Abstract

We propose intra-symbol carrier phase recovery (IS-CPR) for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) CO-OFDM in order to compensate for the intra-symbol phase shift (ISPS) between subcarriers that is caused by the dispersion-enhanced phase noise (DEPN). We begin by proposing a pre-emphasized pilot subcarrier (PEPS) approach to reduce the pilot subcarrier overhead for the following IS-CPR algorithms. Then, we show a statistical analysis of the DEPN-induced ISPS between subcarriers within one symbol, which is related to the accumulated chromatic dispersion (CD). Next, three algorithms are proposed for IS-CPR including maximum-likelihood (ML) phase estimation, digital phase-locked loop (DPLL), and feedforward carrier recovery (FFCR) employing either the <i>M</i>th power scheme in case of QPSK modulation or the QPSK partitioning scheme for the 16-QAM case. The performance and complexity of these algorithms are compared. Through simulations, we show that in comparison to conventional common phase error (CPE) compensation, IS-CPR significantly improves the linewidth tolerance at 1 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty for a bit error rate (BER) = 10<sup>-3</sup> from 300 kHz to 2 MHz for 112 Gb/s systems (28 Gbaud QPSK) at 3200 km transmission distance, and from 70 kHz to 550 kHz for 448 Gb/s (56 Gbaud 16-QAM) systems at 1600 km transmission distance.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. P. Winzer, "Beyond 100G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).
  2. K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, C. Laperle, "100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 62-69 (2010).
  3. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, B. Zhu, "Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator," Proc. ECOC'10 .
  4. X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "8 × 50-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM," Proc. OFC'11 .
  5. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).
  6. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, N. Hoffman, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Single coherent detection of a 606-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal with 32-QAM subcarrier modulation using 4 × 80-Gsamples/s ADCs," Proc. ECOC'10 .
  7. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, N. Hoffman, C. J. Youn, Y. H. Kwon, E. S. Nam, "3 × 485-Gb/s WDM rransmission over 4800 km of ULAF and 12 × 100-GHz WSSs using CO-OFDM and single coherent detection with 80-GS/s ADCs," Proc. OFC'11 .
  8. Y. M. Greshishchev, D. Pollex, S.-C. Wang, M. Besson, P. Flemeke, S. Szilagyi, J. Aguirre, C. Falt, N. Ben-Hamida, R. Gibbins, P. Schvan, "A 56 GS/S 6b DAC in 65 nm CMOS with 256 × 6 b memory," Proc. ISSCC'11 pp. 194-196.
  9. C. Chen, Q. Zhuge, D. V. Plant, "Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization," Opt. Exp. 19, 7451-7467 (2011).
  10. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 4472-4484 (2011).
  11. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Impact of intra-channel fiber nonlinearity on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission," Proc. OFC'11 .
  12. W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent-detection systems using electronic digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 15718-15727 (2008).
  13. X. Chongjin, "Local oscillator phase noise induced penalties in optical coherent detection systems using electronic chromatic dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC'09 .
  14. A. P. T. Lau, T. S. R. Shen, W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for 100 Gb/s transmission and beyond with coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 18, 17239-17251 (2010).
  15. Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, D. V. Plant, "Experimental investigation of the equalization-enhanced phase noise in long haul 56 Gbaud DP-QPSK systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 13841-13846 (2012).
  16. Q. Zhuge, B. Châtelain, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Mitigation of equalization-enhanced phase noise using reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM," Proc. ECOC'11 .
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  18. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).
  19. M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, D. V. Plant, "Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 18, 20651-20660 (2010).
  20. S. Wu, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).
  21. W.-R. Peng, "Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct- detection optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2526-2536 (2010).
  22. M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, L. Hazy, "Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 47, 20-31 (2001).
  23. W. Songping, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).
  24. W.-R. Peng, "Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2526-2536 (2010).
  25. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).
  26. Q. Zhuge, D. V. Plant, "Compensation for dispersion-enhanced phase noise in reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmissions," Proc. SPPCom'11 .
  27. U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).
  28. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).
  29. K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, B. Lankl, "Low complexity carrier recovery for coherent QAM using superscalar parallelization," Proc. ECOC'10 .
  30. Q. Zhuge, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Chagnon, Z. A. El-Sahn, D. V. Plant, "Pilot-aided carrier phase recovery for M-QAM using superscalar parallelization based PLL," Opt. Exp. 20, 19599-19609 (2012).
  31. M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).
  32. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).
  33. H. Zhang, Y. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, "Cycle slip mitigation in POLMUX-QPSK modulation," Proc. OFC'11 .
  34. Q. Yang, N. Kaneda, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y. K. Chen, "Towards real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmission," Proc. OFC'10 .
  35. Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Low computation complexity two-stage feedforward carrier recovery algorithm for M-QAM," Proc. OFC'11 .

2012 (3)

Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, D. V. Plant, "Experimental investigation of the equalization-enhanced phase noise in long haul 56 Gbaud DP-QPSK systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 13841-13846 (2012).

