Abstract

Optical pulse replicators generate multiple replicas of an optical waveform that are averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of single-shot, high-bandwidth temporal measurements. Processing a replicated waveform requires that the delayed realizations of the waveform under test be retimed properly before averaging. Delay miscalibration significantly reduces the measurement bandwidth. Processing algorithms based on edge alignment, centroid matching, and minimization of the distance between replicas decrease the impact of the detrimental bandwidth reduction, and a global distance minimization, simultaneously taking into account the distance between all pairs of retimed replicas, has the best performance, even in the presence of significant measurement noise. The general impact of chromatic dispersion on the averaged waveform is derived in the framework of the temporal transport-of-intensity equation, and the measurement error is quantified for various optical signals.

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2012

W. R. Donaldson, C. Zhao, L. Ji, R. G. Roides, K. Miller, B. Beeman, "A single-shot, multiwavelength electro-optic data-acquisition system for inertial confinement fusion applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D726 (2012).

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, J. D. Zuegel, "A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility," Phys. Plasmas 19, 056308 (2012).

2010

W. R. Donaldson, J. R. Marciante, R. G. Roides, "An optical replicator for single-shot measurements at 10 GHz with a dynamic range of 1800:1," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 191-196 (2010).

M. Komanec, P. Honzátko, S. Zvánovec, "Single-shot all-optical sampling oscilloscope using a polarization-maintaining resonator for pulse replication," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2452-2456 (2010).

2009

A. Jolly, J.-F. Gleyze, P. Di Bin, V. Kermène, "Demonstration of a true single-shot 100 GHz-bandwidth optical oscilloscope at 1053–1064 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 12,109-12,120 (2009).

I. A. Walmsley, C. Dorrer, "Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 308-437 (2009).

2008

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 33, 1047-1049 (2008).

C. Dorrer, J. Bromage, J. D. Zuegel, "High-dynamic-range single-shot cross-correlator based on an optical pulse replicator," Opt. Exp. 16, 13,534-13,544 (2008).

2007

2006

2005

2002

W. R. Donaldson, R. Boni, R. L. Keck, P. A. Jaanimagi, "A self-calibrating, multichannel streak camera for inertial confinement fusion applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2606-2615 (2002).

2001

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).

2000

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, "Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).

1999

S.-G. Park, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, "Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810-819 (1999).

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

1998

K.-L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 397-399 (1998).

1997

J. E. Rothenberg, "Comparison of beam-smoothing methods for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 1664-1671 (1997).

1994

B. H. Kolner, "Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951-1963 (1994).

1989

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, "Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).

1986

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, "Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: Principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).

1984

Y. Tsuchiya, "Advances in streak camera instrumentation for the study of biological and physical processes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1516-1528 (1984).

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. R. Donaldson, J. R. Marciante, R. G. Roides, "An optical replicator for single-shot measurements at 10 GHz with a dynamic range of 1800:1," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 191-196 (2010).

Y. Tsuchiya, "Advances in streak camera instrumentation for the study of biological and physical processes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1516-1528 (1984).

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, "Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: Principles and applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69-78 (1986).

S.-G. Park, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, "Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810-819 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. H. Kolner, "Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951-1963 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

K.-L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 397-399 (1998).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

J. R. Marciante, W. R. Donaldson, R. G. Roides, "Averaging of replicated pulses for enhanced-dynamic-range single-shot measurement of nanosecond optical pulses," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1344-1346 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

J. E. Rothenberg, "Comparison of beam-smoothing methods for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 1664-1671 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, "Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, "Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

M. Komanec, P. Honzátko, S. Zvánovec, "Single-shot all-optical sampling oscilloscope using a polarization-maintaining resonator for pulse replication," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52, 2452-2456 (2010).

Opt. Exp.

C. Dorrer, J. Bromage, J. D. Zuegel, "High-dynamic-range single-shot cross-correlator based on an optical pulse replicator," Opt. Exp. 16, 13,534-13,544 (2008).

Opt. Exp.

A. Jolly, J.-F. Gleyze, P. Di Bin, V. Kermène, "Demonstration of a true single-shot 100 GHz-bandwidth optical oscilloscope at 1053–1064 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 12,109-12,120 (2009).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, J. D. Zuegel, "A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility," Phys. Plasmas 19, 056308 (2012).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. R. Donaldson, C. Zhao, L. Ji, R. G. Roides, K. Miller, B. Beeman, "A single-shot, multiwavelength electro-optic data-acquisition system for inertial confinement fusion applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D726 (2012).

W. R. Donaldson, R. Boni, R. L. Keck, P. A. Jaanimagi, "A self-calibrating, multichannel streak camera for inertial confinement fusion applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2606-2615 (2002).

Other

M. J. M. Pelgrom, Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Springer, 2010).

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