Abstract

We propose a silicon-compatible plasmonic electro-optic modulator employing a silicon racetrack ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide. A silicon-plasmonic hybrid phase shifter clad with electro-optic polymer is introduced to achieve high-speed performance and low energy consumption. Simulations show that the proposed modulator can achieve an extinction ratio of more than 15 dB at 1550-nm wavelength under a 1.2-V bias voltage. The misalignment tolerance and fabrication feasibility of the modulator are also discussed.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomason, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, "40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations," Opt. Exp. 19, 11804-11814 (2011).
  2. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).
  3. L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology," Opt. Exp. 19, 11841-11851 (2011).
  4. R. Ding, T. B. Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).
  5. Y. Tang, H.-W. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011).
  6. T. B. Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).
  7. J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, "Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration," Opt. Exp. 20, 3209-3218 (2012).
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  11. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006).
  12. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011).
  13. A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, "Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 8855-8869 (2011).
  14. V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, X. Zhang, "Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response," Nanophotonics 1, 17-22 (2012).
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  16. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 27802-27819 (2010).
  17. X. Sun, L. Zhou, X. Li, Z. Hong, J. Chen, "Design and analysis of a phase modulator based on a metal-polymer-silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide," Appl. Opt. 50, 3428-3434 (2011).
  18. B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 104-110 (2007).
  19. J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials," J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7410-7424 (2009).
  20. H. Sun, A. Pyajt, J. Luo, Z. Shi, S. Hau, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, A. Chen, "All-dielectric electrooptic sensor based on a polymer microresonator coupled side-polished optical fiber," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 515-524 (2007).
  21. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 558-569.
  22. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 753-763.
  23. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
  24. Q. Li, M. Qiu, "Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15531-15543 (2010).
  25. Q. Li, Y. Song, G. Zhou, Y. Su, M. Qiu, "Asymmetric plasmonic-dielectric coupler with short coupling length, high extinction ratio, low insertion loss," Opt. Lett. 35, 3153-3155 (2010).
  26. C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. S. Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, "Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics," Nano Lett. 10, 2922-2926 (2010).
  27. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006).
  28. H. Tazawa, W. H. Steier, "Analysis of ring resonator-based traveling-wave modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 211-213 (2006).
  29. P. Dong, S. F. Preble, M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Exp. 15, 9600-9605 (2007).
  30. R. Ding, T. B. Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, "Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1112-1117 (2011).
  31. M. Gould, T. B. Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, M. Hochberg, "Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 3952-3961 (2011).
  32. J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, M. Qiu, "Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009).
  33. S. Zhu, T. Liow, G. Lo, D. Kwong, "Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration," Opt. Exp. 19, 8888-8902 (2011).
  34. T. Wang, M. Xu, F. Li, J. Wu, L. Zhou, Y. Su, "Design of high-modulation-depth, low-energy silicon modulator based on coupling tuning in a resonance-split microring," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 29, 3047-3055 (2012).
  35. B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, M. Lipson, "CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 3487-3493 (2010).
  36. M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, "Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 8401-8410 (2007).

2012 (3)

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, "Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration," Opt. Exp. 20, 3209-3218 (2012).

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, X. Zhang, "Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response," Nanophotonics 1, 17-22 (2012).

T. Wang, M. Xu, F. Li, J. Wu, L. Zhou, Y. Su, "Design of high-modulation-depth, low-energy silicon modulator based on coupling tuning in a resonance-split microring," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 29, 3047-3055 (2012).

2011 (9)

S. Zhu, T. Liow, G. Lo, D. Kwong, "Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration," Opt. Exp. 19, 8888-8902 (2011).

R. Ding, T. B. Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, "Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1112-1117 (2011).

M. Gould, T. B. Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, M. Hochberg, "Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 3952-3961 (2011).

X. Sun, L. Zhou, X. Li, Z. Hong, J. Chen, "Design and analysis of a phase modulator based on a metal-polymer-silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide," Appl. Opt. 50, 3428-3434 (2011).

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011).

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, "Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 8855-8869 (2011).

