Abstract

Optical RAM appears to be the alternative approach towards overcoming the “Memory Wall” of electronics, suggesting use of light in RAM architectures to enable ps-regime memory access times. In this communication we take advantage of the wavelength properties of optical signals to present new architectural perspectives in optical RAM structures by introducing the WDM principles in the storage area. To this end, we report on a 4×4 WDM optical RAM bank architecture that exploits a novel SOA-based multi-wavelength Access Gate (WDM-AG) and a dual wavelength SOA-based SET-RESET All-Optical Flip Flop (AOFF) as fundamental building blocks. The WDM-AG enables simultaneous random access to a 4-bit optical word encoded in 8 different wavelengths, allowing for the four AOFFs of each RAM row to effectively share the same Access Gate. The scheme is shown to support a 10 Gbit/s operation for the incoming 4-bit data streams, with a power consumption of 15 mW/Gbit/s for the WDM-AG and 120 mW/Gbit/s for the AOFFs. The proposed optical RAM architecture reveals that exploiting the WDM capabilities of optical components can lead to RAM bank implementations with smarter column/row encoders/decoders, increased circuit simplicity, reduced number of active elements and associated power consumption, while enabling for re-configurability in optical cache mapping.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic network on chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).
  2. P. Pepeljugoski, "Low power and high density optical interconnects for future supercomputers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010 .
  3. A. Y. Vlasov, "Silicon photonics for next generation computing systems," Proc. ECOC 2008 .
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  9. C. Vagionas, D. Fitsios, G. T. Kanellos, N. Pleros, A. Miliou, "All optical flip flop with two coupled travelling waveguide SOA-XGM switches," Proc. CLEO 2012 (2012).
  10. M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "Fast optical flip-flop by use of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 411-415 (2001).
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  17. K. Nozaki, "Ultralow-power all optical RAM based on nanocavities," Nature Photonics 6, 248-252 (2012).
  18. G. Berrettini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, "Optical dynamic RAM for all-optical digital processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 685-687 (2011).
  19. D. Fitsios, C. Vagionas, G. T. Kanellos, A. Miliou, N. Pleros, "Optical RAM cell with dual-wavelength bit input and three SOA XGM switches," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2012 (2012).
  20. R. P. Webb, J. M. Dailey, R. J. Manning, "Pattern compensation in SOA-based gates," Opt. Exp. 18, 13502-13509 (2010).
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  22. Q. Xu, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5 μm radius," Opt. Exp. 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
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  24. M. Hattori, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "Bidirectional data injection operation of hybrid integrated SOA-MZI all-optical wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 512-519 (2007).
  25. N. Shibata, M. Watanabe, H. Okiyama, "A high-speed low-power multi-VDD CMOS/SIMOX SRAM with LV-TTL level input/output pins—Write/read assist techniques for 1-V operated memory cells," IEEE J. Sold-State Circuits 48, (2010).
  26. M. Wolf, "10 Gb/s uncooled dilute-nitride optical transmitters operating at 1.3 μm," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2009 (2009) pp. 1-3.
  27. M. L. Dû, J. C. Harmand, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, L. Travers, J. L. Oudar, "Quantum-well saturable absorber at 1.55 μm on GaAs substrate with a fast recombination rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201110-201113 (2006).
  28. K. Lai, "Revisit the case for direct-mapped caches: A case for two-way set-associative level-two caches," Proc. 19th Ann. Int. Symp. Comput. Architecture (1992).
  29. P. Dong, "1×4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 24504-24509 (2010).
  30. M. Waldow, "25 ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Exp. 16, 7693-7702 (2008).
  31. Q. G. Samdani, "Cache resident data locality analysis," Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Modeling, Anal. Simulation Comput. Telecommun. Syst. (2000) pp. 539-546.

2012 (2)

D. Fitsios, K. Vyrsokinos, A. Miliou, N. Pleros, "Memory speed analysis of optical RAM and optical flip-flop circuits based on coupled SOA-MZI gates," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1006-1015 (2012).

K. Nozaki, "Ultralow-power all optical RAM based on nanocavities," Nature Photonics 6, 248-252 (2012).

2011 (1)

G. Berrettini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, "Optical dynamic RAM for all-optical digital processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 685-687 (2011).

2010 (5)

R. P. Webb, J. M. Dailey, R. J. Manning, "Pattern compensation in SOA-based gates," Opt. Exp. 18, 13502-13509 (2010).

N. Shibata, M. Watanabe, H. Okiyama, "A high-speed low-power multi-VDD CMOS/SIMOX SRAM with LV-TTL level input/output pins—Write/read assist techniques for 1-V operated memory cells," IEEE J. Sold-State Circuits 48, (2010).

P. Dong, "1×4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 24504-24509 (2010).

L. Liu, "An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 4, 182-187 (2010).

J. Sakaguchi, T. Katayama, H. Kawaguchi, "High switching-speed operation of optical memory based on polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1526-1534 (2010).

2009 (1)

N. Pleros, D. Apostolopoulos, D. Petrantonakis, C. Stamatiadis, H. Avramopoulos, "Optical static RAM cell," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 73-75 (2009).

