Abstract

A procedure for the μltiplexing and deμltiplexing of modes in optical fibers with digital holograms is presented. By using a spatial light modulator (SLM) to encode a digital hologram, the desired complex field is shaped and injected into the fiber. The SLM's ability to rapidly refresh the encoded transmission function enables one to excite pure single modes, as well as arbitrary coherent mode superpositions, in real-time. The modes from the output of the fiber are subsequently deμltipexed by applying a correlation filter for modal decomposition, thus allowing for an all-digital-hologram approach to modal analysis of fibers. The working principle is tested using conventional step-index large mode area fibers being excited with higher-order single modes and superpositions.

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2012 (13)

P. Hofmann, A. Mafi, C. Jollivet-Salvin, N. Peyghambarian, A. Schülzgen, "Detailed investigation of mode-field adapters utilizing μltimode-interference in graded index fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2289-2298 (2012).

B. Ward, C. Robin, I. Dajani, "Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 11 407-11 422 (2012).

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 15 710-15 722 (2012).

D. Naidoo, K. Aït-Ameur, M. Brunel, A. Forbes, "Intra-cavity generation of superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian beams," Appl. Physics B: Lasers and Optics 106, 683-690 (2012).

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. L. nares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. M. Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, G. Li, T. Wang, "Mode-division μltiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 2668-2680 (2012).

J. Carpenter, T. D. Wilkinson, "Characterization of μltimode fiber by selective mode excitation," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1386-1392 (2012).

C. Schulze, D. Naidoo, D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition," Opt. Exp. 20, 19 714-19 725 (2012).

H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Improved modal reconstruction for spatially and spectrally resolved imaging (${\rm S}^{2}$)," J. Lightw. Technol. (2012).

I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, F. S. Roux, A. Forbes, "Aziμthal decomposition with digital holograms," Opt. Exp. 20, 10 996-11 004 (2012).

A. Dudley, I. A. Litvin, A. Forbes, "Quantitative measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light," Appl. Opt. 51, 823-833 (2012).

D. Flamm, C. Schulze, R. Brüning, O. A. Schmidt, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Fast M2 measurement for fiber beams based on modal analysis," Appl. Opt. 51, 987-993 (2012).

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, S. Ramachandran, "Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 37, 2451-2453 (2012).

D. Flamm, D. Naidoo, C. Schulze, A. Forbes, M. Duparré, "Mode analysis with a spatial light modulator as a correlation filter," Opt. Lett. 37, 2478-2480 (2012).

2011 (8)

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, J. Siuzdak, "Binary-phase spatial light filters for mode-selective excitation of μltimode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1980-1987 (2011).

C. Xia, N. Bai, I. Ozdur, X. Zhou, G. Li, "Supermodes for optical transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 16 653-16 664 (2011).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, G. Charlet, "Two mode transmission at 2 × 100 gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCoS-based programmable mode μltiplexer and deμltiplexer," Opt. Exp. 19, 16 593-16 600 (2011).

A. A. Amin, A. Li, S. Chen, X. Chen, G. Gao, W. Shieh, "Dual-LP11 mode 4 × 4 mimo-ofdm transmission over a two-mode fiber," Opt. Exp. 19, 16 672-16 679 (2011).

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Fiber based polarization filter for radially and aziμthally polarized light," Opt. Exp. 19, 19 582-19 590 (2011).

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination," Opt. Exp. 19, 12 081-12 086 (2011).

D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, S. Ramachandran, "Cross-correlated (c2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes," Opt. Exp. 19, 13 008-13 019 (2011).

O. A. Schmidt, C. Schulze, D. Flamm, R. Brüning, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Real-time determination of laser beam quality by modal decomposition," Opt. Exp. 19, 6741-6748 (2011).

2010 (2)

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, H. Li, H. Wei, J. V. Moloney, N. Peyghambarian, "Coherent beam transformations using μltimode waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7506-7520 (2010).

D. Flamm, O. A. Schmidt, C. Schulze, J. Borchardt, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Measuring the spatial polarization distribution of μltimode beams emerging from passive step-index large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Lett. 35, 3429-3431 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. Nicholson, A. Yablon, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, "Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 61-70 (2009).

T. Ando, Y. Ohtake, N. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, N. Fukuchi, "Mode purities of Laguerre–Gaussian beams generated via complex-amplitude modulation using phase-only spatial light modulators," Opt. Lett. 34, 34-36 (2009).

T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters," Opt. Exp. 17, 9347-9356 (2009).

2008 (4)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. Yan, "Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: A new strategy for high-power lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429-448 (2008).

N. Andermahr, T. Theeg, C. Fallnich, "Novel approach for polarization-sensitive measurements of transverse modes in few-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. B 91, 353-357 (2008).

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, "Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 7233-7243 (2008).

2007 (4)

S. V. Karpeev, V. S. Pavelyev, S. N. Khonina, N. L. Kazanskiy, A. V. Gavrilov, V. A. Eropolov, "Fibre sensors based on transverse mode selection," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 833-844 (2007).

S. Wielandy, "Implications of higher-order mode content in large mode area fibers with good beam quality," Opt. Exp. 15, 15 402-15 409 (2007).

R. Schermer, J. Cole, "Improved bend loss forμla verified for optical fiber by siμlation and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899-909 (2007).

V. Arrizón, U. Ruiz, R. Carrada, L. A. González, "Pixelated phase computer holograms for the accurate encoding of scalar complex fields," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 24, 3500-3507 (2007).