Y. Tang, H.-W. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011).

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomason, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, "40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations," Opt. Exp. 19, 11804-11814 (2011).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology," Opt. Exp. 19, 11841-11851 (2011).

2010 (8)

R. Ding, T. B. Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, H. A. Atwater, "Silicon-based plasmonics for on-chip photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 295-306 (2010).

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 27802-27819 (2010).

Q. Li, M. Qiu, "Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15531-15543 (2010).

Q. Li, Y. Song, G. Zhou, Y. Su, M. Qiu, "Asymmetric plasmonic-dielectric coupler with short coupling length, high extinction ratio, low insertion loss," Opt. Lett. 35, 3153-3155 (2010).

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. S. Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, "Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics," Nano Lett. 10, 2922-2926 (2010).

B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, M. Lipson, "CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 3487-3493 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, M. Qiu, "Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009).

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials," J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7410-7424 (2009).

S. I. Inoue, S. Yokoyama, "Numerical simulation of ultra-compact electro-optic modulator based on nanoscale plasmon metal gap waveguides," Electron. Lett. 45, 1087-1089 (2009).

W. Cai, J. S. White, M. L. Brongersma, "Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators," Nano Lett. 9, 4403-4411 (2009).

2008 (1)

T. B. Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).

2007 (4)

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 104-110 (2007).

H. Sun, A. Pyajt, J. Luo, Z. Shi, S. Hau, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, A. Chen, "All-dielectric electrooptic sensor based on a polymer microresonator coupled side-polished optical fiber," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 515-524 (2007).

M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, "Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 8401-8410 (2007).

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Exp. 15, 9600-9605 (2007).

2006 (2)

H. Tazawa, W. H. Steier, "Analysis of ring resonator-based traveling-wave modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 211-213 (2006).

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006).

2005 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011).

T. B. Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008).

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, M. Qiu, "Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. I. Inoue, S. Yokoyama, "Numerical simulation of ultra-compact electro-optic modulator based on nanoscale plasmon metal gap waveguides," Electron. Lett. 45, 1087-1089 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B. J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 104-110 (2007).

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, H. A. Atwater, "Silicon-based plasmonics for on-chip photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 295-306 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Tazawa, W. H. Steier, "Analysis of ring resonator-based traveling-wave modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 211-213 (2006).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

H. Sun, A. Pyajt, J. Luo, Z. Shi, S. Hau, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, A. Chen, "All-dielectric electrooptic sensor based on a polymer microresonator coupled side-polished optical fiber," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 515-524 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Ding, T. B. Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, "Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1112-1117 (2011).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials," J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7410-7424 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

T. Wang, M. Xu, F. Li, J. Wu, L. Zhou, Y. Su, "Design of high-modulation-depth, low-energy silicon modulator based on coupling tuning in a resonance-split microring," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 29, 3047-3055 (2012).

Nano Lett. (2)

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. S. Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, "Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: Toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics," Nano Lett. 10, 2922-2926 (2010).

W. Cai, J. S. White, M. L. Brongersma, "Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators," Nano Lett. 9, 4403-4411 (2009).

Nanophotonics (1)

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, X. Zhang, "Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response," Nanophotonics 1, 17-22 (2012).

Nature Photon. (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (13)

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology," Opt. Exp. 19, 11841-11851 (2011).

R. Ding, T. B. Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low VπL modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

Y. Tang, H.-W. Chen, S. Jain, J. D. Peters, U. Westergren, J. E. Bowers, "50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5811-5816 (2011).

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, "Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration," Opt. Exp. 20, 3209-3218 (2012).

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomason, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, "40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations," Opt. Exp. 19, 11804-11814 (2011).

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, "Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 8855-8869 (2011).

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 27802-27819 (2010).

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Exp. 15, 9600-9605 (2007).

Q. Li, M. Qiu, "Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15531-15543 (2010).

B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, M. Lipson, "CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 3487-3493 (2010).

M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, "Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 8401-8410 (2007).

M. Gould, T. B. Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, M. Hochberg, "Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 3952-3961 (2011).

S. Zhu, T. Liow, G. Lo, D. Kwong, "Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration," Opt. Exp. 19, 8888-8902 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006).

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 558-569.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 753-763.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2006).

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