Abstract

An on-chip multi-channel visible light communication (VLC) system is realized through a blue (450 nm) GaN-based micron-size light-emitting diode (μLED) array integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. When driven by a custom-made CMOS driving board with 16 independent parallel data input ports, this μLED array device is computer controllable via a standard USB interface and is capable of delivering high speed parallel data streams for VLC. A total maximum error-free data transmission rate of 1.5 Gbit/s is achieved over free space by modulating four μLED pixels simultaneously using an on-off key non-return to zero modulation scheme. Electrical and optical crosstalk of the system has also been investigated in detail and the further optimization of CMOS design to minimize the crosstalk is proposed.

© 2013 IEEE

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  2. J. Kim, E. Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Exp. 16, 21835-21842 (2008).
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2012 (3)

J.-M. Wun, C.-W. Lin, W. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, C.-L. Lin, Y.-L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J.-W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, "GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1520-1529 (2012).

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. Rae, R. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A. Kelly, M. D. Dawson, "Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 61-67 (2012).

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, M. D. Dawson, "CMOS-controlled color-tunable smart display," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1639-1646 (2012).

2011 (2)

K. D. Dambul, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, "Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 97-99 (2011).

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 56-62 (2011).

2010 (4)

A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Vučić, S.-H. Voss, R. Swoboda, K.-D. Langer, "Optical wireless communication systems in the Mb/s to Gb/s range, suitable for industrial applications," IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 15, 541-547 (2010).

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, J. Walewski, "513 Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3512-3518 (2010).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, "High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346-1348 (2010).

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, "Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103-013103 (2010).

2009 (2)

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O'Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white led lighting," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654-1662 (2009).

H. L. Minh, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "100 Mbit/s NRZ visible light communications using a post equalized white LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1063-1065 (2009).

2008 (3)

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, "High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1243-1245 (2008).

J. Kim, E. Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Exp. 16, 21835-21842 (2008).

H. Zhang, D. Massoubre, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, C. Griffin, E. Gu, P. Jessop, J. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, "Individually-addressable flip-chip AlInGaN micropixelated light emitting diode arrays with high continuous and nanosecond output power," Opt. Exp. 16, 9918-9926 (2008).

2007 (1)

D. O'Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, "Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication," Nat. Photon. 1, 245-247 (2007).

2005 (1)

E. Schubert, J. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

2004 (3)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

S. Jivkova, B. A. Hristov, M. Kavehrad, "Power-efficient multispot-diffuse multiple-input-multiple-output approach to broad-band optical wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. 53, 882-889 (2004).

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. A. Alqudah, M. Kavehrad, "MIMO characterization of indoor wireless optical link using a diffuse-transmission configuration," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1554-1560 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-light-emitting diode arrays with monolithically integrated sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, H. Haas, "Indoor optical wireless communication: Potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 56-62 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O'Brien, H. L. Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white led lighting," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1654-1662 (2009).

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, M. D. Dawson, "CMOS-controlled color-tunable smart display," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1639-1646 (2012).

J.-M. Wun, C.-W. Lin, W. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, C.-L. Lin, Y.-L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J.-W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, "GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1520-1529 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, "High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1243-1245 (2008).

H. L. Minh, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, E. T. Won, "100 Mbit/s NRZ visible light communications using a post equalized white LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1063-1065 (2009).

K. D. Dambul, D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, "Indoor optical wireless MIMO system with an imaging receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 97-99 (2011).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, "High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346-1348 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

Y. A. Alqudah, M. Kavehrad, "MIMO characterization of indoor wireless optical link using a diffuse-transmission configuration," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1554-1560 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. (1)

S. Jivkova, B. A. Hristov, M. Kavehrad, "Power-efficient multispot-diffuse multiple-input-multiple-output approach to broad-band optical wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Vehic. Technol. 53, 882-889 (2004).

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. (1)

A. Paraskevopoulos, J. Vučić, S.-H. Voss, R. Swoboda, K.-D. Langer, "Optical wireless communication systems in the Mb/s to Gb/s range, suitable for industrial applications," IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 15, 541-547 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, "Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013103-013103 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Langer, J. Walewski, "513 Mbit/s visible light communications link based on DMT-modulation of a white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3512-3518 (2010).

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. Rae, R. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A. Kelly, M. D. Dawson, "Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 61-67 (2012).

Nat. Photon. (1)

D. O'Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, "Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication," Nat. Photon. 1, 245-247 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (2)

H. Zhang, D. Massoubre, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, C. Griffin, E. Gu, P. Jessop, J. Girkin, M. D. Dawson, "Individually-addressable flip-chip AlInGaN micropixelated light emitting diode arrays with high continuous and nanosecond output power," Opt. Exp. 16, 9918-9926 (2008).

J. Kim, E. Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Exp. 16, 21835-21842 (2008).

Science (1)

E. Schubert, J. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

Other (1)

R. J. Baker, CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation (Wiley Interscience, 2007) pp. 71-73.

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