2005 (3)

T. Grosjean, A. Sabac, D. Courjon, "A versatile and stable device allowing the efficient generation of beams with radial, aziμthal or hybrid polarizations," Opt. Comμn. 252, 12-21 (2005).

O. Shapira, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Complete modal decomposition for optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143902 (2005).

A. D. Galea, F. Couny, S. Coupland, P. J. Roberts, H. Sabert, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Selective mode excitation in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 717-719 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, L. Allen, "Light's orbital angular momentum," Phys. Today 57, 35-40 (2004).

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

S. Barcelos, M. Zervas, P. Russell, "Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface plasmons," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1051-1053 (1995).

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

S. B. Shaklan, "Selective mode injection and observation for few-mode fiber optics," Appl. Opt. 30, 4379+ (1991).

1982 (1)

M. A. Golub, A. M. Prokhorov, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Soifer, "Synthesis of spatial filters for investigation of the transverse mode composition of coherent radiation," Soviet J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1866-1868 (1982).

1975 (1)

1971 (2)

J. P. Kirk, A. L. Jones, "Phase-only complex-valued spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1023-1028 (1971).

D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 10, 2252-2258 (1971).

1970 (2)

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Andermahr, T. Theeg, C. Fallnich, "Novel approach for polarization-sensitive measurements of transverse modes in few-mode optical fibers," Appl. Phys. B 91, 353-357 (2008).

Appl. Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

D. Naidoo, K. Aït-Ameur, M. Brunel, A. Forbes, "Intra-cavity generation of superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian beams," Appl. Physics B: Lasers and Optics 106, 683-690 (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Schermer, J. Cole, "Improved bend loss forμla verified for optical fiber by siμlation and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 899-909 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Nicholson, A. Yablon, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, "Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 61-70 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Barcelos, M. Zervas, P. Russell, "Selective excitation of fibre-modes using surface plasmons," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1051-1053 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, J. Siuzdak, "Binary-phase spatial light filters for mode-selective excitation of μltimode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1980-1987 (2011).

J. Carpenter, T. D. Wilkinson, "Characterization of μltimode fiber by selective mode excitation," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1386-1392 (2012).

H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Improved modal reconstruction for spatially and spectrally resolved imaging (${\rm S}^{2}$)," J. Lightw. Technol. (2012).

P. Hofmann, A. Mafi, C. Jollivet-Salvin, N. Peyghambarian, A. Schülzgen, "Detailed investigation of mode-field adapters utilizing μltimode-interference in graded index fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2289-2298 (2012).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. V. Karpeev, V. S. Pavelyev, S. N. Khonina, N. L. Kazanskiy, A. V. Gavrilov, V. A. Eropolov, "Fibre sensors based on transverse mode selection," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 833-844 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

J. P. Kirk, A. L. Jones, "Phase-only complex-valued spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1023-1028 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

V. Arrizón, U. Ruiz, R. Carrada, L. A. González, "Pixelated phase computer holograms for the accurate encoding of scalar complex fields," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 24, 3500-3507 (2007).

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).

S. Ramachandran, J. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. Yan, "Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: A new strategy for high-power lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 429-448 (2008).

Opt. Comµn. (1)

T. Grosjean, A. Sabac, D. Courjon, "A versatile and stable device allowing the efficient generation of beams with radial, aziμthal or hybrid polarizations," Opt. Comμn. 252, 12-21 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (16)

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Fiber based polarization filter for radially and aziμthally polarized light," Opt. Exp. 19, 19 582-19 590 (2011).

X. Zhu, A. Schülzgen, H. Li, H. Wei, J. V. Moloney, N. Peyghambarian, "Coherent beam transformations using μltimode waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7506-7520 (2010).

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Non-hexagonal large-pitch fibers for enhanced mode discrimination," Opt. Exp. 19, 12 081-12 086 (2011).

B. Ward, C. Robin, I. Dajani, "Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 11 407-11 422 (2012).

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 20, 15 710-15 722 (2012).

T. Kaiser, D. Flamm, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Complete modal decomposition for optical fibers using CGH-based correlation filters," Opt. Exp. 17, 9347-9356 (2009).

C. Xia, N. Bai, I. Ozdur, X. Zhou, G. Li, "Supermodes for optical transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 16 653-16 664 (2011).

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, G. Charlet, "Two mode transmission at 2 × 100 gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCoS-based programmable mode μltiplexer and deμltiplexer," Opt. Exp. 19, 16 593-16 600 (2011).

A. A. Amin, A. Li, S. Chen, X. Chen, G. Gao, W. Shieh, "Dual-LP11 mode 4 × 4 mimo-ofdm transmission over a two-mode fiber," Opt. Exp. 19, 16 672-16 679 (2011).

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. L. nares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. M. Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, G. Li, T. Wang, "Mode-division μltiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 20, 2668-2680 (2012).

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, "Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 7233-7243 (2008).

D. N. Schimpf, R. A. Barankov, S. Ramachandran, "Cross-correlated (c2) imaging of fiber and waveguide modes," Opt. Exp. 19, 13 008-13 019 (2011).

O. A. Schmidt, C. Schulze, D. Flamm, R. Brüning, T. Kaiser, S. Schröter, M. Duparré, "Real-time determination of laser beam quality by modal decomposition," Opt. Exp. 19, 6741-6748 (2011).

S. Wielandy, "Implications of higher-order mode content in large mode area fibers with good beam quality," Opt. Exp. 15, 15 402-15 409 (2007).

I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, F. S. Roux, A. Forbes, "Aziμthal decomposition with digital holograms," Opt. Exp. 20, 10 996-11 004 (2012).

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