Q. Zhuge, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, Z. A. El-Sahn, D. V. Plant, "Demonstration of dispersion-enhanced phase noise in RGI CO-OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1446-1449 (2012).

Q. Zhuge, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Chagnon, Z. A. El-Sahn, D. V. Plant, "Pilot-aided carrier phase recovery for M-QAM using superscalar parallelization based PLL," Opt. Exp. 20, 19599-19609 (2012).

2011 (3)

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

C. Chen, Q. Zhuge, D. V. Plant, "Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization," Opt. Exp. 19, 7451-7467 (2011).

Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 4472-4484 (2011).

2010 (7)

P. Winzer, "Beyond 100G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, C. Laperle, "100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 62-69 (2010).

M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, D. V. Plant, "Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 18, 20651-20660 (2010).

W.-R. Peng, "Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct- detection optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2526-2536 (2010).

A. P. T. Lau, T. S. R. Shen, W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for 100 Gb/s transmission and beyond with coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 18, 17239-17251 (2010).

W.-R. Peng, "Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2526-2536 (2010).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

2008 (1)

W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent-detection systems using electronic digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 15718-15727 (2008).

2007 (2)

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

2004 (2)

W. Songping, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).

S. Wu, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).

2001 (1)

M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, L. Hazy, "Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 47, 20-31 (2001).

IEEE Comm. Mag. (1)

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, C. Laperle, "100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 62-69 (2010).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

P. Winzer, "Beyond 100G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

Q. Zhuge, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, Z. A. El-Sahn, D. V. Plant, "Demonstration of dispersion-enhanced phase noise in RGI CO-OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1446-1449 (2012).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, L. Hazy, "Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 47, 20-31 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

W. Songping, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).

S. Wu, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

W.-R. Peng, "Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct- detection optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2526-2536 (2010).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

W.-R. Peng, "Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2526-2536 (2010).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (7)

Q. Zhuge, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Chagnon, Z. A. El-Sahn, D. V. Plant, "Pilot-aided carrier phase recovery for M-QAM using superscalar parallelization based PLL," Opt. Exp. 20, 19599-19609 (2012).

C. Chen, Q. Zhuge, D. V. Plant, "Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization," Opt. Exp. 19, 7451-7467 (2011).

Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Dispersion-enhanced phase noise effects on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 4472-4484 (2011).

M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, D. V. Plant, "Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 18, 20651-20660 (2010).

W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent-detection systems using electronic digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 15718-15727 (2008).

A. P. T. Lau, T. S. R. Shen, W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for 100 Gb/s transmission and beyond with coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 18, 17239-17251 (2010).

Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, D. V. Plant, "Experimental investigation of the equalization-enhanced phase noise in long haul 56 Gbaud DP-QPSK systems," Opt. Exp. 20, 13841-13846 (2012).

Other (14)

Q. Zhuge, B. Châtelain, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Mitigation of equalization-enhanced phase noise using reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM," Proc. ECOC'11 .

X. Chongjin, "Local oscillator phase noise induced penalties in optical coherent detection systems using electronic chromatic dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC'09 .

Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Impact of intra-channel fiber nonlinearity on reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission," Proc. OFC'11 .

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, B. Zhu, "Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator," Proc. ECOC'10 .

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "8 × 50-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM," Proc. OFC'11 .

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, N. Hoffman, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Single coherent detection of a 606-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal with 32-QAM subcarrier modulation using 4 × 80-Gsamples/s ADCs," Proc. ECOC'10 .

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, N. Hoffman, C. J. Youn, Y. H. Kwon, E. S. Nam, "3 × 485-Gb/s WDM rransmission over 4800 km of ULAF and 12 × 100-GHz WSSs using CO-OFDM and single coherent detection with 80-GS/s ADCs," Proc. OFC'11 .

Y. M. Greshishchev, D. Pollex, S.-C. Wang, M. Besson, P. Flemeke, S. Szilagyi, J. Aguirre, C. Falt, N. Ben-Hamida, R. Gibbins, P. Schvan, "A 56 GS/S 6b DAC in 65 nm CMOS with 256 × 6 b memory," Proc. ISSCC'11 pp. 194-196.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, B. Lankl, "Low complexity carrier recovery for coherent QAM using superscalar parallelization," Proc. ECOC'10 .

Q. Zhuge, D. V. Plant, "Compensation for dispersion-enhanced phase noise in reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmissions," Proc. SPPCom'11 .

U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).

H. Zhang, Y. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. N. Pilipetskii, "Cycle slip mitigation in POLMUX-QPSK modulation," Proc. OFC'11 .

Q. Yang, N. Kaneda, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y. K. Chen, "Towards real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmission," Proc. OFC'10 .

Q. Zhuge, C. Chen, D. V. Plant, "Low computation complexity two-stage feedforward carrier recovery algorithm for M-QAM," Proc. OFC'11 .

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