2008 (4)

K. Huybrechts, G. Morthier, R. Baets, "Fast all-optical flip-flop based on a single distributed feedback laser diode," Opt. Exp. 16, 11405-11410 (2008).

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic network on chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).

M. Waldow, "25 ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Exp. 16, 7693-7702 (2008).

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5 μm radius," Opt. Exp. 16, 4309-4315 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. Hattori, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "Bidirectional data injection operation of hybrid integrated SOA-MZI all-optical wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 512-519 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. L. Dû, J. C. Harmand, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, L. Travers, J. L. Oudar, "Quantum-well saturable absorber at 1.55 μm on GaAs substrate with a fast recombination rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201110-201113 (2006).

Y. Liu, "Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory," Electron. Lett. 42, 1399-1400 (2006).

2005 (1)

E. Tangdiongga, "Optical flip-flop based on two-coupled mode-locked ring lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 208-210 (2005).

2001 (2)

M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "Fast optical flip-flop by use of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 411-415 (2001).

M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. L. Dû, J. C. Harmand, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, L. Travers, J. L. Oudar, "Quantum-well saturable absorber at 1.55 μm on GaAs substrate with a fast recombination rate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201110-201113 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, "Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory," Electron. Lett. 42, 1399-1400 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Fitsios, K. Vyrsokinos, A. Miliou, N. Pleros, "Memory speed analysis of optical RAM and optical flip-flop circuits based on coupled SOA-MZI gates," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1006-1015 (2012).

IEEE J. Sold-State Circuits (1)

N. Shibata, M. Watanabe, H. Okiyama, "A high-speed low-power multi-VDD CMOS/SIMOX SRAM with LV-TTL level input/output pins—Write/read assist techniques for 1-V operated memory cells," IEEE J. Sold-State Circuits 48, (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. Pleros, D. Apostolopoulos, D. Petrantonakis, C. Stamatiadis, H. Avramopoulos, "Optical static RAM cell," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 73-75 (2009).

G. Berrettini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, "Optical dynamic RAM for all-optical digital processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 685-687 (2011).

E. Tangdiongga, "Optical flip-flop based on two-coupled mode-locked ring lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 208-210 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic network on chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Hattori, K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Usami, "Bidirectional data injection operation of hybrid integrated SOA-MZI all-optical wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 512-519 (2007).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Sakaguchi, T. Katayama, H. Kawaguchi, "High switching-speed operation of optical memory based on polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1526-1534 (2010).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "Fast optical flip-flop by use of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 411-415 (2001).

Nature Photon. (1)

L. Liu, "An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 4, 182-187 (2010).

Nature Photonics (1)

K. Nozaki, "Ultralow-power all optical RAM based on nanocavities," Nature Photonics 6, 248-252 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (5)

K. Huybrechts, G. Morthier, R. Baets, "Fast all-optical flip-flop based on a single distributed feedback laser diode," Opt. Exp. 16, 11405-11410 (2008).

R. P. Webb, J. M. Dailey, R. J. Manning, "Pattern compensation in SOA-based gates," Opt. Exp. 18, 13502-13509 (2010).

P. Dong, "1×4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 24504-24509 (2010).

M. Waldow, "25 ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Exp. 16, 7693-7702 (2008).

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5 μm radius," Opt. Exp. 16, 4309-4315 (2008).

Other (12)

Q. G. Samdani, "Cache resident data locality analysis," Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Modeling, Anal. Simulation Comput. Telecommun. Syst. (2000) pp. 539-546.

G. Contestabile, N. Calabretta, R. Proietti, E. Ciaramella, "Simultaneous multi-wavelength conversion by double stage XGM in SOAs," Proc. 18th Annu. Meeting Lasersand Electro-Optics Soc. (2005).

M. Wolf, "10 Gb/s uncooled dilute-nitride optical transmitters operating at 1.3 μm," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2009 (2009) pp. 1-3.

K. Lai, "Revisit the case for direct-mapped caches: A case for two-way set-associative level-two caches," Proc. 19th Ann. Int. Symp. Comput. Architecture (1992).

C. Vagionas, D. Fitsios, G. T. Kanellos, N. Pleros, A. Miliou, "All optical flip flop with two coupled travelling waveguide SOA-XGM switches," Proc. CLEO 2012 (2012).

P. Pepeljugoski, "Low power and high density optical interconnects for future supercomputers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010 .

A. Y. Vlasov, "Silicon photonics for next generation computing systems," Proc. ECOC 2008 .

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/ routers/ps5763/CA_CRS-3_Annc_31010.pdf.

S. McKee, "Reflections on the memory wall," Proc. 1st Conf. Comp. Frontiers (2004) pp. 162.

P. Athe, "A comparative study of 6T, 8T and 9T decanano SRAM cell," Proc. IEEE Symp. Ind. Electronics Applicat. 2009 (2009) pp. 889-894.

D. Fitsios, C. Vagionas, G. T. Kanellos, A. Miliou, N. Pleros, "Optical RAM cell with dual-wavelength bit input and three SOA XGM switches," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2012 (2012).

B. Li, M. I. Memon, G. Mezosi, Z. Wang, M. Sorel, S. Yu, "Optical static random access memory cell using an integrated semiconductor ring laser," Proc. Int. Conf. Photon. Switch. (2009) pp. 1-2.

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