-2973 (1989).

Ann. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. Sellmeier, "Theorie der anomal licht-dispersion," Ann. Phys. Chem. 143, 271-282 (1871).

Annalen Der Physik (1)

P. Drude, "Zur Elektronentheorie der metalle," Annalen Der Physik 1, 566-613 (1900).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Bruna, S. Borini, "Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031901-031901-3 (2009).

Biosensing (1)

I. Abdulhalim, M. Auslender, S. Hava, "Grating based nanophotonic structured configurations for biosensing," Biosensing 7035, (2008).

Biosensors Bioelectron. (1)

W. P. Hu, S. J. Chen, K. T. Huang, J. H. Hsu, W. Y. Chen, G. L. Chang, K. A. Lai, "A novel ultrahigh-resolution surface plasmon resonance biosensor with an Au nanocluster-embedded dielectric film," Biosensors Bioelectron. 19, 1465-1471 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Schuster, R. Herschel, N. Neumann, C. G. Schäffer, "Miniaturized long-period fiber grating assisted surface plasmon resonance sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1003-1008 (2012).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

G. Kalyuzhny, M. A. Schneeweiss, A. Shanzer, A. Vaskevich, I. Rubinstein, "Differential plasmon spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring molecular binding to ultrathin gold films," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 123, 3177-3178 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Byun, M. L. Shuler, S. J. Kim, S. Yoon, D. Kim, "Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance imaging using periodic metallic nanowires," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1472-1478 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Aerm. B (1)

D. J. Kim, D. Kim, "Subwavelength grating-based nanoplasmonic modulation for surface plasmon resonance imaging with enhanced resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Aerm. B 27, 1252-1259 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

S. H. Choi, K. M. Byun, "Investigation on an application of silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging detection," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 27, 2229-2236 (2010).

Nanomedicine (1)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. Yonzon, A. Haes, R. Van Duyne, "Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Nanomedicine 1, 219-228 (2006).

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, A. V. Zayats, "Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing," Nat. Mater. 8, 867-871 (2009).

New. J. Phys. (1)

A. Sharma, G. Mohr, "Theoretical understanding of an alternating dielectric multilayer-based fiber optic SPR sensor and its application to gas sensing," New. J. Phys. 10, 023039 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. K. Sharma, Rajan, B. D. Gupta, "Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor," Opt. Commun. 274, 320-326 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. S. Jang, K. N. Park, C. D. Kang, J. P. Kim, S. J. Sim, K. S. Lee, "Optical fiber SPR biosensor with sandwich assay for the detection of prostate specific antigen," Opt. Commun. 282, 2827-2830 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (4)

M. Piliarik, H. ípová, P. Kvasnicka, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, J. Í. Homola, "High-resolution biosensor based on localized surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 20, 672-680 (2012).

K. Kim, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, "Nanowire-based enhancement of localized surface plasmon resonance for highly sensitive detection: A theoretical study," Opt. Exp. 14, 12419-12431 (2006).

S. H. Choi, Y. L. Kim, K. M. Byun, "Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors," Opt. Exp. 19, 458-466 (2011).

L. Wu, H. S. Chu, W. S. Koh, E. P. Li, "Highly sensitive graphene biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance," Opt. Exp. 18, 14395-14400 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Plasmonics Biol. Med. IV (1)

C. Y. Lin, F. C. Chien, L. Y. Yu, C. W. Chang, K. C. Chiu, S. J. Chen, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors with subwavelength grating waveguide—Art. no. 64500L," Plasmonics Biol. Med. IV 6450, L4500-L4500 (2007).

Science (1)

R. Nair, P. Blake, A. Grigorenko, K. Novoselov, T. Booth, T. Stauber, N. Peres, A. Geim, "Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene," Science 320, 1308 (2008).

Sensor Actuat.—Chemical (1)

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, Y. Zibo, "Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection," Sensor Actuat.—Chemical 91, 285-290 (2003).

Sensor Actuat. (1)

P. M. Nellen, K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical input grating couplers as biochemical sensors," Sensor Actuat. 15, 285-295 (1988).

Sensors (1)

K.-S. Lee, J. M. Son, D.-Y. Jeong, T. S. Lee, W. M. Kim, "Resolution enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensor based on waveguide coupled mode by combining a bimetallic approach," Sensors 10, 11390-11399 (2010).

Springer Tr. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Raether, "Surface-plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings," Springer Tr. Mod. Phys. 111, 1-133 (1988).

Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (1)

J. Homola, "Electromagnetic theory of surface plasmons," Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors 4, 3-44 (2006).

Z Physik (1)

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Z Physik 241, 313-324 (1971).

Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei (1)

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen," Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei 241, 4 (1971).

Other (7)

C. Lin, F. Chien, L. Yu, C. Chang, K. Chiu, S. Chen, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors with subwavelength grating waveguide," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64500L.

H. F. Schiretz, A. Z. Kouzani, "Modeling and simulation of a periodic grating coupled configuration for surface plasmon excitation," Proc. IEEE/ICME Int. Conf. Complex Medical Engineering (CME) (2011) pp. 53-57.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, Y. Fainman, "Surface plasmon resonance nanohole array sensor and its application on protein specific binding," Frontiers in Opt. (2007).

A. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, An Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).

I. Malitson, Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica (OSA, 1965).

M. S. Islam, A. Z. Kouzani, "S-parameters-based detection method for a multilayer SPR biosensor," Proc. EMBC (2012) pp. 539-542.

Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, Q. Balzano, C. C. Davis, "Strong optical coupling effects through a continuous metal film with a surface dielectric grating," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 59271Y-9.

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